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rriHE term " Rationalist " first appears in English letters about the middle 
of the seventeenth century (Clarendon, State Papers, II, App. XL). It 
denotes a sect who follow " what their reason dictates to them in Church or 
State." Bacon had a little earlier (Apophthegms, II, 21) applied the term 
"Eationals" to the philosophers who sought to attain truth by deductions 
from the first principles which reason was supposed to perceive rather than by 
induction from the observed facts of nature. In neither sense did the term 
pass into general currency at the time ; but in the course of the nineteenth 
century it has been adopted as the most fitting name for those who uphold 
what is vaguely called the supremacy of reason in the discovery and 
establishment of truth. 

The technical use of the term in philosophy is not regarded in the 
compilation of this DICTIONAKY. It still denotes, in the Baconian sense, those 
who advocate deductive and transcendental rather than inductive or empirical 
systems of thought. But, since induction is no less a process of reason than 
deduction, the distinction is not happily framed, and it does little more than 
designate the tendency to attach value to metaphysical speculation as distinct 
from the empirical or scientific study of nature. The modern Rationalist may 
choose either method or, in separate fields of investigation, both. His 
characteristic is that in the ascertainment of fact he affirms the predominance 
and validity of reason over revelation, authority, faith, emotion, or instinct ; 
and general usage has now confined the term to those who urge this 
predominance of reason in regard to the Christian religion. In matters of 
State the rights of reason are theoretically admitted. 

Rationalism is therefore primarily a mental attitude, not a creed or 
a definite body of negative conclusions. No uniformity of opinions must be 
sought in the thousands of men and women of cultural distinction who are 
here included in a common category. The one link is that they uphold the 
right of reason against the authority of Church or tradition ; they discard the 
idea of revelation as a source of truth, and they deny the authority of a Church 
or a creed or tradition to confine the individual judgment. Yet this common 
link is overlaid in this series of little biographies with so much variety of 
opinion, and the title to be called Rationalist in this sense is now so frequently 


claimed by men who linger in some branch of the Christian Church, that 
a more precise statement is needed. 

Eationalism has, like every other idea or institution, evolved ; and the 
earlier phases of its evolution still live, in some measure, side by side with 
more advanced stages of rebellion. Both from the pressure of environment, 
the nature of the human mind, and the comparative poverty of positive 
knowledge in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, it was natural that 
Eationalism should first take the form of a simple protest against the 
supernatural and sacerdotal elements of the prevailing faith. The Socinians 
or early Unitarians were the first Eationalists, in the period which this 
DICTIONARY covers. I am not concerned with what we may call the Eationalists 
of earlier civilizations, and do not propose to include a list of all the thinkers 
of ancient Greece and Eome, Persia and Arabia. For the same reason I omit 
entirely the long list of Chinese and Japanese scholars, all of whom are 
Eationalists, and nearly all of whom are Agnostics. Nor do I propose to 
include the names of early Eationalizing Christians like Abelard and Arnold 
of Brescia, the Epicureans and Materialists and Cathari of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, or even the Humanists and Neo-Pagans of the 
Eenaissance. In order to stress the full significance of the modern development, 
these earlier outbreaks or phases of rebellion are omitted. The period which 
this DICTIONARY covers begins at the death of Giordano Bruno in the 
year 1600. 

The Socinians open the modern development, but since they and their 
successors, the Unitarians, remain a branch of the Christian Church, and 
retain some measure of the sacerdotal and authoritative element, they do not 
properly fall into the category of Eationalists, and are not included in this 
work. Under shelter of their rebellion, or under the stimulation of their 
large use of reason against faith and authority, there soon appeared the 
isolated thinkers who herald that more advanced stage of development the 
Deistic movement. In the seventeenth century, and the early part of the 
eighteenth century, it was still dangerous to apply the corrosive acid of 
reason to the bases of the most fundamental of religious doctrines the belief 
in a Supreme Being. A few ventured already upon that dangerous experiment, 
and for their brave vindication of the full use of reason, and the horrible 
penalty they paid at the hands of Protestant or Catholic majorities, their 
names are honourably inscribed in this work. But, though we have just 
reason to suspect that some of the early Deists were checked, either in their 
expressions or their speculations, by the occasional martyrdom of some too 
candid sceptic and the habitual persecution of "unbelievers," the fact that 
they generally retained the fundamental religious beliefs is quite intelligible. 
The Eationalists of the Eenaissance had exerted a literary and historical 


pressure upon the foundations of the Papal system. When the Eeformers 
substituted the Bible for the Papal authority, the next phase of Rationalism 
was naturally an application of literary and historical criticism to this new 
foundation of popular belief. The Deists rejected the idea of revelation, 
miracle, mystery, and priestly authority, yet acknowledged the existence 
of a Supreme Being, and generally admitted the personal immortality 
of the human mind. Their chief representatives are assuredly entitled to be 
included in this volume ; and on the same principle of selection those who 
hold the same position to-day, and are now usually called Theists, must be 

In the second half of the eighteenth century this movement reached its 
height. The rights of man, which that generation heatedly discussed, included 
the rights of reason ; and the disintegration of political as well as of priestly 
authority stimulated criticism by enlarging its liberty. In the new free 
atmosphere of the United States, in the cultural revival which followed the 
long period of disturbance in England, in the lax and luxurious condition of 
French society and Church, and in the "storm and stress" phase which 
awoke the intellect of Germany, Rationalism spread rapidly and produced an 
abundant and very candid literature. It was inevitable that many should now 
pass to a further stage of rebellion, especially when the French Revolution 
and the Napoleonic disturbance shook the traditional frame of authority. 
Deism had regarded the Bible as the basis of the Churches and assailed it. 
Many now sought to concentrate reason upon the basis of Deism itself. Men 
began to describe themselves as Pantheists, Atheists, and Materialists. A new 
phase of philosophical development began with Kant in Germany, and, how 
ever much it wavered in its successive oracles between Theism, Pantheism, 
and Atheism, it in all cases shattered the foundation of philosophical reasoning 
on which the Deists had confidently reared their " natural religion." 

The French Revolution and the return of reactionary authorities checked 
or confined for a time these new developments of Rationalism. There was a 
general tendency to fear that an attack upon authority in religion led to an 
attack upon the bases of political authority or economic security. In nearly 
every country of Europe a generation passed without any considerable 
Rationalist activity. Once more it fell to men of little cultural distinction, 
of bold and uncompromising character, to articulate the rights of reason 
against authority and suffer the penalty. The names of these men also are 
gratefully included in this DICTIONAEY. If their work was at times defective 
in taste or culture, their courage lays us under a debt. They won freedom 
for a later generation, and they were almost the first educators of the mass of 
the people in a rational philosophy of life. 

Before the middle of the nineteenth century the third and definitive stage 


of Rationalist development set in. Of the many causes which contributed to- 
it two only need to be noted : the final shattering of feudal political authority 
by the revolutionary wave of the forties and the advance of science. On the 
political side the Churches had linked their fortunes to the last with those of 
the restored and truculent monarchies ; and the new democracy, finally 
triumphing over its feudal oppressors, was ready to hear that the divine right- 
of priests had no better foundation than the divine right of kings. Just at 
this moment science attained maturity and began to attract even popular 
notice to its marvellous new interpretation of the universe. Rationalism of 
the more advanced character now spread on every side. In the scientific 
world it largely assumed the form of Agnosticism, which discredits theology 
by ignoring it and seeks to interpret the universe without its aid. In popular 
circles, in England, the same attitude was embodied in Secularism, or the 
determination to transact all the practical affairs of life without relation to- 
religious beliefs. A few accept the more emphatic title of Atheists or 
Materialists. In France and other Latin countries many sought to retain 
the constructive energy of the old faith, while discarding even its most 
fundamental beliefs, by founding a Religion of Humanity, or Positivism. In 
Germany the new spirit has been chiefly embodied in Monism, or the doctrine 
that one reality only exists, and that therefore there is no Supreme Being 
distinct from the universe and no soul distinct and detachable from the human 
body. In all countries the new Rationalism was also incorporated in societies- 
for moral culture without regard to Christian or Theistic beliefs. In con 
tinental Socialism, in fine, a blunt rejection of all religious belief s was 
associated with the aim of improving present human conditions. 

The variety of types included in this work, and the principle of selection, 
thus become intelligible. It includes Theists (when they do not conform to 
the authority of any branch of the Christian Church), Pantheists, Agnostics,. 
and the few who prefer to be called Atheists. It includes distinguished 
Secularists, Positivists, Monists, and Ethicists. But amid this variety there 
is a steady progression which is obscured by the need to arrange the names- 
in alphabetical order. Only about a hundred names are chosen for the period 
before the French Revolution, and they are overwhelmingly Deists. Possibly 
some two hundred names then belong to the period between the French 
Revolution and the middle of the nineteenth century, and already a material 
change can be detected in the list. The Deists sink into a minority, 
while Pantheists and Non-Theists increase. The vast majority of the names 
in the work belong to this and the last generation, and they are predominantly 
the names of Agnostics, Positivists, Monists, and others who do not accept 
any fundamental religious beliefs. 

In compiling the list of earlier Rationalists I am indebted to Mr. J. M. 



Kobertson s SJiort History of Freethought (1915), Mr. J. M. Wheeler s 
Biographical Dictionary of Freethinkers (1889), and Mr. Benn s History of 
English nationalism in the Nineteenth Century (1906). Mr. Wheeler s 
principle of selection is somewhat vague, and he seems to have been hampered 
by the reluctance to declare their opinions of many who were then living. 
Posthumous publication has largely removed this difficulty, and some readers 
will be astounded to learn how large a proportion of the distinguished men 
and women of the last generation were nationalists. There is a foolish theory 
in English literature that Rationalism was a mere episode of the early triumph 
of science ; that a wave of Materialism temporarily passed over the scientific 
world and has now subsided. This common and not very conscientious state 
ment is false in all its aspects. There was practically no Materialism among 
the scientific men of the last generation ; scepticism was not in the least 
confined to, or distinctive of, men of science, but was equally rife among poets, 
artists, philosophers, historians, and men of letters or of practical affairs ; and, 
instead of shrinking, this body of dissenters has become immeasurably larger 
in our own generation. 

But I still confront the difficulty which Mr. Wheeler encountered. An 
open avowal of Rationalism by a professional man is regarded by many as 
either dangerous or superfluous. The great majority of the men and women 
of our generation who have some cultural distinction will lend their names 
neither to the Churches nor to a Rationalist organization, nor have they any 
occasion to declare their convictions. For instance, Professor Leuba tells us, 
in his Belief in God and Immortality, that, of a thousand teachers of science 
whom he privately consulted, about one-half declined to make a profession of 
belief in personal immortality ; and Professor Leuba does not tell us whether 
he included teachers in religious colleges, which would greatly weaken the 
proportion. It is clear that a man who does not admit personal immortality, 
a quite basic and inalienable element of Christian belief, is a Rationalist in 
the fullest sense ; yet few of those hundreds of teachers of science are included 
here, since they make no public profession on the subject. Even death often 
fails to end the reticence. My friend Sir Leslie Stephen and even the poet 
Swinburne were both buried with the rites of the Church ; yet the one was 
a well-known Agnostic, and the other had treated the Christian doctrine and 
ethic with unmeasured scorn in his poetry. That final profession of faith, 
put upon the lips of a dead man, has in hundreds of cases hidden from the 
public the thoughts of a distinguished sceptic. 

In these circumstances this list of university professors, writers, or eminent 
men and women of this or the last generation who were or are Rationalists 
must seem impressive. It indicates a general scepticism, at least in regard 
to the creeds of the Churches, in the class to which the names belong the 


higher world of science, art, history, philosophy, sociology, and culture 
generally. It is hardly too much to say that a corresponding list of men and 
women of the same class who, in the same two generations, made or make 
a profession of explicit belief in Christian doctrines would not fill a quarter of 
this volume. It is hardly necessary to observe that a man or woman whose 
name is not included in this list must not therefore be regarded as a Christian. 
The compiler has made no effort whatever to invite professions of Eationalist 
belief. He has simply surveyed, as far as one man may do so, a vast 
biographical and philosophical literature, and culled such expressions of 
opinion as have been voluntarily given to the world or recorded by biographers. 
In numbers of cases he has omitted names from lack of positive evidence. 
In the great majority of cases of men of distinction in recent times there has 
been no expression of opinion at all. It is enough that, although the Churches 
have repeatedly sought to elicit expressions favourable to themselves, they 
have failed signally to compile an impressive list of adherents. 

In fine, the compiler has had to confront the difficulty that the Christian 
and Rationalist worlds, which were once so sharply divided, have enlarged and 
softened their boundaries until classification seems in some cases to be difficult. 
Theologians who reject the idea of miracle and revelation, and even the 
divinity of Christ, as so many eminent theologians do to-day, do not 
substantially differ from many of the Deists. Eationalists who maintain that 
the existence of some Power which they may call God survives all rational 
criticism, and who highly appreciate the moral teaching of Christ and the 
action of the Christian religion, are freely invited, or even entreated, to describe 
themselves as Christians. What has happened in our time is, not that some 
legendary wave of Materialism has subsided, but that the Churches have 
lowered their qualifications, so as to embrace the less advanced types of 
Eationalists. In this connection it is only necessary to say that I have not 
wittingly included the name of any man who professes to belong to some 
branch of the Christian Church. Indeed, of those living or recent men and 
women of distinction who make up the great body of the work, scarcely any 
accept the idea of personal immortality, which I take to be a definite crucial 
test. But it would have been ridiculous and ungrateful to exclude a few who, 
like Alfred Eussel Wallace and Lombroso (devoted supporters of the general 
aims of the Eationalist Press Association until their deaths), strongly 
maintained the supremacy of reason and dissented from the Churches. 

This difficulty, however, is restricted to a smaller number of names than 
one would be disposed to expect, and in the case of these few men I may 
cite as examples Tennyson, Euskin, and Lord Coleridge it cannot fail to be 
of interest to the reader to know what, in their own words, their mature views 
on religion really were. The classification is a matter of secondary interest. 

And in most cases there is no room for hesitation. Although the list includes 
more than half the literary genius of Europe and America of the last one 
hundred years, as well as a surprising number of eminent artists, statesmen, 
men of science, philosophers, reformers, and men of affairs, the sentiments 
quoted under each name are unmistakable. The DICTIONARY represents a revolt 
of modern culture against the Churches. In the ethical sense many of the 
men and women included here have retained to the end an appreciation of 
Christ and Christianity. Many were opposed to aggressive criticism. These 
things are duly noted. But the revolt, intellectual and emotional, against 
the creeds is seen to be overwhelming in the world of higher culture ; and in 
an extraordinary proportion of the more recent cases the revolt extends to 
every attempt to formulate a religious philosophy. It is a new Gotter- 
dammerung . 

For the ordinary biographical details I must express my obligations to 
a large number of encyclopaedias and works of reference. In particular, I 
must acknowledge my indebtedness to Who s Who ? (and the corresponding 
works in German, French, Italian, Norwegian, and Swedish, as well as the 
American Who s Who ?) and to our great Dictionary of National Biography. 
To the soundness and scholarship of the latter, indeed, the compiler must, in 
passing, yield the tribute which his experience has inspired. The list of 
works, in many tongues, to which he is indebted would, however, require 
many pages. Mainly, this compilation is based upon the published biographies 
.and works of the distinguished men and women who are included in it. It 
has been quite impossible to mention more than a few of the works written 
by the authors included in the list. The names of the works actually 
consulted by the compiler would, in fact, occupy considerably more than 
a hundred pages of this volume. It may therefore be superfluous, in view 
of the magnitude of the task, to ask for lenient consideration if any name of 
apparently obvious relevance is found to have been omitted. Still less is it 
necessary to disarm criticism in advance if the references to Continental 
scholars be not actually up to date at times. No countries except England 
and America have published new editions of their Who s Who ? since 1914 ; 
nor have the customary academic annuals appeared since the great catastrophe. 
Many men whom the compiler would have included have on this account 
been regretfully omitted. Yet this collection of nearly three thousand 
distinguished names, with a few other names which owe their inclusion to 
gratitude for their efforts or sacrifices rather than to personal distinction, may 
give the reader a novel and not unimportant clue to the spirit of the time. 

J. M. 


A few Rationalists, sometimes of great distinction, whose names were overlooked, 
will be found in a Supplement at the end of the book 

ABAUZIT, Firmin 

ABBE, Professor Ernst 

ABBOT, Francis E. 

ABBOTT, George F., B.A. 

ABBOTT, Leonard D. 

ABOUT, Edmond 

ACHELIS, Thomas 


ACOLLAS, Professor E. 

ACOSTA, Uriel 

ADAM, Professor Charles, D. es L. 

ADAMS, Charles Francis 

ADAMS, Francis W. L. 

ADAMS, John, President of the United 


ADAMS, Eobert 

ADAMSON, Professor Eobert, Ph.D. 
ADCOCK, A. St. John 
ADICKES, Professor E., Ph.D. 
ADLER, Professor Felix, Ph.D. 
AHRENS, Professor Heinrich, Ph.D. 
AlKENHEAD, Thomas 
AIRY, Sir George B.,K.C.B.,D.C.L.,LL.D., 


AITZEMA, Lieuwe van 
ALBEE, John 
ALCOTT, Amos Bronson 
ALEMBERT, Jean le Eond d 
ALFIERI, Count V. 
ALLBUTT, Sir Thomas C., K.C.B., M.A., 

M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.E.S. 
ALLEN, Grant, B.A. 
ALLEN, Colonel Ethan 
ALLEN, John, M.D. 
ALLMAN, Professor G. J., LL.D., D.Sc., 


ALLSOP, Thomas 

ALTMEYER, Professor J. J., Ph.D., D.C.L. 
ALVIELLA, Count Goblet d 
AMARI, Professor M. 
AMICIS, Edmondo de 
AMIEL, Henri F. 

ANDREWS, Stephen P. 

ANGELL, Norman 

ANGIULLI, Professor A. 

ANNET, Peter 

ANNUNZIO, Gabriele d 

ANTHONY, Susan B. 

ANTONELLE, the Marquis Pierre Antoine d 

APELT, Professor E. F. 

ARAGO, Francois 


ARAGO, F. V. E. 

ARANDA, Count P. P. d 

ARBUTHNOT, Forster F. 

ARCHER, William, M.A. 

ARDIGO, Professor Eoberto 

ARGENS, the Marquis J. B. d 

ARGENSON, Count M. P. d 

ARGENSON, the Marquis E. L. d 

ARGENTAL, Count C. A. d 


ARMSTRONG, Professor H. E., Ph.D., 

LL.D., D.Sc., F.E.S. 
ARNOLD, Sir Edwin, K.C.I.E., M.A. 
ARNOLD, Matthew 
ARNOLDSON, Klas Pontus 
ARNOULD, Arthur 
ARNOULD, Victor 
ARRHENIUS, Professor Svante 
ARRIAGA, M. J. d , LL.D., President of the 

Portuguese Eepublic 
ASHURST, William H. 
ASSOLANT, Professor J. B. A. 
ASTRUC, Jean, M.D. 
Aszo Y DEL Eio, Professor I. J. d 
AUERBACH, Berthold 
AULARD, Professor F. V. A. 
AUSTIN, Charles, M.A. 
AUSTIN, Sarah 
AVEBURY, Baron, P.O., D.C.L., LL.D., 

AVELING, E. B., D.Sc. 


AVELING, Eleanor Marx 

AVENAEIUS, Professor E. 

AVENEL, Georges 

AYMON, Jean, D.D. 

AYBTON, Professor W. E., B.A., F.R.S. 

BABEUF, Frangois N. 

BACCELLI, Professor Guido 

BAGE, Eobert 

BAGEHOT, Walter, M.A. 

BAGGESEN, Professor Jens I. 


BAHRDT, Professor K. F. 

BAILEY, Samuel 

BAILLIE, George 

BAIN, Professor Alexander, M.A. 

BAKUNIN, Mikhail 

BALDWIN, Professor J. M., M.A., Ph.D., 

Sc.D., LL.D. . 
BALL, William P. 
BALLANCE, the Honourable John 
BALMACEDA, Jos6 M., President of the 

Eepublic of Chile 
BALZAC, Honor6 de 
BANCEOFT, Hubert Howe 
BARETTI, Giuseppe 
BARLOW, George 
BARLOW, Jane, LL.D. 
BARNES, the Honourable J. Edmestone. 

[Supplementary List] 
BARNI, Professor J. E. 
BAROT, Frangois Odysse 
BARRETT, Thomas Squire 
BARTOLI, Professor H. A. 
BARTOSEK, Theodor, Ph.D., LL.D. 
BARZELOTTI, Professor G. 
BASEDOW, Johann B. 
BASTIAN, Professor Adolf 
BASTIAN, Professor Henry Charlton, M.A., 

M.D., F.L.S., F.E.S. 
BASTIAT, Frederic 
BATES, Henry Walter, F.E.S. 
BATTELLI, Professor Angelo 
BAUDELAIRE, Charles Pierre 
BAUDISSIN, Count W. F. von, Ph.D. 
BAUDRILLART, Professor H. 
BAUER, Bruno 
BAUER, Edgar 

BAX, Ernest Belfort 

BAYLE, Pierre 

BEADNELL, Charles M., M.E.C.S., L.E.C.P. 

BEAUSOBRE, Louis de 

BEBEL, Ferdinand August 

BECCARIA-BONESANA, the Marquis Cesare 

BECHER, Professor Erich, Ph.D. 

BECKER, Sir Walter F., K.B.E. 

BECKERS, Professor Hubert 

BECKFORD, William 

BEDDOES, Thomas, M.D. 

BEDDOES, Thomas Lovell 

BEE SLY, Edward Spencer 

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig von 

BEGBIE, Major-General E. W., C.B., D.S.O. 

BEKKER, Balthasar, D.D. 

BELL, Major Thomas Evans 

BELOT, Professor Gustave 

BENDER, Hedwig 

BENEKE, Professor Friedrich Edward 

BENN, Alfred William, B.A. 

BENNETT, De Eobigne Mortimer 

BENNETT, Arnold 

BENTHAM, Jeremy, M.A. 


BERGSON, Professor Henri L., D. es L. 


BERLIOZ, Hector 

BERNARD, Professor Claude, M.D., D.Sc. 

BERNARD, Henry Meyners 



BERT, Paul, M.D., D.Sc. 

BERTANI, Agostino, M.D. 

BERTHELOT, Professor P. E. M., D.Sc. 

BERTHOLLET, Count Claude Louis de 

BERTI, Professor D., Ph.D. 

BERTILLON, Alphonse 

BERTILLON, Professor Louis A. 

BERWICK, George, M.D. 

BE S ANT, Sir Walter 


BETHELL, Eichard. [Supplementary List] 


BEYLE, Marie Henri 

BlCHAT, M. F. X. 
BlERCE, Ambrose 
BINET, Alfred 
BIOT, Jean Baptiste, F.E.S. 
BIRCH, William John, M.A. 
BIRKBECK, George, M.D. 
BITHELL, Eichard, Ph.D., B.Sc. 
BIZET, Georges 
BJORKMANN, Edwin August 
BJORNSON, Bjornstjerne 
BLAGOSVETLOV, Grigorevich 



BLAKE, William 

BLANC, Louis 

BLANQUI, Louis Auguste 


BLATHWAYT, Lt.-Col. Linley 


BLEIN, Baron A. F. A. 

BLIND, Karl 

BLIND, Mathilde 

BLOCK, Ivan, M.D. 

BLOUNT, Charles 

BLOUNT, Sir Henry 

BLOUNT, Sir Thomas Pope 

BLUM, Eobert 


BODICHON, Barbara L. S. 

BODIN, Jean 

BoERNER, Wilhelm 


BoiNDlN, Nicolas 

BoiSSlER, Professor M. L. Gaston 

BoiTO, Arrigo 

BOJER, Johan 

BOLIN, Professor A. W., Ph.D. 


BOLIVAR, Simon, President of Bolivia 

BOLSCHE, Wilhelm 

BOLZANO, Professor Bernard 

BONAPARTE, Prince Jerome 

BONAPARTE, Prince Napoleon J. C. P. 

BONGHI, Professor Euggero, LL.D. 


BONI, Filippo de, D. es L. 

BONNET, Charles 



BOOTH, James, C.B. 

BORN, Baron Ignaz von 

BORNE, Ludwig 

BORROW, George 

BOSANQUET, Professor B., M.A., LL.D., 


Bosc, L. A. G. 
BOSTROM, Professor C. J. 
BOUGAINVILLE, Count L. A. de, F.E.S. 
BOUGLE, Professor Charles 
BOUILLIER, Francisque, Ph.D. 
BOULANGER, Nicolas Antoine 

BOUTMY, Professor E. G. 
BOUTROUX, Professor E. E. M. 
Bovio, Professor Giovanni 
BOWEN, Baron, M.A., D.C.L. 

BOWMAN, Charles 

BOYESEN, Professor H. H. 

BRABROOK, Sir Edward William, C.B. 



BRADLEY, Francis Herbert 

BR^EKSTAD, Hans Lien 

BRAGA, Theophilo, President of the Portu 
guese Eepublic 

BRAHMS, Johannes 


BRANDES, Carl E. C., Ph.D. 

BRANDES, Georg, LL.D. 

BRANDIN, Professor L. M., L. es L., Ph.D. 

BRANTING, K. Hjalmar 

BRAUN, Lily 

BRAUN, Wilhelm von 

BRAY, Charles 

BREITENBACH, Wilhelm, Ph.D. 

BRENTANO, Professor Franz 

BREWER, E. Cobham, LL.D., D.C.L. 


BRIAND, Aristide, D. es L. 

BRIDGES, Horace J. 

BRIDGES, John Henry, M.D. 

BRIEUX, Eugene 

BRINTON, Daniel G., M.D. 

BRISSON, Adolphe 

BRISSON, Eugene Henri 


BRISTOL, Augusta Cooper 

BROCA, Pierre Paul 

BRODIE, Sir Benjamin Collins, B.A., D.C.L. 

BROOKE, Eupert 

BROOKE, Stopford Augustus 


BROSSES, President Charles de 

BROUSSAIS, Professor F. J. V. 

BROWN, Professor Arthur, M.A., LL.D. 

BROWN, Ford Madox 

BROWN, George William, M.D. 

BROWN, J. Armour. [Supplementary List] 

BROWN, Titus L., M.D. 

BROWN, Walston Hill 

BROWN, Bishop W. Montgomery, D.D. 

BROWN- SEQUARD, Professor C. E., LL.D., 
M.D., F.E.S., F.E.C.P. 

BROWNE, Sir Thomas, M.D. 

BROWNE, William George 


BRUNO, Giordano 

BUCHANAN, Lt.-Col. Sir Walter James. 
[Supplementary List] 


BUCHANAN, Eobert, junior 

BuCHNER, Professor Alexander 

BUCHNER, Friedrich K. C. Ludwig, M.D. 



BUCKLE, Thomas 

BUEN Y DEL COS, Professor Odon de 

BUFFON, Count G. L. Leclerc de 

BuiSSON, Professor Ferdinand E., D. es L. 

BULLER, Charles, B.A. 

BUEBANK, Luther, Sc.D. 

BUECKHAEDT, Professor Jakob 

BURDACH, Professor K. F. 

BUEDETT, Sir Francis 

BURDON, William, M.A. 

BUEGERS, T. F., D.D., President of the 

Transvaal Eepublic 
BURIGNY, Jean Levesque de 
BURNET, Thomas, M.A. 
BuRNOUF, Emile Louis 
BURNOUF, Eugene 
BUENS, the Eight Honourable John 
BURNS, Eobert 
BUEEOUGHS, John, Litt.D. 
BUET, the Eight Honourable Thomas, 


BUETON, John Hill 
BURTON, Sir Eichard Francis 
BURY, Professor J. B., M.A., LL.D., Litt.D. 
BUTLER, Samuel, author of Hudibras 
BUTLER, Samuel, philosopher 
BYELINSKY, Vissarion G. 
BYEON, George Gordon, Lord 

dABANiS, George Paul Sylvester 

CABANIS, Pierre Jean Georges 

CAINE, William Ealph Hall 

CALL, W. M. W., M.A. 

CALDERON, Professor Laureano 

CALDERON, Professor Salvador 

CALLAWAY, Charles, M.A., D.Sc. 

CALVEELEY, Charles Stuart 

CAMBACEBES, Prince Jean Jacques Eegis de 


CANESTEINI, Professor G., Ph.D. 

CANNIZZARO, Professor S. 


CANTONI, Professor Carlo 

CAPE, Emily Palmer 

OAEDUCCI, Professor Giosue 

CARLILE, Eichard 


CARLYLE, John Aitken, M.D. 

CARLYLE, Thomas 

CARNEGIE, Andrew, LL.D. 

CARNERI, Baron Bartolomaus von 

CARNOT, Lazare Hippolyte 

CAENOT, Count Lazare N. M. 

CAENOT, Sadi, President of the French 

CAENOT, Sadi Nicolas Leonard 

CAEO, Professor Elme 

CAEOLINE, Queen of England 


CAEPENTEE, Professor W. B., C.B., M.D., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 

CAEE, Herbert Wildon, D.Litt. 
CARREL, J. B. N. A. 
CARRIERE, Professor Moritz 
CARUS, Professor J. V. 
CARUS, Professor Karl Gustav 
CARUS, Paul, Ph.D. 
CASANOVA, G. J. de Seingalfc 
CASIMIE-PEEIEE, J. P. P., President of 

the French Eepublic 
CASPARI, Professor Otto, Ph.D. 
CASSELS, Walter Eichard 
CASTELLI, Professor David 
CATHERINE II, Empress of Eussia 
CATTANEO, Professor Carlo 
CATTANEO, Professor Giacomo 
CATTELL, Charles 
CAVENDISH, the Honourable Henry, F.E.S. 

GAZELLES, Emile H., M.D. 
CESAREO, Professor G. A. 
CHAMBERLAIN, Professor Basil Hall 
CHAMBERLAIN, Daniel Henry 
CHAMBERLAIN, Houston Stewart 
CHAMBERS, Ephraim, F.E.S. 
CHAMBERS, Eobert, LL.D. 
CHAMFORT, Sebastien E. N. 
CHAMISSO, Adelbert von 
CHAMPOLLION, Jean Fran9ois 
CHANTREY, Sir Francis Legatt, M.A., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
CHAPMAN, John, M.D. 
CHAPTAL, Count J. A. C. 
CHARBONNEL, Victor, L. es L. 
CHARMA, Antoine 
CHARRON, Pierre 

CHASTELLUX, the Marquis F. J. de 
CHATELET, the Marquise Gabrielle Emilie 


CHAUMETTE, Pierre Gaspard 
CHENIEE, A. M. de 
CHENIEE, Marie Joseph 
CHEEBULIEZ, Charles Victor 
CHEEUBINI, Maria Luigi C. Z. S. 



CHILD, Lydia Maria Francis 

CHILTON, William 

CHUBB, Percival 

CHUBB, Thomas 


CLAEKE, Marcus A. H. 

CLEMENCEAU, Georges Eugene Benjamin 

CLEMENS, Samuel Langhorne 


CLIFFORD, Professor W. K., F.R.S. 


CLINE, Henry 

CLODD, Edward 

CLOOTZ, Baron J. B. de 

CLOUGH, Arthur Hugh 

CLOUSTON, Sir Thomas, M.D., LL.D., 


COHEN, Chapman 
COHEN, Professor Hermann, Ph.D. 
COIT, Stanton, Ph.D. 
COKE, the Honourable Henry John 
COLERIDGE, Sir John Duke, F.E.S., D.C.L., 

M.A., Lord Chief Justice 
COLINS, Baron J. G. C. A. H. de 
COLLIER, the Honourable John 
COLLIN, Professor C. C. D. 
COLLINS, Anthony 

COLLINS, Professor John Churton, LL.D. 
COMAZZI, Count G. B. 
COMBE, Andrew 
COMBE, George 

COMBES, Justin Louis Emile, M.D., D. es L. 
COMMON, Thomas 

COMPARETTI, Professor D., D.C.L., Sc.D. 
COMPAYRE, J. Gabriel 
COMTE, Fran9ois Charles Louis 
COMTE, Isidore Marie Auguste Francois 


CONDILLAC, E. B. de Mably de 
CONDORCET, the Marquis J. A. N. de 

Caritat de 
CONDORCET, the Marquise M. L. S. de 

Grouchy de 

CONGREVE, Richard, M.A. 
CONRAD, Joseph 

CONTA, Professor Basil, LL.D. 
CONWAY, Moncure Daniel 
CONWAY, Sir William Martin, MA F S A 

CONYBEARE, Frederick Cornwall MA 

D.D., LL.D. 

COOK, Keningale E., M.A., LL.D. 
COOPER, John Gilbert 

COOPER, Robert 

COOPER, Professor Thomas, M.D. 

COPE, Professor E. D., M.A., Ph.D. 

CORNETTE, Professor H. A. M. 


COTTON, Sir Henry John Stedman 


COURTNEY, Baron L. H., of Penwith 

COURTNEY, William Leonard, M.A.,LL.B. 

COUSIN, Victor 

COVENTRY, Henry, M.A. 

COWARD, William, M.A., M.D. 

COWEN, Joseph, M.P. 

CRAMER, Johan Nikolai, Ph.D. 


CRANE, Walter, R.W.S. 

CREMER, Sir William Randal 

CRESCINI, Professor Vincenzo 

CROCE, Benedetto 

CROLY, David Goodman 

CROMPTON, Henry, B.A. 

CROZIER, John Beattie, M.D., LL.D. 

CUMONT, Franz Valery Marie, D. es L. 

CZOLBE, Heinrich 



DANDOLO, Count Vincenzo 

DARMESTETER, Agnes Mary Francis 

DARMESTETER, Professor James 


DARWIN, Charles 

DARWIN, Erasmus, B.A., M.B. 

DARWIN, Sir Francis, D.Sc., M.B., F.R.S. 

DARWIN, Sir George Howard, F.R.S. 

DARWIN, Major Leonard, D.Sc. 

DAUDET, Alphonse 


DAVID, Jacques Louis 

DAVIDS, Caroline Augusta Rhys 

DAVIDS, Professor T. W. Rhys, LL.D., 

D.Sc., Ph.D. 
DAVIDSON, Thomas, M.A. 
DAVIES, Charles Maurice, M.A., D.D. 
DEBIDOUR, Professor E. L. M. M. A., 

D. es L. 

DAY, Helen Hamilton Gardener 
DE Bosis, Adolfo 
DEBUSSY, Claude Achille 
DE COSTER, Charles 
DE DOMINICIS, Professor S. 
DEFFAND, the Marquise M. A. de Vichy- 

Chamrond du 

DE GUBERNATIS, Count Angelo, D. es L. 
DEKKER, Edward Dowes 


DELAGE, Professor M. Yves, D. es Sc., M.D. 



DELBCEUF, Professor J. R., D. es L., 

D.esSc., Ph.D. , 

DELBOS, Professor E. M. J. \., D. es b. 
DELCASSE, Theophile 
DELEYBE, Alexandre 
DE MORGAN, Professor Augustus 
DENHAM, Sir James Steuarb 
DENIKEE, Joseph, D. es Sc. 
DENIS, Professor Hector 
DE PAEPE, Cesar, M.D. 
DE POTTER, Agathon Louis 
D ERCOLE, Professor Pasquale 
DE SANCTIS, Professor Francesco 
DESCHAMPS, Leger Marie 
DESCHANEL, Professor E. A. E. M. 
DESCHANEL, Paul Eugene Louis, L. es L., 
L.en D., President of bhe French Kepublic 




DESMOULINS, Benoit Camille 


DESSAIX, Counb Joseph Marie 

DESTRIVEAUX, Professor P. J. 



DEUBLER, Konrad 



DEWEY, Professor John, Ph.D., LL.D. 

DE WORMS, Henry, Baron Pirbright, 

DIAZ, Porfirio, President of Mexico 

DICKINSON, Goldsworthy Lowes 

DIDE, Auguste 


.DlERCKS, Gustav, D.Philol. 


DlLKE, Ashton Wentworth 

DILKE, Sir Charles Wentworth, L.L.M. 

DlNTER, G. F. 


DIXIE, Lady Florence 

DOBELL, Bertram 

DOBEREINER, Professor J. W. 


DODEL-PORT, Professor A., F.R.S. 

DODWELL, Henry, B.A. 

DONKIN, Sir H. Bryan, M.D., F.R.C.P. 

DOUGLAS, Sir John Sholto 

DOUGLAS, Stephen Arnold 

DOWDEN, Professor Edward, LL.D., D.C.L. 

DRAPARNAUD, Professor J. P. R., M.D. 

DRAPER, Professor J. W., M.D., LL.D. 

DRESDEN, Edmond 

DREWS, Professor Arthur, Ph.D. 

DRIESCH, Professor Hans, Ph.D., LL.D. 

DRUMMOND, the Right Honourable Sir 

William, P.O., D.C.L., F.R.S. 
DRUSKOWITZ, Helene von, Ph.D., M.D. 
DBYDEN, John. [Supplementary List\ 
DRYSDALE, Charles Robert, M.D., F.H.C.S. 
DUBOC, Julius 

Du BOIS-REYMOND, Professor Emil 
DUBUISSON, Paul Ulrich 
DUCLOS, Charles Pineau 
DUCOS, Jean Francois 
DUDGEON, William 
DUHRING, Eugen Karl 
DUJARDIN, Edouard 
DULAURE, Jacques Antoine 
DULAURENS, Henri Joseph 
DULK, A. F. B. 

DUMAS, Alexandre, the younger 
Du MAURIER, George 
DUNCAN, Professor David, M.A., D.Sc., 


DUPONT, Jacob Louis 
DUPUIS, Professor C. F. 
DURKHEIM, Professor Emile 
DURUY, Professor J. Victor 

EATON, Daniel Isaac 
EBERHARD, Professor J. A., Ph.D. 



EDISON, Thomas Alva, D.Sc., LL.D., lh.L>. 

EDWARDS, John Passmore 

EFFEN, Justus van 

EiCHHORN, Johann Gottfried 

EISLER, Rudolf, Ph.D. 

ELIOT, Professor Charles William, A.M., 

M.D., LL.D., Ph.D. 
ELIOT, George 
ELLERO, Professor Pietro 
ELLIOT, Hugh Samuel Roger 
ELLIOTSON, John, M.D., F.R.S. 
ELLIS, Alfred Burdon 
ELLIS, Henry Havelock 
ELLIS, William 


ELPHINSTONE, the Honourable Mount- 


EMERSON, Ealph Waldo, LL.D. 
EMERSON, William 
EMMET, Kobert 
ENGELS, Friedrich 
ENGLISH, George Bethune 
ENSOR, George, B.A. 
ERDMANN, Professor J. E. 
ESCHERNY, Count F. L. d 
ESPINAS, Professor V. A. 
EVANS, George Henry 
EZEKIEL, Moses Jacob 

FABRE, Ferdinand 

FABRE, Jean Henri 


FABRIC ATORE, Professor Bruto 

FAGGI, Professor Adolfo 

FAGUET, Professor Auguste Emile 

FALLIERES, Clement Armand, President of 

the French Bepublic 
F 1 AUCHE, Hippolyte 
FAURE, Fran9ois Felix, President of the 

French Eepublic 
FAURE, Sebastien 
FAWCETT, the Eight Honourable Henry, 

LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. 
FAWKENER, Sir Everard 
FECHNER, Gustav Theodor 
FELLOWES, Eobert, M.A., LL.D. 
FELS, Joseph 

FERRARI, Professor Giuseppe, D. es L. 
FERRERO, Guglielmo 
FERRI, Professor Enrico 
FERRI, Luigi 

^ERRY, Jules 

FEUERBACH, Friedrich Heinrich 


FICHTE, Professor Johann Gottlieb 


FILANGIERI, the Cavaliere Gaetano 
FINKE, Professor Heinrich, Ph.D. 
FIORENTINO, Professor Francesco 

FISCHER, Professor E. Kuno Berthold 
FISKE, Professor John 
FLAUBERT, Gustave 

FLOQUET, Charles Thomas 

FLOURENS, Gustave 

FLOURENS, Professor M. J. P. 

FLOWER, Benjamin Orange 

FLOWER, Eliza 

FOERSTER, Professor W., Ph.D. 


FONTANE, Theodor 

FONTENELLE, B. le B. de 

FOOTE, George William 


FOREL, Professor Auguste 

FORLONG, Major- General J. G. E. 

FORTLAGE, Professor Karl 

FOSCOLO, Nicolo Ugo 

FouiLLEE, Professor A. J. E., Ph.D. 

FOURIER, Baron J. B. J. 


Fox, the Eight Honourable Charles James 

Fox, William Johnson 

FRANCE, Anatole 

FRANCE, Professor Adolph 


FRANKLAND, Sir Edward, K.C.B., Ph.D., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 
FRANKLIN, Benjamin, LL.D., F.E.S. 
FRAZER, Sir James George, D.C.L., LL.D., 


FREDERICK II, King of Prussia 
FREKE, William 
FREND, William, B.A. 
FRERET, Nicolas 
FREYCINET, C. L. de Saulce de 
FREYTAG, Gustav 
FRIES, Professor J. F. 
FROEBEL, Friedrich 
FROUDE, James Anthony, M.A. 
FRY, John 
FULLER, Margaret 

FURBRINGER, Professor Max, Ph.D., M.D. 
FURNIVALL, Frederick James, M.A., Ph.D., 


GADOW, Hans Friedrich, M.A., Ph.D., 


GAGE, Matilda Joslyn 
GAIDOZ, Henri 
GALDOS, Benito Perez 
GALIANI, Fernando 
GALL, Franz Joseph 
GALLICHAN, Walter. [Supplementary List] 



GALTON, Sir Francis, D.Sc., D.C.L., F.E.S. 

GAMBETTA, Leon Michel 

GAMBON, Ferdinand Charles 


GARIBALDI, Giuseppe 

GARNETT, Edward William 


GARNETT, Eichard, C.B., LL.D. 


GARTH, Sir Samuel, M.A., M.D. 

GAUTIER, Theophile 

GAY-LUSSAC, Joseph Louis 


GENDRE, Barbe 


GENIN, Frangois 

GENOVESI, Antonio 

GEOFFRIN, Marie Therese 




GHISLERI, Professor Arcangelo 

GlANNONE, Pietro 

GIBBON, Edward 

GIDDINGS, Professor F. H., A.M., Ph.D., 


GlFFORD, Lord Adam 
GlLMAN, Charlotte Perkins 
GiMSON, Ernest "William 
GlMSON, Josiah 
GIMSON, Sydney Ansell 


GiOJA, Melchiorre 

GlRARD, Stephen 

GlSBORNE, Maria 

GlSSlNG, George Eobert 

GlZYCKi, Professor G. von 

GLENNIE, J. Stuart Stuart 

GLISSON, Professor Francis, M.D., M.A., 


GOBINEAU, Count Joseph Arthur de 

GODKIN, Edwin Lawrence, D.C.L. 
GODWIN, Mary Wollstonecraft 
GODWIN, William 
GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von 

GOLDSTUECKER, Professor Theodor 
GOMME, Sir George Laurence, F.S.A. 
GOMPERZ, Heinrich, Ph.D. 
GOMPERZ, Theodor 
GONCOURT, E. L. A. de 
GONCOURT, J. A. H. de 
GORANI, Count Giuseppe 

GORDON, Adam Lindsay 

GORDON, Thomas 

GORHAM, Charles Turner 

GORKY, Maxim 


GOURMONT, Eemy de 

GRAHAM, Professor William, M.A., Litt.D. 

GRANT, Professor Kerr 

GRANT, Ulysses S., President of the "United 


GRANT DUFF, the Eight Honourable Sir 
Mountstuart Elphinstone, M.A., F.E.S., 

GRAY, Benjamin Kirkman 
GREEN, John Eichard 
GREEN, Joseph Frederic 
GREENLY, Edward, F.G.S. 
GREENWOOD, Sir George 
GREG, W. Eathbone 

GREGOROVIUS, Ferdinand. [Supplemen 
tary List] 

GREGORY, Sir William Henry, K.C.M.S. 
GREVY, Jules, President of the French 

GREY, Earl 

GRIFFIN, Sir Lepel Henry, K.C.S.I. 
GRIMM, Baron F. M. von 
GROOME, Francis Hindes 
GROOS, Professor Karl 
GROPPALI, Professor Alessandro, Ph.D. 
GROT, Professor N. Y. 
GROTE, George, D.C.L. , LL.D. 
GROTE, Harriet 
GRUN, Karl 
GRUYER, Louis 
GUEPIN, Professor Ange 
GUEROULT, Adolphe 
GUERRINI, Olindo, D. es L. 
GUESDE, Jules 
GULL, Sir William W 7 ithey, M.D., D.C.L., 

LL.D., F.E.S. 

GUMPLOWICZ, Professor L., LL.D. 
GUNDLING, Professor N. H. 
GURNEY, Edmund 
GUYAU, Jean Marie 
GUYOT, Yves 
GYLLENBORG, Count G. F. von 



HADDON, Professor A. C., M.A., D.Sc., 

HAECKEL, Professor Ernst, M.D., Ph.D., 
Sc.D., LL.D. 

HALEVY, Jacques F. F. E. 

HALEVY, Joseph 

HALEVY, Le"on 

HALEVY, Ludovic 

HALL, John Carey, C.M.G., I.S.O. 

HALLEY, Edmund, M.A., D.C.L., F.E.S. 


HAMERTON, Philip Gilbert 

HAMILTON, Lord Ernest William 


HANOTAUX, Gabriel 

HANSON, Sir Eichard Davies 

HARBERTON, Viscount 



HARNEY, George Julian 

HARRIOT, Thomas 


HARRISON, Frederic, M.A., D.C.L., Litt.D., 

HARRISON, Jane Ellen, LL.D., Litt.D. 

HARTLAND, Edwin Sidney, LL.D., F.S.A. 

HARTE, Bret 

HARTMANN, K. E. E. von 

HARWOOD, Philip 

fessor Herman 

HASLAM, Charles Junius 


HAUREAU, Jean Barthelemy 

HAUY, Valentin 

HAVET, Professor E. A. E. 



HAWKINS, Dexter Arnold 


HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel 

IlAYNES, E. S. P. 

HAYWARD, Abraham 

HAZLITT, William 

HEAFORD, William 

HEAPE, Walter, M.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S. 

HEARN, Lafcadio 

HEBBEL, Friedrich 

HEBERT, Jacques Een6 

HEBERT, Professor Marcel 

HEGEL, Professor G. W. F. 

HEINE, Heinrich 

HEINZEN, Karl Peter 

HELMHOLTZ, Professor Hermann Ludwig 

Ferdinand von 
HELVETIUS, Claude Adrien 

HENDERSON, Professor Laurence Joseph, 

A.B., M.D. 

HENLEY, William Ernest, LL.D. 
HERBERT, Baron, of Cherbury 
HERBERT, Auberon 
HEREDIA, Jose Maria de 
HERTWIG, Professor Oscar, M.D., Ph.D. 
HERTWIG, Professor Eichard, M.D., Ph.D. 
HERTZEN, Alexandr I. 
HERTZOGENBERG, Heinrich von 
HERVEY, Lord, of Ickworth 
HEYSE, Paul Johann Ludwig von 
HIBBERT, Julian 
HlGGlNS, Godfrey 
HiGGlNSON, Thomas Wentworth 
HILL, George Birkbeck, D.C.L., LL.D. 
HiLLEBRAND, Professor Karl 
HINS, Eugene, Ph.D., D. es L. 
HiNTON, James 
HIPPEL, Theodor Gottlieb von 
HIRD, Dennis, M.A. 
HIRN, Professor Yrgo, Ph.D. 
HIRTH, Georg 
HOADLEY, George 
HOBBES, Thomas 
HOBHOUSE, Baron, of Hadspen 
HOBHOUSE, Professor L. T., Litt.D. 
IIOBSON, John Atkinson, M.A. 
HOCHART, Polydore 
HODGSON, Brian Houghton 
HODGSON, Shadworth Hollway 
HODGSON, William, M.D. 
HOFFDING, Professor Harald, Ph.D., LL.D., 

D.Sc., Litt.D. 
HOGG, Thomas Jefferson 
HOLBACH, Baron von 
HOLBERG, Baron von 

HOLLAND, Frederic May 
HOLLAND, first Baron 
HOLLAND, third Baron 
HOLLANDER, Bernard, M.D. 
HOLLICK, Frederick, M.D. 
HOLLIS, Thomas, F.E.S. 
HOLMES, Edmund Gore Alexander 
HOLMES, Oliver Wendell, M.D. 


HOLMES, Thomas Eice Edward, Litt.D. 

HOLWELL, J. Zephaniah 


HOLYOAKE, George Jacob 

HOOKER, Sir Joseph Dalton,O.M.,Gr.b.G.l., 

M.D., Sc.D., F.E.S. 
HOOPER, Charles Edward 
HOPE, Thomas, F.E.S. 
HORNEFFER, Ernst, Ph.D. 
HORSLEY, Sir Victor A. Haden, M.D., 

Sc.D., F.E.S. 
HOUTEN, Samuel van 
HOUTIN, Albert 
HOWE, Edgar Watson 
HOWELLS, William Dean 
HuBBARD, Alice 
HUBBARD, Elbert, M.A. 
HUBER, Marie 
HUDSON, Professor W. H. 
HUEFFER, Francis, Ph.D. 
HUEFFER, Ford Madox 
HUERTA, General Victoriano 
HUET, Conrad Bushen 

HUGO, Victor 

HUMBOLDT, Baron A. von 

HUMBOLDT, Baron K. W. von 

HUME, David 

HUNEKER, James Gibbons 

HUNT, James 

HUNT, James Henry Leigh 

HUNT, Thornton 

HUNT, W. F. 

HUNTER, Professor W. A., M.A., LL.D. 


HUTCHINSON, Professor Woods, M.A.,M.D. 

HUTTON, James, M.D. 

HUXLEY, Leonard 

HUXLEY, Thomas Henry, P.C., M.D., 
Ph.D., LL.D., D.C.L., F.E.S. 


HYSLOP, Professor James Hervey, Ph.D., 

IBSEN, Henrik 


IHERING, Professor H. von, M.D., Ph.D. 

ILES, George 

ILIVE, Jacob 

IMBAULT-HUART, Professor C. 


INGERSOLL, Eobert Green 


INGRAM, Professor John Kells, B.A., 

Litt.D., LL.D. 
INMAN, Thomas, M.D. 

IRELAND, Alexander 

JACOB, General John 

JACOBSEN, Jens Peter 


JAMES, Henry, O.M. 

JAMES, Professor William, M.D., LLi.-U.,. 

Ph.D., Litt.D. 
JAMESON, the Eight Honourable bir 

Leander Starr, P.C., C.B., M.D. 
JASTROW, Professor Joseph, M.A., Ph.D. 
JASTROW, Professor Morris, Ph.D. 
JAUCOURT, Louis de, F.E.S. 
JAURES, Professor Jean Leon, D. es L. 
JEFFERSON, Thomas, President of the 

United States 
JEFFREY, Lord Francis 
JENSEN, Professor P. C. A., Ph.D. 
JERVAS, Charles 
JODL, Professor Friedrich, Ph.D. 
JOHNSON, Eichard Mentor, Vice-Presidenb 

of the United States 
JOHNSON, Samuel, D.D. 
JOHNSTON, Sir Harry Hamilton, K.U.B., 

JONES, Ernest 

JORDAN, David Starr, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D. 
JOUFFROY, Professor Theodore Simon 
JOWETT, Benjamin, M.A., LL.D. 
JUAREZ, Benito Pablo, President of Mexico 
JUDGE, Mark Hayler 
JUNGHUHN, Franz Wilhelm 

KADISON, Alexander, M.A. 

KALISCH, Marcus, Ph.D. 


KAMES, Lord 

KANT, Immanuel 

KARMIN, Otto, Ph.D. 

KAUTSKY, Karl Johann 

KEANE, Professor Augustus Henry, LL.D. 

KEARY, Charles Francis, M.A. 

KEATS, John 

KEENE, Charles Samuel 

KEITH, George, Earl Marischal 

KEITH, Marshal J. F. E. 

KELLGREN, Johann Henrik 

KENRICK, William, LL.D. 

KEY, Ellen 

KEYSER, Professor C. J., A.M., Ph.D. 

KlELLAND, Alexandr Lange 


KING, the Eight Honourable Peter, Baron 

KiNGLAKE, Alexander William, M.A. 

KiNGSLEY, George Henry, M.D. 


KiNGSLEY, Mary Henrietta 

KLAATSCH, Professor Hermann, M.D. 

KLEIST, Heinrich von 


KNOPF, Professor O. H. J. 

KNOX, Eobert, M.D. 

KNOWLES, Sir James, K.C.V.O. 

KNUTZEN, Matthias 

KOLBE, Professor Hermann 

KOEN, Selig 

KEAUSE, Ernst Ludwig 


KEEJEI, Professor Franz 

KEEKEL, Arnold 


LAAS, Professor Ernst 

LABANCA, Professor B. 



LACAITA, Sir James P., LL.D., K.C.M.G. 

LACEPEDE, Count B. G. E. de la Ville de 

LAFAYETTE, the Marquis M. J. P. R. Y. G. 

M. de 

LAFFITTE, Jacques 
LAFFITTE, Professor Pierre 
LAGRANGE, Count Joseph Louis 
LAING, Samuel 

LAISANT, Professor C. A., D. es Sc. 
LAKANAL, Joseph 
LALANDE, J. J. le Fran^ais de 
LAMARCK, J. B. P. A. de Monet de 
LAMB, Charles 
LAMETTEIE, Julien Offray de 
LANDOE, Walter Savage 
LANE, William 
LANESSAN, J."M. A. de, M.D. 
LANFEEY, Pierre 
LANG, Andrew 

LANG, Professor Arnold, Ph.D. 
LANGE, Professor F. A. 
LANGLEY, Walter, R.I. 
LANKESTER, Sir Edwin Ray, K.C.B., M.D., 

LL.D., Sc.D., F.R.S. 
LANSON, Professor Gustave, D. es L. 
LAEKIN, Professor E. L. 
LAEEA, Mariano J. 
LAREOQUE, Patrice, D. es L. 


LASTAEEIA, Professor J. V. 

LATHAM, R. G., M.D., B.A. 

LAU, Theodor Ludwig 

LAUBE, Heinrich 

LAUBEUF, M. A. [Supplementary List] 


LAURENT, Professor F., D. es L. 

LAUEIE, James Stuart 

LAVELEYE, Professor E. de 

LAVEEAN, Professor C. L. A. [Supple 
mentary List] 

LAVISSE, Professor Ernest 

LAVROV, Professor P. L. 

LAW, Harriet 

LAWRENCE, Sir William, F.R.S. 

LAYARD, the Right Honourable Sir A. H., 
P.O., G.C.B., D.C.L. 

LAYTON, Henry 

LAZARUS, Professor M. 

LE BON, Gustave, M.D. 

LECKY, the Right Honourable W. E. H., 
P.C., O.M., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., Litt.D. 

LECONTE, Professor Joseph, M.D. 


LE DANTEC, Professor Felix 

LEE, General Charles 



LEIDY, Professor Joseph, M.D., LL.D. 

LEIGHTON, Baron Frederic. [Supplemen 
tary List] 

LEIGHTON, Gerald, M.D. 

LELAND, Charles Godfrey 

LENBACH, Franz von 

LEON, Sir Herbert Samuel, Bt. 

LEON, Professor Nicola, Ph.D. 

LEOPARDI, Count Giacomo 





LEROUX, Pierre 


LESSING, Gotthold Ephraim 

LETOURNEAU, Professor C. J. M. 

LEUBA, Professor James Henry, Ph.D. 


LEVY, J. H. [Sujjplementary List] 

LEVY-BRUHL, Professor L. 

LEWES, George Henry 

LEYDS, Willem Johannes, LL.D. 

LlCHTENBERGER, Professor H. 

LICK, James 

LlEBKNECHT, Wilhelm 

LlLlENFELD, Paul von 

LIMA, S. de Magalhaes 


LINCOLN, Abraham, President of the United 

LlNDH, A. T. 

LINDNER, E. 0. T. 
LlNTON, Eliza Lynn 
LlNTON, William James 
LiPPERT, Julius 
LIPPS, Professor T., Ph.D. 
LiSCOW, C. L. 
LlTTRB, M. P. E. 


LLOYD, John T. 

LOCKE, John 


LOEB, Professor Jacques 

LoiSY, Alfred Firmin 

LOMBROSO, Professor Cesare, M.D. 


LONG, George 

LONG, Professor J. H., Sc.D. 

LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth 


LORIA, Professor Achille 

LOTI, Pierre 

LOTZE, Professor R. H. 

LOUBET, Emile, D. en D., President of the 

French Republic 
LOUYS, Pierre 

LOVEJOY, Professor A. O., A.M. 
LOWELL, James Russell 
LOWELL, Percival 
LUCIANI, Professor L. 
LUDOVICI, Anthony 
LUGONES, Professor Leopoldo 
LYALL, the Right Honourable Sir Alfred 

Comyn, K.C.B., G.G.I.E., P.O., D.C.L., 


LYELL, Sir Charles, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S. 
LYNCH, Arthur, M.A. 

MACARTNEY, Professor James, M.D., F.R.S. 

Me C ABE, Joseph 

MACCALL, William, M.A. 

MACCHI, Mauro 

MACDONALD, Eugene Montague 

MACDONALD, George Everett 

MACH, Professor E. von 

MACHADO,Bernardino,President of Portugal 

MACKAY, Charles, LL.D. 

MACKAY, Robert William, M.A. 

MACKENZIE, Professor J. S., M.A., LL.D., 

MACKEY, Sampson Arnold 


M TAGGART, John M Taggart Ellis, LL.D., 


MADISON, James, President of the United 

MADLER, Professor J. H. von. [Supple 
mentary List] 


MAGELLAN, J. H. de, F.R.S. 

MAITLAND, Professor F. W., M.A., LL.D., 



MALLET, David, M.A. 

MALON, Benoit 

MALOT, Hector Henri 



MANDEVILLE, Bernard, M.D. 

MANEN, Professor W. C. van, D.D. 


MANTEGAZZA, Professor P. 

MARAT, Jean Paul 


MARCHESINI, Professor G. 


MARETT, R. R., M.A., D.Sc. 



MARILLIER, Professor Leon 

MARIO, Alberto 

MARIO, Jessie White 

MARK, Professor E. L., Ph.D., LL.D. 

MARKS, Professor Erich 

MARKS, Murray 

MARLOWE, Christopher 

MARMONTEL, Jean Frangois 

MARRYATT, Thomas, M.D. 

MARSHALL, Henry Rutgers, M.A., D.Sc. 


MARSY, F. M. de 

MARTEN, Henry, B.A. 

MARTIN, A. W., A.M. 

MARTIN, Professor B. L. II. 



MARTINS, Professor C. F., M.D. 

MARVIN, F. S., M.A. 

MARX, Karl 

MASARYK, Professor T. G. 


MASCI, Professor F. 

MASON, Sir Josiah 


MASSEY, Gerald 




MAUDE, Aylmer 

MAUDSLEY, Professor Henry, M.D., 


MAUPERTUIS, P. L. M. de, F.E.S. 
MAUVILLON, Jakob von 
MAXIM, Sir Hiram 

MAX MtJLLER, Professor R, M.A., Ph.D. 
MAXSE, Admiral F. A. 
MAY, Professor W. V., Ph.D. 
MAZZINI, Giuseppe, LL.D. 
MEDWIN, Thomas 
MEISTER, Jean Henri 
MELINE, Felix Jules 
MENARD, L. N., D. es L. 
MENDES, Catulle 
MENDUM, Ernest 
MENDUM, Josiah P. 
MENTELLE, Professor E. 
MEREDITH, Evan Powell 
MERIMEE, Prosper 
METCHNIKOV, Professor Il ya 
MEYER, Hans, Ph.D., LL.D. 
MIALL, Professor L. C., D.Sc., F.R.S. 
MICHELET, Jules, D. es L. 
MICHELET, Professor K. L., Ph.D. 
MIDDLETON, Conyers, D.D. 
MILELLI, Domenico 
MILL, James 
MILL, John Stuart 
MILLAR, Professor John 
MILLE, Constantin, LL.D. 
MILLER, Florence Fenwick 



MlLYUKOV, Professor P. N. 


MIRABEAU, Count H. G. V. E. 

MIRANDA, General Francisco 

MIRBEAU, Octave 

MITCHELL, Peter Chalmers, M.A., D.Sc., 

LL.D., F.E.S., O.B.E. 
MITTERMAIER, Professor K. J. A. 
MOLESCHOTT, Professor Jakob, M.D. 
MOLESWORTH, the Eight Honourable 

Eobert, F.E.S. 
MOLESWORTH, Sir William 

MOLIERE, Jean Baptiste Poquelin 
MOLTENO, Sir John Charles, K.C.M.G. 
MOMERIE, Professor A. W., M.A., D.Sc. 
MOMMSEN, Professor Theodor 
MONGE, Count Gaspard 
MONROE, J. E., M.D. 
MONSEY, Messenger, B.A. 
MONTAGU, Basil, M.A. 
MONTAGU, Lady Mary Wortley 
MONTAIGNE, Michel Eyquem de 
MONTGOMERY, Edmund, Ph.D. 


MOOK, Friedrich, Ph.D., M.D. 

MOORE, Professor Benjamin, M.A., D.Sc., 


MOORE, George 

MOORE, George Edward, Litt.D., LL.D. 
MOORE, John Howard, A.B. 
MORAITA, Professor Miguel 
MOREAU, Hegesippe 
MOREAU, J. J., M.D. 
MORELLI, Giovanni 

MORFILL, Professor W. E., M.A., Ph.D. 
MORGAN, Professor C. L. 
MORGAN, Thomas, M.D. 
MORGAN, Sir Thomas Charles, M.D. 
MORIER, the Eight Honourable Sir E. B. D. 

K.C.B., P.C., LL.D. 

MORISON, J. A. Cotter, M.A. 
MORLEY, Viscount 
MORRIS, Gouverneur. {Supplementary 


MORRIS, William 

MORRISON, George Ernest, M.D., C.M. 
MORSE, Professor E. S., A.M., Ph.D. 
MORSELLI, Professor E. A., M.D. 
MORTILLET, Adrien de 
MOSS, Arthur B. 
Mosso, Professor A., M.D. 
MOTLEY, John Lothrop, D.C.L. 
MOZART, Wolfgang Amadeus 
MUIRHEAD, Professor J. H., M.A., LL.D. 
MUNSTERBERG, Professor Hugo, Ph.D., 

MURCHISON, Sir Eoderick Impey, K.C.B., 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S. 
MURGER, Henri 


MURRAY, Professor Gilbert, M.A., LL.D., 

D.Litt., F.B.A. 
MUSSET, L. C. A. de 

NADEN, Constance 

NAIGEON, Jacques Andre ^ 

NANSEN, Professor Fridtjot, G.C.V.U., 

D.Sc., D.C.L., Ph.D. 
NAPIER, General Sir C. J., G.C.B. 
NAQUET, Professor Alfred, M.D. 
NEGRI, Senator Gaetano 
NELSON, Gustav, M.D. 
NEWCOMB, Professor Simon 
NEWLAND, H. Osman. [Supplementary 


NEWMAN, Ernest 
NEWMAN, Professor F. W. 
NEWNES, Sir George 
NlCHOL, Professor John, M.A., LL.D. 
NlCHOL, Professor John Pringle, LL.D., 


NiEBUHR, Professor B. G. 


NIGHTINGALE, Florence, O.M. 

NOIRE, Ludwig 

NOLDEKE, Professor T. 

NORDAU, Max, M.D. 

NORTON, Professor Charles Eliot, Litt.D., 

LL.D., D.C.L., L.H.D. 
NOTES, R. K., M.D. 
NYSTROM, A. K., Ph.D. 

O BRIEN, James 

O CONNOR, General Arthur Condorcet 

ODGER, George 

OERSTED, Professor H. C. 

O HIGGINS, General Bernardo 

OKEN, Professor Lorenz, M.D., Ph.D. 

OLDFIELD, Josiah, D.C.L. 

OMBONI, Professor G. 

OPPERT, Professor Jules, Ph.D. 


ORELLI, Professor J. K. von 

ORENSE, the Marquis 

ORTMANN, Professor A. E., Ph.D., Sc.D. 

OSLER, Sir William, M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., 

D.C.L., F.E.S. 
OSTWALD, Professor W., M.D. , Sc.D., LL.D. 

OSWALD, Eugene, M.A., Ph.D. 
OSWALD, Felix Leopold, M.D. 

OSWALD, John * -n -R c 

OVERSTREET, Professor H. A., A.B., 13. be. 
OVERTON, Richard. [Supplementary List\ 
OWEN, Robert 
OWEN, Robert Dale 


PAGANINI, Niccolo 

PAGANO, Professor F. M. 

PAGE, Professor David, LL.D. 

PAGET, Violet 

PAINE, Thomas 

PAINLEVB, Professor P. 

PALLAS, P. S., M.D. 

PALMEN, Baron Ernst 

PALMER, Courtlandt 

PALMER, Elihu 



PANIZZA, Professor Mario, M.D. 



PARE, William 

PARIS, Gaston, D. es L. 

PARKER, Professor E. H., M.A 

PARMELEE, Professor Maurice, A.M., i n.u 

PARNY, the Viscount E. D. 

PARRY, Sir C. Hubert Hastings, M.A.,. 


PARTON, James 
PASCOLI, Professor G. 
PASSERANI, Count A. R. de 
PASTORET, the Marquis C. b. J . 1 
PATER, Walter 
PATERSON, W. Romaine, M.A. 

PAYNE, John 

PEACOCK, John Macleay 

PEARSON, Professor Karl, M.A., L.JJ.C-, 

PELLETAN, Camille 


PELLETT, Thomas, M.D. 

PEMBERTON, Charles Reece 

PENZIG, Rudolph, Ph.D. 

PERIER, Casimir 

PERRENS, Professor F. T., D. es L. 

PERRIER, Professor J. O. E. [Supple 
mentary List] 

PESTALOZZI, Johann Heinrich 

PETZOLDT, Professor Joseph, Ph.D. 
PEYRARD, Francois 
PHELIPS, Vivian 


PHILLIPS, Sir Eichard 
PHILLIPS, Stephen 
PlCTON, James Allanson, M.A. 
PIERSON, Allard, D.D., Ph.D. 

PlLCHER, Edward John 
PlLLSBURY, Parker 
PiNEL, Professor P., M.D. 
PiRBRiGHT, Baron 

PITT, William 

PlTT, William, junior 

PLACE, Francis 

PLATE, Professor Ludwig, Ph.D. 

PLUMER, William 


POE, Edgar Allan 

POINCARE, Professor J. H., D.Math., Ph.D., 

Sc.D., LL.D., M.D. 
POINCARE, Professor Lucien, D.Sc. 
POINCARE, Raymond, D. en D., L. es L., 

President of the French Republic 
POLLOCK, the Right Honourable Sir 

Frederick, P.O., M.A., LL.D., D.C.L. 
POPE, Alexander 
POTVIN, Professor Charles 
POUCHET, Professor F. A. 
POUCHET, Professor H. C. G., M.D., 


POUGENS, M. C. J. de 
POWELL, Professor Frederick York, LL.D. 
PRADES, J. M. de 
PRELLER, Professor Ludwig 
PREMONTVAL, A. P. le Guay de 

PREVOST, Professor L. C., D. es L., D.Sci. 
PREVOST, Professor Pierre 
PREYER, Professor W. T. 
PROCTOR, Richard Anthony 
PSICHARI, Professor Jean 


PUTNAM, George Haven, A.M., LL.D. 

PUTNAM, Samuel Palmer 

PYAT, A. F. 


D. es Sci. 

QUENTAL, Anthero de 
QUESNAY, Fra^ois, M.D. 

QuiNET, Professor Edgar 

RABL, Professor Carl, M.D. 
RAMBAUD, Professor A. N., D. es L. 
RAMEE, Marie Louise de la 
RAMON Y CAJAL, Professor S., M.D. 
RAMSAY, Sir William, K.C.B., Ph.D., D.Sc., 

LL.D., M.D., F.R.S. 
RANG, Arthur 

RAPISARDI, Professor Mario 
RAU, Albrecht 
RAWLINSON, Sir Henry Creswicke, K.C.B. r 

D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
READ, Professor Carveth, M.A. 
READE, Winwood 
RECLUS, Professor Elie 
RECLUS, Professor J. J. Elisee 
RECLUS, Professor Paul, M.D. 
REGHILLINI, Professor Mario 

Count M. L. E. 
REID, Sir George Archdall O Brien, K.B.E. 

M.B., C.M. 

REIL, Professor J. C., M.D. 
REINACH, Joseph, L. en D. 
REINACH, Salomon 
REINACH, Professor Theodore, D. en Dr. r 

D. es L. 

REINHOLD, Professor E. C. G. 
REINHOLD, Professor K. L. 
REMUSAT, Count C. F. M. de 
REMUSAT, Professor J. P. A., M.D. 
REMUSAT, Count P. L. E. 
RENAN, Henriette 
RENAN, Ernest 
RENARD, Professor G. F. 
RHODES, the Right Honourable Cecil, P.C., 

M.A., D.C.L. 

RHYS, the Right Honourable Sir John 
RlBEYROLLES, Charles de 
RiBOT, A. F. J., L. es L., L. en D. 
RlBOT, Professor T. A., D. es L. 
RiCARDO, David 
RlCClARDi, Count Giuseppe 


ElCHAKDSON, Sir Benjamin Ward, M.A., 

M.D., LL.D., F.E.S. 

EiCHET, Professor Charles, M.D. 
EiCHTER, Jean Paul 
EiCKMAN, Thomas 

ElEHL, Professor Aloys, Ph.D., LL.D. 
EiGNANO, Eugenic 

EITCHIE, Professor D. G., M.A., LL.D. 
EIVET, Gustave 
EIZAL, Jose, M.D., Ph.D. 
EOALFE, Matilda 
EGBERTS, Isaac, D.Sc., F.E.S. 
EGBERTS, Morley 
EGBERTS, the Eev. E. [Supplementary 


EOBERTSON, George Groom 
EOBERTSON, the Eight Honourable J. M. 
EGBERT Y DE LA CERDA, Professor E. de 
EOBESPIERRE, Maximilien 
EOBIN, Professor C. P. 
EOBIN, Professor E. C. A. [Supplementary 


EOBINSON, Henry Crabb 
EOD, Edouard 
RODIN, F. Auguste, D.C.L. 
EOGEARD, Louis Auguste 
EOGERS, Professor J. E. Thorold, M.A. 
EOKITANSKY, Baron Karl von, M.D. 
EOLLAND, Professor Eomain, D. es L. 
EOMAGNOSI, Professor G. D., LL .D. 
EOMILLY, Sir Samuel 
EOMME, Charles Gilbert 
EoSE, Ernestine L. 
EOSENKRANZ, Professor J. K. F. 
EOSKOFF, Professor G. G. 
EOSNY, Joseph Henri 
ROSNY, Professor L. L. L. 
EOSS, Professor E. A., Ph.D., LL.D. 
ROSS, Sir Ronald, K.C.B., LL.D., D.Sc., 

M.D., F.E.S. 
Eoss, W. Stewart 
EOSSETTI, Dante Gabriel 
EOSTAND, Edmond 
EOTTECK, Professor K. "W. E. von 
ROUSSEAU, Jean Jacques 
EOYCE, Professor Josiah, Ph.D. 
EOYER, Clemence 

EUGE, Professor Arnold, Ph.D. 


EUSKIN, John, M.A., LL.D. 

EUSSELL, the Honourable Bertrand, M.A., 


EUSSELL, John, Viscount Amberley 
EYDBERG, Professor A. V. 

SAFFI, Aurelio, LL.D. 




SAINT LAMBERT, the Marquis J. F. de 

SAINT PIERRE, Bernardin de 

SAINT PRIEST, Count Alexis G. 

SAINT SIMON, Count C. H. de Eouvroy ae 

SAISSET, Professor E. E. 


SALEEBY, C. W., M.D.,F.E.S.E. 

SALLET, F. von 

SALMERON, Professor N. 

SALT, Henry 

SALTER, William M., A.M., B.D. 


SALVERTE, A. J. E. B. de 

SAND, George 

SANDERSON, Sir John Scott Burden, M.A., 

M.D., LL.D., D.Sc., F.E.S. 
SANDWICH, Earl of 
SANTA MARIA, Domingo, President of Chile 

SARCEY, Francisque 

SARDOU, Victorien 



SARS, Professor G. O., Ph.D. 


SAUNDERS, Thomas Bailey, M.A. 

SAUNDERSON, Professor N., M.A., LL.D., 


SAVARY, A. J. M. E., Due de Eovigo 
SAVILE, Sir George, Marquis of Halifax 

! SCHAFER, Sir E. A. S., M.D., Sc.D., LL.D., 


SCHELLING, Professor F. W. J. von 

SCHERER, Edmond, D.D. 

SCHILLER, F. C. S., M.A., D.Sc. 

SCHILLER, J. C. F. von. 


SCHMIDT, Professor E. O. 

SCHMIDT, Kaspar 


| SCROLL, Aurelien 







SCHWALBE, Professor G., M.D., D.Sc. 



SCHWENINGEE, Professor E., M.D. 

SCOTT, Thomas 

SCEIBE, Eugene 

SEAILLIES, Professor G., D. es L. 


SEELEY, Sir John Robert, K.C.M.G. 

SEIGNOBOS, Professor C., D. es L. 

SELLARS, Professor Roy Wood, A.B.,Ph.D. 

SELOUS, Sir F. C., D.S.O. 

SEMBAT, Marcel, LL.D. 

SEMEEIE, Eugene, M.D. 

SEMON, Professor R., Ph.D., M.D. 


SEEGI, Professor Giuseppe 

SETTLE, John. [Supplementary List] 


SEVEEN, Joseph 

SHAFTESBUEY, First Earl of 

SHAFTESBUEY, Third Earl of 

SHAW, George Bernard 


SHELLEY, Mary Wollstonecraft 

SHELLEY, Percy Bysshe 

SHOTWELL, Professor J. T., B.A., Ph.D. 

SICILIANI, Professor Pietro 

SIDGWICK, Professor Henry 

SIDNEY, Algernon 

SIEYES, Count E. J. 

SlMCOX, Edith 


SIMON, Jules 

SIMSON, Professor John, M.A. 

SINCLAIR, Upton, B.A. 


SLACK, Professor S. B., M.A. 

SLATEE, Thomas 

SMETANA, Professor A. 

SMITH, Adam, F.R.S. 

SMITH, G. A., B.A. 

SMITH, Gerrit 

SMITH, Professor Goldwin, M.A., D C L 


SMITH, Thomas Southwood, M.D. 
SMITH, Professor W. B., A.M Ph D 
SMITH, Professor W. Robertson, M A 

LL.D., D.D. 

SNELL, Henry. [Supplementary List] 
SNOILSKY, Count K. J. G. 
SNOWDEN, J. Keighley 



SOMEESET, Duke of 


SOEEL, Professor Albert 

SOELEY, Professor W. R., M.A., Litt.D., 


SOUEY, Professor J. A., D. es L. 
SPAVENTA, Professor B. 
SPENCEE, Herbert 

SPITZEE, Professor H., Ph.D., M.D. 
STACPOOLE, H. de Vere 
STAEL, Madame de 
STANHOPE, Lady Hester 
STANSFELD, the Right Honourable Sir 

James, P.C., B.A., LL.D. 
STANTON, Elizabeth Cady 
STABBUCK, Professor E. D., A.M., Ph.D. 
STEINEE, Franklin 
STEINMETZ, Professor S. R., Jur.D. 
STEINTHAL, Professor H. 
STEPHEN, Sir James Fitzjames, K.C.S.I., 

D.C.L., LL.D. 

STEPHEN, Sir Leslie, LL.D., Litt.D. 
STEVENSON, Robert Louis 
STOCKEE, Helene, Ph.D. 
STOUT, Professor G. F. 
STOUT, the Honourable Sir Robert 

K.C.M.G., LL.D. 
STEAUSS, David Friedrich 
STEAUSS, Richard 
STEUVE, Gustav von 
STUCK, Professor F. R. von 
SUE, Eugene 

SULLY, Professor James, M.A., LL.D. 
SUMNEE, Charles 
SUTTNEE, the Baroness von 
SWINBUENE, Algernon Charles 
SYEES, Edgar 
SYME, David 
SYMES, Joseph 
SYMONDS, John Addington 
SYMONS, Arthur 


TADEMA, Sir Lawrence Alma, Litt.D., 

D.O.L., K.A., O.M. 
TAILLIANDIER, Professor R. G. K 
TAINE, Professor Hippolyte, D. es L. 
TALANDIER, Professor A. 


TAMASSIA, Professor A. 

TARDE, Professor Gabriel 

TAROZZI, Professor Giuseppe 

TAYLOR, Helen 

TAYLOR, Robert 

TAYLOR, Thomas 

TAYLOR, William 



TEDDER, Henry Richard 

TEMPLE, the Right Honourable Sir William 





THIERS, Adolphe 

THILLY, Professor Frank, A.M., Ph.D., 


THOMPSON, Daniel Greenleaf 
THOMPSON, Sir Henry, F.R.C.S. 
THOMPSON, William 

THOREAU, Henry David 
THORILD, Professor Thomas 



THULIE, J. B. H., M.D. 


TlELE, Professor C. P., D.D. 

TiNDAL, Matthew, B.A., D.C.L. 

TisSERAND, Professor F. F. 

TiSSOT, Professor P. F. 

Tocco, Professor F. di 

TOLAND, John, M.A. 

TOLLEMACHE, the Honourable Lionel 

TOLSTOI, Count L. 

TONE, Theobald Wolfe, B.A., LL.B. 

T6NNIES, Professor F. 

TOOKE, John Home, M.A. 

TOPINARD, Professor Paul, M.D. 

TRACY, the Marquis Destutt de 

TRACY, Count Destutt de 
TRAVIS, Henry, M.D. 
TREE, Sir Herbert Beerbohm 
TRELAWNY, Sir J. S., B.A. 
TRENCH, Herbert 


TRENDELBURG, Professor F. A. 


TREVELYAN, George Macaulay 

TREZZA, Professor G. 

TRIDON, E. M. G., LL.D. 

TRUBNER, Nicholas 


TRUMBULL, General M. M. 

TSCHIRN, Gustav 

TUCKER, Abraham 


TURATI, Filippo, LL.D. 

TUCKETT, Ivor, M.D., M.A. 


TURGOT, Baron A. R. J. 

TURNER, Joseph Mallord William 

TURNER, Matthew 

TURPIN, Professor F. H. 

TYLOR, Sir Edward Burnett, D.Sc., D.C.L., 


TYNDALL, John, Ph.D., LL.D., F.R.S. 

UEBERWEG, Professor F., Ph.D. 
UHLAND, Professor J. L., LL.D. 
UHLICH, J. J. M. L. 
ULRICI, Professor Hermann 
UNDERWOOD, Benjamin 
UNNA, Professor P. G., M.D. 

VACHEROT, Professor Etienne, Ph.D. 


VALE, Gilbert 

VAMBERY, Professor A. 

VANCE, Edith Maurice. [Supplementary 


VANINI, Lucilio 
VANNUCCI, Professor Atto 
VAPEREAU, Louis Gustave 
VARISCO, Professor B. 
VATKE, J. K. W., D.D. 
VAUGHAN, Professor Henry Halford 
VAUVENARGUES, the Marquis de 
VEITCH, Professor John, LL.D. 
VERA, Professor Augusto, Ph.D. 
VERDI, Giuseppe 
VERNES, Professor Maurice, D.D. 
VERNET, Horace 
VERON, Professor Eugene 


VEBWOBN, Professor Max, Sc.D., Ph.D., 
M.D., LL.D. 

VlABDOT, Louis 

VlCO, Professor G. B. 

VlGNOLI, Tito 

VlGNY, Alfred de 

VlLLABl, Professor Pasquale 


VlBCHOW, Professor Eudolph, M.D. 

ViROLLEAUD, Professor C. G. 

VISCHER, Professor F. T. von 

VIVIANI, Rene Eaphael 


VLOTEN, Johannes von, D.D. 


VOGT, Professor Karl 

VOLKMAR, Professor Gustav 

VOLNEY, Count C. F. C. de 


VOSMAEB, Carel, LL.D. 

Voss, Professor J. H. 

Voss, Richard 

VOYSEY, Rev. Charles, B.A. 

VULPIAN, Professor E. F. A., M.D. 


WAGNER, W. Richard 

WAITE, C. B., A.M. 

WAITZ, Professor Theodor 


WAKEFIELD, Edward Gibbon 





WALKER, Ernest, M.A., D.Mus. 

WALKER, John, M.D. 

WALLACE, Alfred Russel, O.M., LL D 

D.C.L., F.R.S. 

WALLACE, Professor William, M.A. 
WALPOLE, Horace 
WALPOLE, Sir Robert 
WALSH, the Rev. Walter, D.D. 
WALTHER, Professor Johannes, Ph.D. 
WALWYN, William. [Supplementary List] 
WARD, Lester Frank 
WARREN, Josiah 
WARWICK, the Countess of 
WATSON, James 
WATSON, Sir William, LL.D. 
WATT, James, LL.D., F.R.S. 
WATTS, Charles 
WATTS, Charles Albert 
WATTS, George Frederick, R.A OM 


WATTS, John 

WATTS, John, Ph.D. 


WEBER, Karl Julius 

WEISMANN, Professor August, M.D. Ph D 
Bot.D., D.C.L. 

WEITLING, Wilhelm 


WELLS, Herbert George, B.Sc. 


WESTBURY, Baron, Lord Chancellor 

WESTERMARCK, Professor E. A., Ph D 

WESTLAKE, Professor John, B.A., LL D 

WESTON, S. B., A.B. 


WHALE, George 


WHISTLER, James M Neill 

WHITE, Professor Andrew Dickson M A 
LL.D., Ph.D., L.H.D., D.C L 

WHITE, William Hale 


WHITTAKER, Thomas, B.A. 

WHYTE, Adam Gowans, B.Sc. 

WlCKSELL, Knut, Ph.D. 

WiELAND, Christoph Martin 

WlGAND, Otto 


WiLCOX, Ella Wheeler 

WILKES, John, F.R.S. 

WILLE, Bruno, Ph.D. 

WILLIAMS, Sir Charles Hanbury 


WILLIAMS, Roger, B.A. 


WILLIS, Robert, M.D. 

WILSON, Andrew, Ph.D., M.B., F.R S E 

WILSON, David Alec 

WILSON, Sir Roland K., M.A., L.L M 

WILTON, Wyndham 
WINCKLER, Professor Hugo 
WISE, John Richard de Capel 
WlXON, Susan H. 
WOLLASTON, William, M.A. 
WOOD, Sir Henry J. 
WOOLNER, Thomas, R.A. 
WOOLSTON, Thomas, M.A., B.D. 
WRIGHT, Chauncey 
WRIGHT, Elizur 
WRIGHT, Michael 
WRITER, Clement 

WUNDT, Professor Wilhelm Max, M.D., 
Ph.D., Jur.D. 


WUNSCH, Professor C. E., Ph.D., M.D. 
WURTZ, Professor C. A., M.D. 

XlMENES, the Marquis A. L. 

YEARSLEY, Percival Macleod, F.R.C.S. 
YOUNGHUSBAND, Sir Francis Edward, 
K.C.S.I., K.C.I.E., C.I.E., LL.D., D.Sc. 


ZANGWILL, Israel, B.A. 

ZARCO, Francisco 

ZELLER, Professor Eduard 

ZERFFI, George Gustavus 

ZiEGLER, Professor H. E., Ph.D. 

ZIEGLER, Professor Theobald, Ph.D. 

ZIEHEN, Professor G. T., M.D., Ph.D. 


ZOLA, Emile 

ZORRILLA, Manuel Ruiz 

ZUEBLIN, Professor Charles, Ph.B., D.B. 

ZUPPETTA, Professor Luigi 


ABAUZIT, Firmin, Swiss writer. Born 
(France) Nov. 11, 1679. Educated Geneva. 
The Abauzifc family, of Arabic extraction, 
was Protestant, and the Revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes (1685) compelled it to fly 
from France to Switzerland. Firmin made 
brilliant progress in every branch of culture 
at Geneva, and he completed his education 
by a tour of Europe, in the course of which 
he won the esteem of Bayle, Newton, and 
many of the most distinguished men of the 
time. William III tried to retain him at 
London, but ho returned to Switzerland. 
He refused the offer of a chair in the 
Academy and all paid offices, and was for 
fifty years honorary librarian for the city 
of Geneva and one of the most eminent 
scholars in Europe. Leibnitz and Voltaire 
greatly esteemed him ; and Eousseau, who 
rarely praised anybody, inserts a remark 
able eulogium of Abauzit in his Nouvelle 
Heloise. His Deistic views are expressed in 
his Reflexions impartiales sitr les evangiles 
(1774), but his more pronounced manu 
scripts were burned by his heirs. There 
are English translations of his Miscellanies 
(1774) and his Essays (1823). Died March 
20, 1767. 

ABBE, Professor Ernst, German physi 
cist and philanthropist. B. Jan. 23, 1840. 
Ed. Jena and Gottingen Universities. After 
a few years as assistant at Gottingen 
University Observatory, he began, in 1863, 
to teach mathematics, physics, and astro 
nomy at Jena University, and in 1870 he 
was appointed professor. Eight years later 
he became Director of the Astronomical 

and Meteorological Observatories at Jena. 
His connection with the famous Zeiss 
optical works, the world-repute of which 
was mainly due to Abbe s discoveries, had 
begun in 1866. He was admitted to 
partnership in 1875 ; and in 1891, at the 
death of Zeiss, he became sole proprietor. 
Being a man of singularly high character 
and social idealism, Abbe then drew up 
one of the most generous schemes (the 
" Carl Zeiss Stiftung ") of profit-sharing in 
Europe. Indeed, he virtually handed over 
the immense concern to the workers and 
the University. Up to date the University 
has derived more than 100,000 from the 
scheme. Professor Haeckel, his intimate 
friend, describes him as " a Monistic philo 
sopher and social reformer, with just the 
same ideas and aims as the late Francisco 
Ferrer" (F. Ferrer, by Leonard Abbott, 
1910, p. 75). Abbe was one of the greatest 
promoters of optical science in the second 
half of the nineteenth century. D. Jan. 

ABBOT, Francis Ellingwood, American 
writer. B. Nov. 6, 1836. Ed. Harvard 
University and Meadville Theological 
School. He entered the Unitarian ministry 
in 1863, but abandoned it five years later 
and founded The Index, a journal of " free 
religious inquiry" or "scientific theism." 
It was transferred to Boston in 1874, and 
Abbot edited it until 1880. By his Im 
peachment of Christianity (1872) and other 
works, his journal, and his numerous 
lectures, he rendered great service to the 
cause of Rationalism (on Theistic lines) in 



the United States. He was first President 
of the American National Liberal League. 
D. 1903. 

ABBOTT, George Frederick, B.A., 

Hellenist, Knight Commander of the Hel 
lenic Order of the Eedeemer. Ed. Cam 
bridge (Emmanuel College), where he was 
prizeman in Greek. In 1900-1901 he 
investigated the folklore of Macedonia on 
behalf of his University, and he published 
the results in his Macedonian Folklore 
(1903). He has since written numerous 
volumes on Greece and Turkey, and his 
work has been honoured with a title by 
the Greek Government. His Philosophy 
of a Don (1911) contains much caustic and 
entertaining Eationalism. He deprecates 
aggressiveness on the genial ground that 
" the actual Ruler of the Universe compares 
very favourably with some of his predeces 
sors " (p. 31). 

ABBOTT, Leonard Dalton, American 
journalist. B. (Liverpool) May 20, 1878. 
He went to America in 1897 and joined 
the staff of the Commonwealth. Two years 
later he passed to the Literary Digest, and 
since 1905 he has been associate-editor of 
Current Literature (now Current Opinion}. 
Mr. Abbott was President of the Thomas 
Paine National Historical Association in 
1910, and he is one of the founders of the 
Rand School of Social Science and the 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society. He is 
President of the Free Speech League and 
the Francisco Ferrer Association. For 
many years he has worked devotedly for 
the poor of New York in the Ferrer School, 
and he edited the American memorial 
volume, Francisco Ferrer (1910). 

ABOUT, Edmond Francois Valentin, 

French novelist and dramatist. B. Feb. 
14, 1828. Ed. Ecole Normals, Paris, and 
Ecole Fran9aise d Athenes. About carried 
off the literary prize in his college against 
Victor Hugo, H. Taine, and F. Sarcey ; and 
his first published work, La grece contem- 
poraine (1855), led reviewers to compare 

him with Voltaire. He had had a thorough 
training in philosophy, but in 1854 he 
deserted abstract thought for fiction, and 
his Germaine (1857) and other brilliant 
novels soon put him in the front rank of 
his art. Many of his novels have appeared 
in English. He wrote also in the Figaro, 
under the name of Valentin de Quevilly, 
and produced several plays. He was an 
intimate friend of Prince Jerome Bonaparte, 
who was as anti-clerical as himself ; but 
he cordially accepted the Republic in 1871. 
" II n y a que les morts et les sots qui ne 
changent jamais," he said. About was 
admitted to the Legion of Honour in 1867, 
and to the Academy in 1884. His drastic 
rejection of all religious beliefs is best seen 
in his Question romainc (1859 ; English 
translation same year), which he wrote 
after spending some months in Rome. It 
is the most powerful exposure in any 
literature of the foul condition of the 
Papal States before 1870, and its style 
moved Scherer to describe the author as 
" the grandson of Voltaire." About says 
that an act of faith is "to close one s eyes 
in order to see better." D. Jan. 16, 1885. 

ACHELIS, Thomas, German ethno 
logist. B. June 17, 1850. Ed. Gottingen 
University. Achelis taught ethnology in 
a college at Bremen from 1874 until he 
died, devoting his attention particularly to 
the evolution of religion. He was associate- 
editor of the Lehrbucli der Eeligions- 
geschichte and editor of the Archiv fiir 
Beligionsivissenschaft. His numerous and 
weighty works include biographies of 
several distinguished German Rationalists. 
As he held a very high position in his 
science in Germany, he is often described 
as a Protestant ; but in his Adolf Bastian 
(1892) he entirely agrees with that eminent 
and thorough Rationalist. He quotes 
several pages of the most advanced heresy 
from Bastian s Mensch in der Geschichte 
[see BASTIAN] , and adds that, while this 
may seem to some poetical and extravagant, 
it is " from the scientific point of view an 
entirely sound conception " (p. 26) D. 1909. 



ACKERMANN, Louise Yictorine, 

Trench writer. B. Nov. 30, 1813. During 
a visit to Berlin she married a German 
pastor, Paul Ackermann, who became 
a Rationalist. He died two years after 
wards, and Mme. Ackermann settled at 
Nice. Her stories and pooms (Contes, 
1855 ; Contes et Poesies, 1863) won for 
her a high position in French letters. In 
her later years she lived at Paris, and her 
house was the centre for a brilliant group 
of writers (Caro, Aulard, Coppee, Sully 
Prudhomme, etc.). She was the most 
decidedly Agnostic of them all. Religions, 
she said, " impose antiquated and narrow 
beliefs which are entirely unsuitable for 
-a being who knows nothing and can affirm 
nothing" (Pensees d une solitaire, 1903 ed., 
p. 11 a fine study of her life is prefixed 
to this edition). On her tomb was inscribed 
her Agnostic verse: 

J ignore ! Un mot le seul par lequel je reponds 
Aux questions sans fin de mon esprit deyu. 
D. Aug. 2, 1890. 

ACOLLAS, Professor Emile Pierre 
Antoine Rene Paul, French jurist. B. 
June 25, 1826. At Paris, in his youth, he 
formed a society for the discussion of 
politics and religion, and was expelled for 
his advanced views by the reactionary 
authorities. He was appointed professor 
of law at Berne. In 1871 the Communal 
Government at Paris made him Dean of 
the Faculty of Law; but he declined. 
- Returning to France some years later, 
he was appointed Inspector-General of 
Prisons and admitted to the Legion of 
Honour. Professor Acollas edited La 
Science Politique and wrote La loi generale 
de revolution humaine and various legal 
works. D. Oct. 17, 1891. 

ACOSTA, Uriel, Jewish writer. B. 1591. 
Ed. Oporto. Acosta s family had, under 
pressure, embraced Christianity, and Uriel 
became Treasurer of an ecclesiastical college. 
Familiarity with the life and teaching of 
the Church drove him back to Jewish 
monotheism, and he fled to Holland. The 

continuance of his studies led him on to 
Deism, and he was so bitterly persecuted 
by both Jews and Christians that he took 
his life. His experience of orthodox charity 
is pathetically recorded in his autobio 
graphy, Exemplar Humana Vita D 
Apr., 1647. 

ADAM, Professor Charles, D. es L., 

French philosopher. B. Dec. 14, 1857. 
Ed. Sedan, St. Omer, Douai, and Paris. 
He occupied the chair of philosophy at, in 
succession, Toulon (1880-81), Bar-le-Duc 
(1881-82), Clermont-Ferrand (1882-83), 
Nancy (1883-85), and Dijon (1885-97)! 
Since 1902 Professor Adam has been 
Rector of the Nancy Academy and a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. He 
has edited the works of Descartes, and has 
written several notable volumes on philo 
sophy. In his valuable history of French 
philosophy (La philosophic en France, 
1894) he says : " Philosophy and politics 
leave theses to theology, which digs them 
up from a remote past, and are modestly 
content with hypotheses " (p. 437). 

ADAMS, Charles Francis, American 
historian, great-grandson of President J. 
Adams. B. May 27, 1835. Ed. Harvard 
University. He was admitted to the 
American bar in 1858, but the Civil Wai- 
drew him into the army. In 1865 he 
became brigadier-general and retired from 
the service. From 1884 to 1890 he was 
President of the Union Pacific Railroad 
Company, and for two years (1893-95) 
Chairman of the Massachusetts Park 
Commission. After 1894 Mr. Adams 
devoted himself particularly to American 
history. He was President of the Massa 
chusetts Historical Society in 1895, and of 
the American Historical Association in 
1901. In 1913 he lectured on American 
history at Oxford University. In a warm 
tribute to Sir Leslie Stephen, with whose 
ideal of character and culture he was in 
the closest sympathy, he says that, after 
reading An Agnostic s Apology in 1892, he 
chose Stephen as his "philosopher and 


guide" (Proceedings of the Mass Hist, i 
Soc., series 2, vol. xviii, pp. 254-56). 
lucid and independent writings and 
character gave him an eminent position : 
his State. D. Mar. 20, 1915. 

ADAMS, Francis William Lauderdale, 

Australian poet. B. Sep. 27, 1862. Ed. 
Shrewsbury School and Paris. After teach 
ing for two years at Ventnor Colleg. 
(I of W.) he went to Australia and joined 
the staff of the Sydney Bulletin. In 1885 
he published an autobiographical novel, 
Leicester, which attracted much attention, 
and in 1887 a volume of verse, Songs of 
the Army of the Night, which gave high 
promise of his future a promise unhappily 
extinguished by consumption. Several of 
his finest poems (especially To the 
Christians" and "The Mass of Christ", 
are very severe against Christianity, while 
they breathe an ardent human idealism. 
Mr. H. S. Salt edited his poems in 1910, 
including the remarkable " Mass of Christ " 
with the other poems. Throughout them 
runs a hectic scorn of " the bastard God " 
of the Churches. D. Sep. 4, 1893. 

ADAMS, John, second President of the 
United States. B. (of Devonshire ancestry) 
Oct. 30, 1735. Ed. Harvard. Admitted 
to the colonial bar in 1758, Adams soon 
became one of the leading politicians of 
Massachusetts, and took an active part m 
the movement for independence, 
seconded the original motion for the 
Declaration of Independence, and he was 
one of the most effective workers in 
various departments of the new Govern 
ment. For some years he represented 
the United States in France, Holland, and 
England (1785-88) ; and his Defence of the 
Constitution of the United States (3 vols., 
1787) rendered most valuable service to 
his country. He was Vice-President of 
the Eepublic from 1788 to 1796, and 
President from 1796 to 1800. The attempt 
that has been made to represent President 
Adams as other than an advanced Deist is 
frivolous. His grandson and biographer 


was a devout Unitarian, yet he cannot 
quite claim even the liberal tenets of 
Boston Unitarianism for the President. 
" In later years," he says, " he made a 
study of all religions and fixed his own 
theological convictions very much m the 
mould adopted by the Unitarians of I 
England" (Life of J. Adams, "-384). 
Professor Fiske more justly says : 
in life he was sometimes called a Unitarian, 
but of dogmatic Christianity he seems to 
have had as little as Franklin or Jefferson 
(article "Adams" in Appleton s Encyclo 
pedia). Adams s letters plainly indicate 
that he was a Deist to the close of 
life Jefferson, who was himself a Mate 
rialistic Deist, says of a letter about matter 
i and spirit which he received from Adams 
} (May 12, 1820) : " Its crowd of scepticism 
- kept me from sleep" (Memoir and Corre- 
i spondence of T. Jefferson, 1829, iv, 331). 
This letter seems to have been exclude 
from the official Works of J. Adams (edited 
by his grandson in ten volumes, 1856), but 
there are numerous other letters of his last 
years which show his scepticism, 
defines God as " an essence that we know 
nothing of" (Jan. 17, 1820), and calls the 
1 efforts of religious philosophers to get 
i beyond this vague Theism " games of 
push-pin " Of the Incarnation he writes 
(Jan 22, 1825) : " Until this awful blas- 
i phemy is got rid of, there never will 
any liberal science in the world." 
mood, far removed from Unitarianism, h 
died, a year later, on July 4, 1826. 

ADAMS, Robert, Canadian writer. 
B. 1839. Adams was the son of an 
American clergyman, and was in his boy 
hood very delicate, emotional, and religious. 
He was sent to sea for his health, and i 
the course of time became captain, 
later years he won a good position as a 
shipowner at Montreal. He retained 
fine sensitive character, and in 1 
startled Boston with a confession 
Radical Avowal) that conscience com 
pelled him to quit the Church. For many 
years he worked generously, by lectures. 



and contributions to Freethought journals, 
for the advancement of Rationalism in 
Canada. He published Travels in Faith 
from Tradition to Eeason (1884), and other 
works. In 1889 he was President of the 
Canadian Secular Union. D. Aug., 1902. 

ADAMSON, Professor Robert, Ph.D., 
philosopher. B. Jan. 19, 1852. Ed. Edin 
burgh University, where he took first-class 
honours in philosophy. After serving for 
some years as assistant to Professor 
Calderwood, then to A. C. Fraser, Adam- 
son was in 1876 appointed professor of 
philosophy and political economy at 
Owen s College, Manchester. In 1893 he 
passed from there to the chair of logic at 
Aberdeen University, and from 1895 until 
he died he was professor of logic at Glas 
gow University. He is rightly described 
in the Cambridge History of Modern 
Literature as "the most learned of con 
temporary philosophers " (vol. xiv, p. 48), 
and his character was as impressive as 
his culture. He worked devotedly for 
educational and social reform. Professor 
Adamson was an outspoken Agnostic, and > 
was a pure empiricist in regard to morals. 
In his numerous works he holds that mind j 
and matter are merely two aspects of a 
Monistic reality. In an essay on " Moral ! 
Theory and Practice" in Ethical Demo 
cracy (1900) he rules out even the most 
liberal notions of Deity as " intellectually 
unrepresentable" (p. 224), and he thinks : 
that "the world conquered Christianity" 
instead of Christianity conquering the 
world. There is an annual " Adamson 
Lecture " in his honour at Manchester 
University. D. Feb. 5, 1902. 

ADCOCK, Arthur St. John, poet and i 
novelist. B. Jan. 17, 1864. He definitely 
abandoned the law for literature in 1893, 
though he had before that time contributed 
short stories and essays to various maga 
zines. In 1894 he published An Unfinished 
Martyrdom and Other Stories, and his 
numerous volumes since that date have 
won for him a considerable position in 

letters. He ranges from East End Idylls 
(1897) or Admissions and Asides (1905) to 
Famous Houses and Literary Shrines of 
London (1913) and Songs of the World- 
War (1916). Mr. Adcock is Acting Editor 
of the Bookman. He contributed an 
interesting article to the R.P.A. Annual 
for 1920. 

ADICKES, Professor Erich, Ph.D., 
German philosopher. B. June 29, 1866. 
Ed. Tubingen and Berlin Universities. 
Adickes has been professor of philosophy 
at Tubingen since 1904. He had previously 
taught at Kiel (1898-1902) and Minister 
(1902-4). He is a Critical Empiricist, or 
moderate Kantian, and has published 
many important works on Kant. He was 
one of the prominent opponents of Pro 
fessor Haeckel in Germany ; but the 
polemic was stirred only by Haeckel s 
attacks on philosophy. In his Kant contra 
Haeckel he says : " I have no more belief 
than he in a personal extra-mundane God, 
a creation of the world by him, or an 
immaterial soul separated from the bodv " 
(p. D. 

ADLER, Professor Felix, Ph.D., Ameri 
can philosopher and founder of the Ameri 
can Ethical Movement. B. (Germany) 
Aug. 13, 1851. Ed. Berlin and Heidelberg 
Universities. On his return to New York, 
after completing his studies, young Adler 
was invited to succeed his father as Jewish 
rabbi. He was, however, a Rationalist, 
and refused to subscribe to the creed. 
In 1874 he became professor of oriental 
languages at Cornell University, and in 
1876 he founded the New York Society for 
Ethical Culture, the cradle of the American 
Ethical Movement. Through this Society 
Dr. Adler has organized a great deal of 
social and philanthropic work in New York, 
and he has sat on several Government 
Commissions on social questions. Since 
1902 he has been professor of social 
and political ethics at Columbia Uni 
versity, New York. In 1908-9 he was 
Roosevelt Professor at Berlin. He has 


written a number of Ethical-Eationalist 

AHRENS, Professor Heinrich, Ph.D., 
German jurist. B. July 14, 1808. Ed. 
Gottingen University, where he met, and 
adopted the Pantheistic philosophy of, 
K. F. C. Krause. In 1833 he began to 
lecture on German philosophy at Paris, 
and in the following year he became pro 
fessor of philosophy at Brussels. He was 
appointed Deputy to the Frankfort Parlia 
ment in 1848, and was prominent among 
the advanced liberals. In 1850 he was 
appointed professor of law and political 
science at Gratz University, and from 1860 
onward he was professor of practical philo 
sophy and politics at Leipzig. Ahrens 
founded a special school of law, and his 
Cours de droit naturcl (2 vols., 1838) and 
other works had high authority. D. Aug. 2, 

AIKENHE AD, Thomas, Scottish martyr. 
B. 1678. Ed. Edinburgh University. In 
his eighteenth or nineteenth year, while 
he was still at the University, Aikenhead 
adopted Deism, and was arrested for blas 
phemy. He said that Ezra had forged the 
Old Testament, that all theology was " a 
rhapsody of ill-contrived nonsense," and 
that Christ was merely human. After an 
appalling travesty of a trial he had no 
counsel, and the only witnesses were those 
of the prosecution ho was sentenced to 
death (Howell s State Trials, 1812, vol. xiii, 
pp. 917-38). In his History of England 
(iv, 783-86) Macaulay writes with glow 
ing indignation of the martyrdom. Under 
Scottish law, he says, the youth might 
have been imprisoned until he retracted, 
but Lord Advocate Stewart "called for 
blood." In his horrible and lonely position 
Aikenhead retracted, but the clergy, fearing 
the clemency of William III, pressed for 
his death, and he was hanged on Jan. 8, 

AIRY, Sir George Biddell, K.C.B., 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., Astronomer Eoyal. 



B. July 27, 1801. Ed. Colchester Grammar 
School and Cambridge University (Trinity). 
After a brilliant course of study Airy was 
in 1826 appointed professor of mathematics 
at Cambridge, and two years later he 
became professor of astronomy and Director 
of the Observatory. He was Astronomer 
Eoyal from 1835 to 1881, President of the 
Eoyal Society in 1872-73, and President 
of the Eoyal Astronomical Society for a 
quarter of a century. He was a man of 
exceptional industry and profound know 
ledge, and his services to the science of 
astronomy in England were very consider 
able. In 1872 he was made a Knight 
Commander of the Bath. He received also 
Eussian, Prussian, Swedish, and Brazilian 
decorations, besides innumerable honours 
and diplomas from learned societies. His 
two hundred and seventy-seven papers and 
numerous volumes deal with mathematical 
and astronomical subjects ; but in 1876 he 
startled the orthodox by the publication of 
his Notes on the Earlier Hebrew Scriptures, 
in which, while retaining Theism, he rejects 
revelation and miracles and accepts all the 
results of advanced critics. In the Preface 
he says : "It is scarcely necessary to say 
that I regard the ostensible familiarity of 
the [Biblical] historian with the counsels 
of the Omnipotent as mere oriental 
allegories" (p. vii). D. Jan. 2, 1892. 

AITZEMA, Lieuwe van, Dutch his 
torian. B. Nov. 19, 1600. He published 
a volume of poems (Poemata juvenilia, 1617) 
in his seventeenth year, and in later life 
he wrote a very valuable history of the 
Netherlands (14 vols., 1655-1671). Bayle 
observes in his Dictionary that the work 
is hostile to the Churches, and Eeimmann 
(Historia Universalis Atheismi, p. 479) 
describes the author as an Atheist. Aitzema 
represented the Hanseatic towns at the 
Hague from 1645 until his death, and he 
had a high repute throughout northern 
Europe for scholarship and integrity. D. 
Feb. 23, 1669. 

ALBEE, John, American writer. B. Apr. 



3, 1833. Ed. Phillips Academy, Andover, 
and Harvard Divinity School. Mr. 
Albee abandoned the orthodox theology in 
which he had been trained for the liberal 
Theism or Pantheism of Emerson, and he 
wrote an admiring work on the master 
(Remembrances of Emerson, 1903). "Growth 
ends with the birth of creeds," he said 
(p. 95). He published various other volumes 
of prose and verse. D. Mar. 24, 1915. 

ALCOTT, Amos Bronson, American 
reformer. B. Nov. 29, 1799. Ed. Wolcott 
common school. Adopting teaching as his 
profession, Mr. Alcott made such reforms 
in method that he won the title of " the 
American Pestalozzi." His outspoken 
Rationalism ruined his school at Boston, 
and he was in 1858 appointed Super 
intendent of the public schools of Concord, 
and in 1879 Dean of the Concord School 
of Philosophy. He was a prominent 
member of the Transcendentalist group, 
and was a more pronounced Theist than 
Emerson. In his later years he professed 
a vague ethical Christianity, but his writings 
and his eloquent and popular lectures con 
tributed materially to the growth of Ration 
alism in America. 1). Mar. 4, 1888. 

ALEMBERT, Jean le Rond d , Encyclo 
pedist. B. (Paris) Nov. 16, 1717. He 
was a foundling, an illegitimate son of 
the Commissioner of Artillery (who was 
facetiously known as " Canon " Destouches, 
so that some have wrongly represented him 
as a priest), and he received the name of 
the church, St. Jean le Rond, near which 
he was found. He afterwards adopted the 
name of D Alembert. His father settled 
an annuity on him, and he made brilliant 
studies in mathematics, law, and medicine. 
At college he wrote an essay on the Epistle 
to the Romans, which moved his clerical 
masters to declare him a second Pascal. 
From college he returned to the home of 
his foster-mother, the wife of a Parisian 
workman, and lived there in extreme sim 
plicity for thirty years. In his zeal for 
mathematics he refused to take up a pro- 

fession, and he soon became one of the most 
distinguished mathematicians in Europe. 
His Memoire sur le calcul integral (1739) 
was written in his twenty-third year. 
Three years later "he published his famous 
Traite de dijnamique, which revolutionized 
his science. He was admitted to the 
French Academy in 1741, and won the 
Prize Medal of the Berlin Academy in 
1746. In 1749 he solved the great problem 
of the precession of the equinoxes, and he 
explained the nutation of the earth s axis. 
Frederick of Prussia and Catherine of 
Russia in vain tried to seduce him from 
his humble lodging in Paris. He joined 
Diderot in issuing the Dictionnaire Encydo- 
pedique, for which he wrote the preliminary 
discourse. In his letters to Voltaire, which 
j were edited by Condorcet, he says that 
" scepticism " (or what is now called 
Agnosticism), not Atheism, is the correct 
attitude ; though he is confident that the 
" soul " is material and mortal. D Alem- 
bert s character and simple, generous life 
were as great as his learning, and he 
sketches a high social morality in his 
Elements de philosophic. D. Oct 29 

ALFIERI, Count Yittorio, Italian 
tragedian. B. Jan. 17, 1749. He spent six 
years (1766-72) travelling over Europe, 
and then devoted himself to the com 
position of tragedy. Between 1776 and 
1782 he produced fourteen tragedies of 
such merit that he is classed as one of the 
greatest Italian tragedians. The complete 
edition of his works comprises twenty-two 
volumes (1805-15). Three volumes of his 
tragedies were published in English in 
1815. Alfieri was a strong Republican 
and Rationalist, and a warm admirer of 
England. In his Delia Tirannide (2 vols., 
1801 see especially ch. viii) he rejects all 
religion, remarking that " the heretics are 
as stupid as the Catholics." D. Oct 8 

ALGAROTTI, Count Francesco, Italian 
writer. B. Dec. 11, 1712. Ed. Rome and 




Bologna Universities. At Paris, in 1732, 
Algarotti met, and became a friend of, 
Voltaire, and joined the Deistic school. 
He wrote a manual of Newtonian physics 
for women (II Newtonianismo per le dame, 
1733) and a number of greatly esteemed 
volumes on art, philosophy, poetry, physics, 
and history. Frederick the Great attracted 
him to his court of learning and made him 
Count and Chamberlain (1747). Augustus 
III of Saxony appointed him Councillor of 
War. His writings (10 vols., 1778-84) 
very freely express his Deism ; and Cardinal 
Ganganelli (afterwards Pope Clement XIV), 
who greatly admired him, tried in vain to 
convert him. "You are," the Cardinal 
wrote, " one of those rare men whom one 
would fain love even beyond the grave" 
(Von Reumont s Ganganelli, 1847, Br. 
Ixxii). There is a good recent biography 
of Algarotti by E. Northcott (F. Algarotti, 
1917). Frederick the Great erected a 
monument to him at Pisa. D. May 3, 

ALLBUTT, Sir Thomas Clifford, 

KGB M.A., M.D., D.Sc., LL.D., F.E.S., 

physician. B. July 20, 1836. Ed, St. 
Peter s, York, and Cambridge University 
(Caius), where he took first class in the 
Natural Science Tripos. Allbutt was 
physician to various institutions until 
1889, when he was appointed Commis 
sioner in Lunacy. In 1892 he resigned 
this position and became Regius Professor 
of Physic at Cambridge. He was Vice- 
President of the Royal Society 1914-16. 
He has sat on many Royal Commissions, 
has written many volumes on medicine, 
and has been Lane Lecturer, Goulstonian 
Lecturer, and Harveian Orator. He in 
vented the Short Clinical Thermometer. 
In his genial and learned Harveian Oration 
(Science and Medieval Thought, 1901) Sir 
Thomas expresses his mild but thorough 
dissent from the creeds. " I wonder," he 
says, " if we are glad that the riddle of the 
origin and issues of being, which tormented 
their eager hearts, is not solved, but proved 


ALLEN, Charles Grant Blairfindie, 

B.A., writer. B. (Canada) Feb. 24, 1848. 
Grant Allen was the son of a minister of 
the Irish Church who had emigrated to 
Canada. He was educated at first by his 
father, then by a tutor from Yale. In 
1862 he was sent to Europe, and studied, 
successively, at the College Imperial of 
Dieppe, the King Edward s School at 
Birmingham, and Oxford University (Mer- 
ton). From 1873 to 1876 he was professor 
of mental and moral philosophy in a college 
for the blacks at Spanish Town, Jamaica, 
where he developed his Agnostic and other 
radical views of life. On his return to 
England he devoted himself to journalism 
and letters. His Physiological ^Esthetics 
(1877), which he dedicated to Herbert 
Spencer, won for him considerable regard 
among students of science and philosophy, 
and he sustained this by his Vignettes from 
Nature (1881), The Evolutionist at Large 
(1881) The Colours of Flowers (1882), 
Colin Clout s Calendar (1883), and The 
j Evolution of the Idea of God (1897). He 
was greatly esteemed by Huxley and 
Darwin, and his refined character and 
wealth of culture endeared him to all the 
advanced thinkers of his day. After 1883 
he wrote a number of novels and guide 
books, and published some verse. His 
Agnosticism is best seen in a posthumous 
collection of essays (The Hand of God, 
! 1909) published by the E. P. A. D. 
Oct. 28, 1899. 

ALLEN, Colonel Ethan, American 
politician. B. Jan. 10, 1737. As Colonel 
of the "Green Mountain Boys," Allen 
played an important part in the War of 
Separation, and he was afterwards a 
member of the Vermont State-Legislature. 
In 1781 he issued what seems to have 
been the first anti-Christian publication in 
America, Reason the Only Oracle of Man. 
A statue has been raised in his honour at 
Montpelier (Vermont). D. Feb. 13, 1789. 

ALLEN, John, M.D., writer. B. Feb. 3, 
1771. Ed. Edinburgh University. He 



practised and lectured at Edinburgh until 
1801, when he accompanied Lord Holland 
and his family to Spain, remaining four 
years there with them. For the remainder 
of his life lie was one of the wits and 
most familiar habitues of Holland House, 
London. He was known as " Lady 
Holland s Atheist," and was " a complete 
sceptic," doubting if Christ had ever 
existed (Greville s Memoirs, v, 157). He 
contributed to the Edinburgh Review, and 
he wrote a standard Inquiry into the Eise 
and Growth of the Royal Prerogative in 
England (1830). From 1811 to 1820 he 
was Warden, and from 1820 to 1843 
Master, of Dulwich College. D. Apr. 10, 

ALLINGHAM, William, Irish poet. 
B. Mar. 19, 1824. Ed. private schools in 
Ireland. At the age of fourteen he entered 
his father s bank, and in 1846 passed to 
the Irish Civil Service. His Poems (1850) 
and Day and Xight Songs (1854) won him 
the friendship of Leigh Hunt, Eossetti, 
Tennyson, and other distinguished poets, 
and in 1863 he transferred to the English 
Customs. In 1865 he issued his chief 
volume of verse, Fifty Modern Poems. In 
1870 lie retired from the Civil Service and 
became sub-editor of Eraser s Magazine. 
He succeeded Froude as editor in 1874. 
His Diary (1907) is particularly interesting 
as a record of conversations (especially 
with Tennyson and Eossetti) which often 
turned on religion. He represents both 
himself and Tennyson as completely scep 
tical. " The secret [of man s condition 
and destiny] is kept from one and all of 
us," he says (p. 149); and he is dis 
appointed " to find a great poet [Tennyson] 
with no better grounds of comfort than 
a common person " (p. 317). " I will have 
nothing to do with any form of Chris 
tianity," he says elsewhere ; and, though 
he professed Theism, he maintained that 
" we cannot in the least describe, or 
comprehend, or even think Deity." He 
had, at his request, a secular funeral 
service, a friend reading his fine words : 

Body to purifying flame, 

Soul to the Great Deep whence it came, 

Leaving a song on earth below, 

An urn of ashes white as snow. 

D. Nov. 18, 1889. 

ALLMAN, Professor George Johnston, 

LL.D., D.Sc., F.E.S., Irish mathematician. 
B. Sep. 28, 1824. Ed. Trinity College, 

; Dublin, where he was senior moderator 

I and gold medallist in mathematics, and 
Bishop Law s mathematical prize-man. He 

i graduated in law in 1854, but he preferred 
mathematics, and was professor at Queen s 

| College, Galway, from 1853 to 1893. He 
was also a member of the Senate of Queen s 
University and the Eoyal University of 
Ireland. Professor Allman w r as an earnest 
and high-minded Positivist, but his aca 
demic position in an Irish college prevented 
him from taking open part in the movement 
(Positivist Review, July, 1904). D. May 9, 

ALLSOP, Thomas, reformer. B. Apr. 
10, 1795. Ed. Wirksworth Grammar 
School. Allsop was a business man of 
literary tastes who in 1818 became a 
friend of Coleridge. He is known as Cole 
ridge s "favourite disciple," but it was the 
radical opinions of the poet s youth which 
he shared. See his Letters, Conversations, 
and Recollections of S. T. Coleridge (1836). 
He had a passion for reform and enlighten 
ment, and was much esteemed by Eobert 
Owen, Mazzini, and Holyoake. In adver 
tising for a country house he said that 
preference w 7 ould be given to one which 
had no church or clergyman within five 
miles (Diet. Nat. Biog.). With Holyoake 
he attended Owen s funeral, and, when he 
learned that they were compelled to have 
the Church service, he complained bitterly 
of this mummery of an outworn creed " 
over the remains of a man who had spent 
a life in freeing his fellows from " the 
degradation of superstition" (Holyoake s 
Life and Last Days of R. Owen, p. 17). 
D. Apr. 12, 1880. 




ALTMEYER, Professor Jean Jacques, 

Ph.D., D.C.L., Belgian writer. B. Jan. 
24, 1804. Ed. Luxemburg Athenaeum and 
Louvain University. He was appointed 
professor of rhetoric at Ypres, but he 
abandoned the Church of Rome, and in 
1834 he took the chair of history at the 
Brussels Free University. Altmeyer was 
prominent among the early workers for 
Rationalism and enlightenment in Belgium. 
He wrote a number of historical works, 
the chief of which is his Rationalistic 
Introduction to the Philosophical Study of 
the History of Humanity (1836). The 
King of Denmark honoured his work with 
a gold medal. D. Sep. 15, 1877. 

ALYIELLA, Count d . See GOBLET, F. 

AMARI, Professor Michele, Italian 
historian and statesman. B. July 7, 1806. 
In 1830, while he was in the Civil Service, 
Amari translated Scott s Marmion, and in 
1842 he published a warmly anti-clerical 
history of the Sicilian Vespers, for which 
he was compelled to fly to France. He 
returned to Sicily at the Revolution of 
1848 and became Minister of Finance. 
He was compelled again to leave the 
country at the collapse of the Revolution, 
but he returned with Garibaldi in 1859, 
and was appointed professor of Arabic at 
Palermo. In 1862 he became Minister of 
Public Instruction and Senator. He was 
a consistent and powerful Rationalist. 
D. July 16, 1889. 

AMICIS, Edmondo de, Italian writer. 
B. Oct. 21, 1846. Ed. Cuneo, Turin, and 
the Modena Military Academy. He served 
in the war against Austria and the Papacy, 
and assisted in propaganda. He edited 
Italia Militare in 1867, and wrote his first 
book, La Vita Militare, in 1868. After 
the recovery of Rome from the Papacy he 
quitted the army and devoted himself 
entirely to letters. De Amicis became 
one of the most extensively read Italian 
authors of the last three quarters of a 
century" (Athen&um), and his literary 


distinction was not less than his popularity. 
His Cuore (Heart), which passed through 
300 editions in Italian and was translated 
into twenty other languages, is a beautiful 
story for boys. He was deeply interested 
in education, especially on the ethical side, 
and wrote many stories to promote it. 
He was an Agnostic, as he freely expresses 
in his Memorie (1898). He rejects the 
hope of immortality, and is merely 
"fascinated and tormented by the vast 
mystery of life" (p. 355). D. Mar. 12, 

AMIEL, Henri Frederic, Swiss writer. 
B. Sep. 27, 1821. A descendant of an 
exiled Huguenot family, Amiel devoted 
himself to the study of German philosophy, 
and in 1849 he \vas appointed professor of 
aesthetics at Geneva Academy. In 1854 
he was promoted to the chair of moral 
philosophy. His famous work, the Journal 
Intime (published 1883-81), which is fami 
liar to mystical readers all over Europe, is 
a beautiful expression of a mind that rejects 
Christianity with pain and regret. He 
remains theistic and mystic, yet his 
scepticism is profound. " The apologies 
of Pascal, Leibnitz, and Secretan," he 
says, " seem to me to prove no more than 
those of the Middle Ages." D. Mar. 11, 

ANDERSON, George, philanthropist. 
B. 1824. Anderson was a self-made man 
who prospered in business and very 
generously supported advanced movements. 
He was a personal friend of Bradlaugh, 
Holyoake, and Watts, and one of the 
founders of the Rationalist Press Associa 
tion. The first issue of cheap reprints by 
the Association was made possible by a 
generous gift from him of 2,000. He 
gave with equal liberality to hospitals and 
other charitable institutions. D. Aug. 12, 

ANDREWS, Stephen Pearl, American 
reformer. B. Mar. 22, 1812. Ed. Am- 
herst College. Andrews won a consider- 




able position and fortune at the Texas bar, 
but he sacrificed it to his zeal for the 
abolition of slavery, and was forced to 
leave the State. He came to England to 
raise funds for the liberation of the slaves 
of Texas, and then returned to take part 
in the great struggle at Boston. He was 
a remarkable linguist, having a command 
of thirty-two languages, including Sanscrit, 
Hebrew, Chinese, Greek, and Latin. He 
invented a univei^sal language (called 
" Alwato ") and a universal religion, which 
he expounds in his Basic Outline of Univer- 
sologij (1872) and The Church and Religion 
of the Future (1886). Andrews, who con 
tributed frequently to the New York Truth- 
seeker, was a member of the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences and the 
American Ethnological Society. D. May 
21, 1886. 

ANGELL, Norman. Sec LANE, R. N. A. 

ANGIULLI, Professor Andrea, Italian 
Positivist. B. Feb. 12, 1837. Ed. Naples 
and Berlin Universities. After a few years 
as professor of anthropology at Bologna, 
Angiulli was in 1876 appointed to the 
chair of paedagogy at Naples University. 
He is head of the Neapolitan Positivist j 
School, and has written many works on 
philosophy and education. In La Filosofia 
e la Ricerca Positiva (1869) he says : " The 
new religious consciousness will be superior 
to Catholicism, Protestantism, and Chris 
tianity, because it will be the Religion of 
Humanity " (p. 150). 

ANNET, Peter, Deist. B. 1693. Annet 
was one of the blunt, courageous men of 
the early eighteenth century who dared to 
provoke critical reflection on religion in an 
age of tyranny. He was a schoolmaster 
at Liverpool, but in 1739 he issued a 
pamphlet (Judging for Ourselves, or Free- 
thinking the Great Duty of Religion] in 
which he boldly attacked Christianity. 
This was followed by others, and he lost 
his position. He came to London, and 
was for years one of the most outspoken 

spirits of the Robin Hood Society. In 
1761 he founded a periodical, The Free 
Inquirer, and for its " blasphemies " he 
was, at the age of sixty-eight, condemned 
to the pillory and a year s hard labour. 
He afterwards kept a small school. Annet 
invented a system of shorthand. D. Jan. 
18, 1769. 

ANNUNZIO, Gabriele d , Italian poet, 
novelist, and tragedian. B. 3863. Up to 
the age of sixteen D Annunzio did not 
attend school, yet in that year, when he 
first came under a teacher, he published 
his first volume of verse (Primo Vere, 1879), 
including translations from the Latin, 
which brought great praise from the 
critics. Five further volumes appeared in 
the next ten years. In 1889 he published 
his first novel, II Piacere, and was at once 
recognized as a remarkable artist. His 
earlier novels show the influence of Bourget 
and Maupassant. The later novels (II 
Trionfo della Mortc, etc.) follow rather the 
standard and spirit of the Russian school ; 
while his tragedies and dramas suggest the 
Greek spirit and seek to restore Greek 
ideals to the stage. He is generally recog 
nized in Italy as the greatest writer since 
the Renaissance, and the literary move 
ment he leads is known as the Renaissance 
(Risorgimento). He is, however, as much 
concerned with a philosophy as an art, 
and it is purely pagan, disdainful of all 
religion. D Annunzio aims at "the re- 
establishment of the worship of man"; 
not in the religious and ethical sense of 
the Positivists, but in the sense of an 
appreciation of beauty and power and 
culture. His bravery and endurance during 
the War sufficiently answered those who 
spoke of him as " decadent." He is one 
of the most artistic writers in Europe. 

ANTHONY, Susan Brownell, American 
reformer. B. (of Quaker parents) Feb. 15, 
1820. Miss Anthony taught in a New 
York school from 1835 to 1850, and in the 
later forties she began to take a prominent 
part in the Abolitionist, Temperance, and 


Feminist movements. She had a large 
share in securing for American women the 
possession of their earnings and the 
guardianship of their children, and few 
names are more honoured than hers is 
among the advanced women of America. 
She was, like so many of the women 
pioneers, an Agnostic, and in the History 
of Woman Suffrage (3 vols., 1881-87), 
which she and Mrs. Gage wrote, the 
Churches are not spared. See The Life 
and Work of S. B. Anthony (2 vols., 1898- 
99), by Ida H. Harper. D. Mar. 13, 1906. 

ANTONELLE, Pierre Antoine, Mar 
quis d , French political economist. B. \ 
1747. He was an officer in the army who 
embraced the ideas of the philosophers j 
and wrote a Catcchisme du Tiers-Etat j 
(1789). During the Eevolution he con 
tributed to the Journal des Homines Librcs, \ 
but he was banished from Paris for his 
complicity in Babeuf s plot. The remainder 
of his life was devoted to the tranquil 
study of philosophy, and at his death the 
clergy declined to give him the Christian 
burial which his relatives desired. D. 
Nov. 26, 1817. 

APELT, Professor Ernst Friedrich, 

German philosopher. B. Mar. 3, 1812. 
Ed. Jena and Leipzig Universities. From 
1831 to 1839 he was absorbed in the 
private study of mathematics and philo 
sophy, and in the latter year he began to 
teach philosophy at Jena University. He 
became extraordinary professor in 1840, 
and ordinary professor in 1845. His 
Epochen der Gcschichte der Menschheit 
(2 vols., 1845-46), Religionsphilosophie 
(1860), etc., gave him a high reputation, 
and after the death of Fries he was regarded 
as the leader of the " ^Esthetic Eationalist 
School" which on the religious side 
means a very liberal Theism. D. Oct. 27, 

ARAGO, Dominique Francois Jean, 

French physicist. B. Feb. 26, 1786. Ed. 

Ecole Polytechnique, Paris. Arago, reared 



in the finest spirit of the Eevolution, joined 
the staff of the Observatory, and in 1806 
he was appointed to take part in the 
important work of measuring an arc of 
the terrestrial meridian as a basis of the 
metrical system. For his brilliant work 
he was, by a suspension of the age limit, 
admitted to the Academy at the early age 
of twenty-three, and he was appointed 
professor at the Polytechnic and Director 
of the Observatory. His papers, which 
fill seventeen volumes (1854-62), represent 
a remarkable series of services to science, 
especially in optics and electro-magnetism. 
He invented the polariscope and other 
instruments, and he was the first French 
man to receive the Copley Medal of the 
Royal Society. He belonged to most of 
the learned societies of Europe. Eminent 
as he was in science, Arago never relaxed 
in his humanitarian creed. He joined the 
Anti-Clericals in the French Parliament 
after the Eevolution of 1830, and after the 
Eevolution of 1848 he accepted the port 
folio of War and Marine. For his thorough 
Eationalistic sentiments one must read 
his letters to Alexander von Humboldt, 
a kindred spirit (Correspondance d Alex- 
andre de Humboldt avec F. Arago, 1907). 
D. Oct. 2, 1853. 

ARAGO, Etienne Vincent, French 
dramatist, brother of preceding. B. Feb. 
9, 1802. Etienne adopted literature as 
his profession, and co-operated with Balzac 
in some of his early works. From 1822 
to 1847 he wrote plays for nearly all the 
Parisian theatres, and was extremely 
popular. A Eepublican and Eationalist 
like his brother, he took an active part in 
the Eevolutions of 1830 and 1848, and for 
his share in the latter he was expelled 
from France. He returned in 1859, and 
he was one of the most ardent critics of 
the Government s policy of supporting the 
Pope. During the fourth Eevolution he 
was again active, and was Mayor of Paris 
during the siege. D. Mar. 5, 1892. 

ARAGO, Francois Victor Emmanuel, 




French lawyer and statesman, son of 
D. F. J. Arago. B. Aug. 6, 1812. He at 
first turned to letters, but at an early age 
lie deserted literature for the bar and 
became a distinguished lawyer. As he 
fully shared the opinions of his father and 
uncle, he took part in the Revolution of 
1848, and he afterwards joined the advanced 
anti-clerical group which attacked the 
clerical policy of the Government in the 
Chambre. In 1871 he was elected a 
member of the Provisional Government, 
and he sat in the National Assembly from 
1871 to 1876. From the Chambre he 
passed in the latter year to the Senate, 
and from 1880 to 1894 he was French 
ambassador to Switzerland. D. Nov. 26 

ARANDA, Pedro Pablo Abaraca y 
Bolea, Count d , Spanish statesman. B. 
Dec. 18, 1718. After some years in the 
army, and then as ambassador to Poland, 
he became Governor of Valencia (1764) 
and President of the Council of Castile and 
First Minister of Spain (1765). Thoroughly 
imbued with the ideas of Voltaire (with 
whom he corresponded) and the other 
French humanitarians, he carried out 
a large number of reforms and regenerated 
his decaying country. He curbed the 
excesses of the monks, lessened the power ! 
of the Inquisition, and expelled the Jesuits 
(1767). The clergy drove him from office, j 
and they repeated the intrigue when he 
was recalled to power in 1792. Count 
d Aranda, one of the greatest and most i 
enlightened of Spanish statesmen, was j 
imprisoned at Granada and threatened 
with trial by the Inquisition, though the i 
plot was defeated, and he lived quietly on 
his estate for a few years. D. Jan. 9, 1798. 

ARBUTHNOT, Forster Fitzgerald, 

orientalist. B. May 21, 1833. Ed. Anhalt j 
and Geneva. He was in the Indian Civil 
Service 1853-1878, and on his return to 
England he joined Burton in the Kama 
Shastra Society for the issue of unexpur- 
gated translations of Eastern works. He 

initiated the Oriental Translation Fund 
(1891), and was a trustee of the Royal 
Asiatic Society. A very generous and 
philanthropic man, his memory is preserved 
in the Arbuthnot Institute at Shenley 
Green. He was an Agnostic (personal 
knowledge, and see the dedication to vol. ii 
of The Assemblies of Al Hariri, 1898). D. 
May 25, 1901. 

ARCHER, William, M.A., dramatic 
critic. B. Dec. 23, 1856. Ed. Edinburgh 
University. After a period of journalism 
in Edinburgh and a short stay in Australia 
he settled in London in 1878. He was 
dramatic critic of the Figaro 1879-81, and 
was called to the bar (Middle Temple) in 
1883. Pie continued to be dramatic critic 
on, in succession, the World (1884-1905), 
the Tribune, the Nation, and the Star. 
Besides his own numerous works (notably 
Eeal Conversations, 1904, and The Life, 
Trial, and Death of Francisco Ferrer, 1911), 
he has translated most of Ibsen s plays, 
and he has edited Ibsen s Prose Dramas 
(5 vols., 1890) and Collected Works (11 
vols., 1906, etc.). He has also translated 
works of Maeterlinck, Kielland, Haupt- 
mann, Brandes, etc. His Agnostic views 
are best given in his God and Mr. Wells 
(1918). Mr. Archer is an Honorary Asso 
ciate of the Rationalist Press Association, 
and a fearless and powerful advocate of 
advanced causes. He has contributed to 
the E. P. A. Annual for many years. 

ARDIGO, Professor Roberto, Italian 
philosopher. B. Jan. 28, 1828. He 
became a Catholic priest (1851) and canon 
of Mantua Cathedral (1863), but a profound 
study of philosophy emancipated him, and 
he left the Church in 1870 to become the 
most learned and most honoured leader of 
the Italian Positivists. In 1881 he was 
appointed to the chair of philosophy at 
Padua University, though the clergy 
denounced this "glorification of Atheism." 
Ardigo was a man of austere and lofty 
ideals and an original thinker. His works 
(Opere filosofiche, 11 vols., 1882-1912) 



show a rejection throughout of all religious 
ideas, except in the Positivist sense. See ! 
Prof. G. Marchesini, La Vita e il Pensiero 
di E. Ardigo (1907). D. Feb., 1906. 

ARGENS, Jean Baptiste de Boyer, j 
Marquis d , French writer. 13. June 24, 
1704. After some years experience of the 
army, diplomacy, and la\v, he took to letters, 
adopting Bayle as his model. His Ration 
alistic Lettres juives (8 vols., 1754) and 
subsequent Lettres chinoises and Lettres 
cabalistiques had a wide circulation. 
Frederick the Great made him a Cham 
berlain, and Director of Fine Arts at 
Potsdam (1740). His Philosophie du bon 
sens (3 vols., 1768) and most of his works 
satirize the current religion, though he 
was not free from mysticism. Clerical 
writers stated that he was " converted " 
before death, but his widow refuted the 
charge. D. June 11, 1771. 

ARGENSON, Marc Pierre de Yoyer 
de Paulmy, Count d , French statesman. 
B. Aug. 16, 1696. He was a lieutenant of 
the police in 1720, then Governor of 
Touraine and State-Councillor. In 1740 
he became Governor of Paris, and in 1742 
Minister of War. D Argenson rendered 
great services to his country and to en 
lightenment, and D Alembert and Diderot 
dedicated to him their famous Dictionnaire 
Encyclopedique (1751). Voltaire had been 
at school with him, and was an intimate 
friend throughout life. He was a member 
of the Academy of Sciences and the 
Academy of Inscriptions. D. Aug. 22, 

ARGENSON, Rene Louis de Yoyer 
de Paulmy, Marquis d , French states 
man and brother of Marc Pierre. B. 
Oct. 18, 1694. He was Governor of 
Hainaut 1720-24, State-Councillor 1724- 
44, and Minister of Foreign Affairs 
1744-47. An intimate friend of Voltaire, 
D Alembert, and Condillac, he advocated 
the most advanced humanitarian reforms 
in government, and was honoured with the 

acrid hostility of the clergy. His Essais 
and Memoires sufficiently betray his Deism ; 
and he co-operated in writing the Histoire 
du droit publique ecclesiastique Frangais 
(1727), which was a powerful anti-clerical 
implement. D. Jan 26, 1757. 

ARGENTAL, Charles Augustin de 
Ferriol, Count d , French diplomatist. 
B. Dec. 20, 1700. He was a Counsellor of 
the Paris Parlement from 1741 to 1768, 
and representative of the Due de Parma at 
the French Court 1759-63. The Count 
had been a fellow pupil of Voltaire at the 
College of Louis le Grand, and he remained 
an intimate friend until death, assisting 
Voltaire in the Galas case and other 
matters. D. Jan. 5, 1788. 

ARMELLINI, Carlo, Italian statesman. 
B. 1777. He studied law and attained 
great distinction in the Italian courts. 
Pope Pius VII made him a Consistorial 
Advocate at the Papal Court, and he was 
a Councillor of the Roman Court of Appeal. 
He was, however, an ardent reformer, and 
in 1848 he joined the triumphant Anti- 
Papals. He became Minister of the In 
terior after the flight of Pius IX, and 
presided at the opening of the Constituent 
Assembly. Mazzini made him a member 
of the Executive Committee of the Roman 
Republic, and he formed the Triumvirate 
with Saliceti and Montecchi, and afterwards 
with Saffi and Mazzini. At the restoration 
of the Pope by the French he retired to 
Belgium. D. 1863. 

ARMSTRONG, Professor Henry Ed 
ward, Ph.D., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S., chemist. 
Professor Armstrong declines to believe 
that the public are interested, or ought to 
be interested, in his biographical details. 
He is Emeritus Professor of Chemistry at 
the City and Guilds College, South Ken 
sington, and he holds the Davy Medal of 
the Royal Society (awarded in 1911) and 
other high honours. He is one of the 
most distinguished organic chemists in 
Europe, and has written important works 



on his science. He has also written on 
education, in which he takes a deep and 
critical interest. In an article entitled 

Let Us Help Ourselves," in the Humanist, 
February, 1918, he makes a strong pro 
fession of his purely humanitarian faith. 
Glory to Man in the highest," he con 
cludes, in Swinburne s well-known words. 
See also his article on "The Outlook 
for Reason" in the B. P. A. Annual for 

ARNOLD, Sir Edwin, K.C.I.E., M.A., 
poet. B. June 10, 1832. Ed. Rochester, 
King s College (London), and Oxford Univer 
sity (University College). He won the New- 
digate Prize in 1852, and in the following 
year published his Poems, Narrative and 
Lyrical. For a time he taught at King 
Edward s School, Birmingham, and in 1856 
he was appointed Principal of the Deccan 
College, Poona, where he made his 
sympathetic studies of Indian literature. 
In 1861 he returned to England and joined 
the staff of the Daily Telegraph; and he 
edited that journal from 1873 to 1889. ! 
In 1879 he published the epic poem, The 
Light of Asia, which, by its beautiful pre- ! 
sentation of Buddha, contributed materially ! 
to the Rationalist education of England. I 
It was vehemently attacked in the religious 
press. For this and some of his later i 
works Sir Edwin received the decorations i 
of the White Elephant of Siam, the Lion I 
and the Sun of Persia, the Rising Sun of 
Japan, the Medjidieh and Osmanieh of 
Turkey, and various other countries. He 
was created Knight Commander of the 
Indian Empire in 1888. His personal 
heterodoxy is most clearly expressed in his 
little work, Death and Afterwards (1887). 
He thinks that those are " enviable " who 
find, or affect to find, in the authority or 
the arguments of any extant religion, 
sufficing demonstration of a future exis 
tence " (p. 10). The Christian doctrine he 
emphatically rejects, and he is content to 
make various speculations about what he 
regards as a mere possibility. D Mar 24 

ARNOLD, Matthew, poet and critic. B. 
Dec. 24, 1822. Ed. Winchester, Rugby, 
and Oxford (Balliol). Arnold was the 
eldest son of the famous master of Rugby. 
1 He won the Newdigate Prize in 1843, and 
became a fellow of Oriel in 1845. After 
j teaching for a time at Rugby, he went as 
secretary to the Marquis of Lansdowne, 
who in 1851 obtained for him an inspector- 
, ship of schools. In the following year he 
published, under the initial "A," the poem 
; Empedocles on Etna, which he was com 
pelled by the hostility of the orthodox to 
i withdraw after the sale of fifty copies. As 
the name of the Greek hero suggests, it 
; was a poetic presentation of a Pantheistic 
philosophy. In 1853 he published Poems 
I by Matthew Arnold, and other volumes of 
! verse were issued later. From 1857 to 
1867 he was professor of poetry at Oxford. 
His fame as a critic began with the pub 
lication of his Essays in Criticism in 1865, 
including a brilliant chapter on Heine, who 
serves as a mouthpiece for much caustic 
Rationalism. His Rationalist views are 
fully developed in Culture and Anarchy 
(1869), Saint Paul and Protestantism 
(1870), Literature and Dogma (1873), and 
Last Essays on Church and Religion 
(1877). He became the general and genial 
critic of his age, and the scourge of " Philis 
tines " (a word he introduced from the 
slang of German students). Throughout 
life he rejected not only the Christian 
doctrines, but the belief in a personal God 
or personal immortality. From his early 
cosmic Pantheism he passed to a belief 
in an impersonal "Power, not ourselves, 
which makes for righteousness." Religion 
he defined as "morality touched with 
emotion." He was, however, more effec 
tive in Biblical and doctrinal criticism than 
m philosophic reconstruction. D April 15 


ARNOLDSON, Klas Pontus, Swedish 
Nobel Prize winner. B. Oct. 27, 1844. 
Arnoldson was almost entirely a self- 
educated man. He was employed on the 
Swedish State Railways from 1871 to 1881, 



and was a member of the Eiksdag (Swedish 
Parliament) from 1882 to 1887. For his 
splendid work in the cause of peace he was 
awarded the Nobel Prize in 1908; and 
with characteristic unselfishness he applied 
the money to the cause. He founded the 
Swedish Society for Peace and Arbitration. 
There is an English translation of his Pax 
Mundi (1892). Arnoldson was a devoted 
Rationalist, and worked just as energetically 
against Churches as against armies. D. 
Feb. 20, 1916. 

ARNOULD, Arthur, French novelist. B. 
April 7, 1833. Ed. Paris. Arnould, author 
of Bereiifjer (2 vols., 1864), Histoire dc 
V Inquisition (1869), etc., was one of the 
most fiery critics of the clergy under 
Napoleon III, and was prosecuted several , 
times. He was a member of the Commune 
in 1871, and wrote, in three volumes, one 
of the most valuable histories of it. It is 
aggressively Eationalist on every page of 
the three volumes. He wrote also a large 
number of novels and dramas. 

ARNOULD, Victor, Belgian lawyer. B. 
Nov. 7, 1838. Ed. Liege University. He 
practised at the Brussels Court of Appeal, 
edited La Liberte (1868-73), and con 
tributed to the Rationalistic periodicals of 
France and Belgium. Arnould was Presi 
dent of the International Freethought 
Federation (1875-78 and 1887-88), and 
was for some years Member of Parliament 
(in the anti-clerical group). He published 
a number of Eationalist works. D. Jan. 17, 

AROUET, Francois Marie. See VOL 

ARRHENIUS, Professor Svante August, 

Swedish chemist and Nobel Prize winner. 
B. Feb. 19, 1859. Ed. Upsala University. 
He taught at Upsala from 1884 to 1886, 
and then spent three years at various 
universities under the leading chemists of 
Germany and Holland. In 1891 he was 
appointed professor of physics at Stockholm 

University. In 1903 he won the Nobel 
Prize for chemical research, and in 1905 
he became Director of the Nobel Physico- 
Chemical Institute. Arrhenius discovered 
the process of electrolytic dissociation after 
years of research, and is in the first rank 
of his science. His works show a remark 
able range of knowledge and speculative 
independence. Two of them (Worlds in 
the Making, 1908, and The Life of the 
Universe, 1909) have appeared in English. 
He holds that " conceptions of an all- 
embracing Nature and of freedom and 
manhood advance and recede together" 
(The Life of the Univ., p. 261). He is a 
Monist, and contributes to the journal of 
the German Monistenbund. 

ARRIAGA, Manoel Jose d , LL.D., first 
: President of the Portuguese Republic. B. 
July 8, 1839. Ed. Coimbra University. 
Through his mother he traced his descent 
from the royal houses of Castile and 
France, but at the university lie adopted 
Eationalist and Republican views, and he 
was disinherited by his father. King Louis 
offered him the position of tutor to the 
royal princes, but lie refused the bribe. 
He was a brilliant lawyer and speaker, 
a very versatile and prolific writer. Repub 
lican Deputy for Funchal 1882-84, and for 
Lisbon 1890-92, he was put forward by 
the moderate Republicans for the Presi 
dency in 1911, and was elected on Aug. 24. 
He held the office for a full term of four 
years, and initiated a long series of pro 
gressive and anti-clerical measures. D. 
Mar. 5, 1917. 

ASHURST, William Henry, reformer. 
B. Feb. 11, 1792. He was at an early age 
placed in a solicitor s office at London, and 
he won his articles and became an eminent 
solicitor. A friend of R. Owen, Holyoake, 
Mazzini, and other reformers, he shared 
their enthusiasm and generously aided all 
who were persecuted. He it was who 
supplied the funds and the labour for 
securing Rowland Hill s scheme of postal 
reform. In his youth he had joined the 



" Freethinking Christians," but in later 
life he ceased to be a member of any 
sect " (Diet. Nat. Biorj.}. D. Oct. 13, 1855. 

ASSELINE, Louis, French writer. B. 
1829. He abandoned the law for political 
and anti-clerical journalism, and was one 
of the most ardent opponents of reaction 
under Napoleon III. He founded La Libre 
Pcnsce (1866), which was suppressed, and 
then edited La Pensee Nouvelle (1867-69). 
In 1869 he helped to found the Encyclo 
pedia Generate, and in 1871 he became 
editor of Le Musee Universel. In his later 
years he served on the Paris Municipal 
Council. D. April 6, 1878. 

ASSEZAT, Jules, French writer. B. 
Jan. 21, 1832. The son of a compositor, 
he entered the journalistic world at an 
early age and won a considerable reputa 
tion by his pen. He contributed to La 
Pensee Nouvelle, and edited Lamettrie s 
L Homme-Machine (1865) and the complete 
works of Diderot (20 vols., 1875-77). 
Assezat was the most learned and enthusi 
astic student of the Encyclopaedists in his 
time, and he was in later years Secretary 
of the Anthropological Society. D. June 24, 

ASSOLANT, Professor Jean Baptiste 
Alfred, French historian and novelist. 
B. Mar. 20, 1827. Ed. College Stanilas, 
Lycee Charlemagne, and Ecole Norm ale 
Superieure, Paris. He taught history at, 
in succession, Orleans, Poitiers, and 
Soissons. In the end his outspoken 
Rationalism closed the academic world 
against him, and he took to journalism 
and fiction. He prided himself on having 
adopted both the views and the style of 
Voltaire. D. Feb. 4, 1886. 

ASTRUC, Jean, M.D., French physician 
and founder of Biblical criticism. B. Mar. 
19, 1684. Astruc was professor of anatomy 
at Toulouse (1710), then at Montpellier, 
and later of medicine at Paris. He had a 
high position in the medical world when, 

in 1753, he published his famous Conjec 
tures sur les memoires originaux dont il 
parait que Moise s est servi pour composer 
le livre de Genese, which for the first time 
divided the Mosaic narrative into Jahvist 
and Elohist documents. He affected oppo 
sition to the philosophers, who returned it 
with interest, but he died " without the 
sacraments " (see J. M. Eobertson s Short 
History of Freethought, ii, 256). D. May 
5, 1766. 

ASZO y DEL RIO, Professor Ignacio 
Jordan d , Spanish jurist. B. 1742. He 
was a professor of law at Madrid Univer 
sity, and a powerful supporter of Aranda 
[SEE] in checking the Jesuits and the 
ecclesiastical authorities. His Instituciones 
del Dereclw Civil de Castilla (1775) is a 
classic authority on Spanish law ; and he 
also wrote learnedly on philology and 
natural history. Like Aranda, he was a 
Voltairean, and a friend of progress and 
enlightenment. D. 1814. 

ATKINSON, H. G., philosophical writer. 
B. 1812. Ed. Charterhouse School. In 
1845 he met Harriet Martineau, who 
co-operated with him in writing his Letters 
on the Laws of Man s Nature and Develop 
ment (1851). Miss Martineau tells us that 
she wrote a fifth of the work, for which 
she was violently attacked. The doctrine 
is rather Pantheism than " Atheism," as 
it is usually described. Atkinson after 
wards contributed to the National Reformer 
and other Eationalist periodicals. D. Dec. 
28, 1884. 

AUERBACH, Berthold, German novelist. 
B. Feb. 28, 1812. Ed. Tubingen, Munich, 
and Heidelberg Universities. Auerbach, 
a Jew, had received a thorough training 
in law, philosophy, and theology, and it 
was not long before he abandoned the 
Jewish faith for the creed of Spinoza. He 
translated Spinoza s works into German 
(5 vols., 1841). In 1843 he began to 
write stories based upon his early life 
which put him in the front rank of 
34 c 



German novelists. His later novels are 
weighted with his Pantheistic philosophy, 
and were less popular. There have been 
several collected editions of his forty 
novels and many biographical studies (of 
which the best, perhaps, is by L. Bettel- 
heim). D. Feb. 8, 1882. 

AULARD, Professor Francois Victor 
Alphonse, French historian. B. July 19, 
1849. . Ed. Ecole Normale Superieure, 
Paris. Aulard taught at Nimes, Nice, and 
various other places until 1885, when he 
was appointed professor of the history of 
the Eevolution at the Sorbonne (the Paris 
University). Since 1881 he has devoted 
himself to the study of the Revolution, on 
which he is the highest living authority, 
as well as one of the most eminent of 
French historians. Since 1887 he has 
edited La Revolution Franqaise. He is 
an Officer of the Legion of Honour, and 
President of the Societe de 1 histoire de 
la Eevolution, the Commission Superieure 
des Memoires, and the Mission Laique 
Frangaise. Professor Aulard is a thorough 
and devoted Eationalist. He has authori 
tatively demolished clerical legends of the 
Eevolution, such as the story that a 
prostitute impersonated the Goddess of 
Eeason (Le culte de la raison et le culte de 
I Eire Supreme, 1892), and has taken an 
active part in the struggle against the 
Church. In 1900 he edited a collection of 
strong anti-clerical speeches by Paul Bert 
(Le clericalisme) and contributed an out 
spoken preface. 

AUSTIN, Charles, M.A., lawyer. B. 
1799. Ed. Bury St. Edmunds and Cam 
bridge. In 1822 he won the Hulsean 
Prize for an essay on Christian evidence, 
though he had already rejected Christianity. 
He had at the University warmly espoused 
the views of Jeremy Bentham, and had 
a good deal of influence in propagating 
them, as he was one of the most brilliant 
talkers of a very able group. Called to 
the bar in 1827, he maintained his high 
social prestige in London, and was so 

successful a barrister that he is said to 
have made 100,000 in one year. He 
became Q.C. in 1841, and retired with a 
large fortune in 1848. Sir John Macdonell 
describes him as " the forensic equal of 
Follett and Scarlett, and the most eloquent 
disciple of Bentham" (Diet. Nat. Biog.). 
After his retirement he served as High 
Steward of Ipswich and Chairman of the 
East Suffolk Quarter Sessions. He became 
more conservative and outwardly con 
formed with Church practice ; but, as Sir 
J. Macdonell quotes from a friend of his, 
" he accepted the religion of his country 
in the manner sanctioned by Elisha and 
practised by Socrates." D. Dec. 21, 1874. 

AUSTIN, John, jurist, brother of the 
preceding. B. Mar ..3, 1790. John Austin 
served in the army for five years before 
he took up the study of law. He was an 
intimate friend of Bentham and James 
Mill, and was at first an Atheist like them. 
In 1826 he was appointed professor of 
jurisprudence at University College, but 
he resigned in 1832, not finding it suitable 
work. In the same year he published his 
chief work, The Province of Jurisprudence, 
which " helped to revolutionize jurispru 
dence " (says Sir J. Macdonell in the 
D. N. B.). In her Three Generations of 
English Women (1893) his granddaughter, 
Janet Eoss, includes a sketch of him by 
his friend Barthelemy St. Hilaire, who 
says that he in later years modified his 
" irreligion " (or became a Theist), but 
never went to church. D. Dec., 1859. 

AUSTIN, Sarah, writer. B. 1793. She 
was of the Taylor family, of Norwich, and, 
marrying John Austin in 1820, lived in the 
Mill-Bentham circle for many years. She 
translated many French and German 
authors (including Goethe and Eanke), 
wrote Germany from 1760 to 1814 (1854), 
and was familiar with Guizot, Cousin, 
Carlyle, and other eminent thinkers. She 
disclaimed the title of Unitarian (Life of 
W. J. Fox, by E. Garnett, p. 125), and was 
an impersonal Theist. To Victor Cousin 



she wrote: "It is vain to try to uphold 
religion ; her own ministers are her assas 
sins" (Three Generations of English Women, 
by Janet Boss, p. 142). D. Aug. 8, 1867. 

AYEBURY, the Right Hon. John 
Lubbock, Baron, P.O., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. 
B. Apr. 30,1834. Ed. Eton. At the age of 
fifteen lie left Eton and entered his father s 
bank, of which he became a partner in 1856. 
Darwin was a neighbour of his father, and 
Lubbock was thus stimulated in the study 
of natural history and geology. He has 
written volumes on flowers, insects, free 
trade, scenery, finance, animal psychology, 
comparative religion, primitive man, and 
-ethical and social subjects. He was a 
"President General of the Age" (says the 
obituary notice in Nature}. His chief 
works were Prehistoric Times (1865) and 
The Origin of Civilization (1870). His 
Pleasures of Life sold half a million copies, 
and was translated into forty languages. 
He was at various dates President of the 
Institute of Bankers, President of the 
London Chamber of Commerce, Member 
of Parliament for Maidstone (1870-80) and 
London University (1880-1900), Vice- 
Chancellor of London University, President 
of the Ethnological Society, and Chairman 
of the London County Council. He was also 
a Commander of the Legion of Honour. 
Lubbock s zeal for progress was wide 
and active (see H. G. Hutchinson s Life 
of Sir J. Lubbock, 1914), and, though 
he rarely touches religion, he was 
an advanced Rationalist. He admitted 
a " Divine Power," but resented " contra 
dictory assertions under the name of 
mystery " (Origin of Civilization, close of 
ch. viii). D. May 28, 1913. 

AYELING, Edward Bibbins, D.Sc., 
.anatomist and social writer. B. 1851. Ed. 
Taunton and London University. He was 
professor of anatomy at the London Hos 
pital from 1875 to 1881, and member of the 
London School Board 1882-84. Aveling 
was active in the Socialist and Rationalist 
Movements, publishing The Creed of An 

Atheist (1881), The Irreligion of Science 
(1881), and various scientific works. D. 
Aug. 2, 1898. 

AYELING, Eleanor Marx, writer. B. 
1855, daughter of Karl Marx. She trans 
lated Flaubert s Madame Bovary (1886) 
and Ibsen s The Lady from the Sea (1891) ; 
and she wrote The Working -Class Movement 
in America (1888) and (in conjunction with 
Dr. E. B. Aveling, with whom she lived) The 
Woman Question (1888). D. Mar. 31, 1898. 

AYENARIUS, Professor Richard, Ger 
man philosopher. B. Nov. 1843. Ed. 
Zurich, Berlin, and Leipzig Universities. 
He began to teach at Leipzig in 1876, and 
was professor at Zurich from 1877 until 
he died. He was joint editor of the 
Vierteljahrschrift filr wissenschaftliche 
Philosophic, and wrote many important 
works on philosophy. Avenarius was a 
Critical Empiricist," relying upon experi 
ence purified of all metaphysics, and 
rejecting the dualism of body and mind 
and all creeds based on that belief. There 
are studies of his life and ideas by O. 
Ewald, F. Raab, and F. Carstanjen. D. 
Aug. 18, 1896. 

AYENEL, Georges, French historical 
writer. B. Dec. 31, 1828. He had a con 
siderable authority on the French Revolu 
tion, and was for a time editor of the 
Bepublique Franqaise. Avenel wrote Ana- 
charsis Clootz (2 vols.), etc., and edited the 
popular issue of Voltaire s complete works 
(9 vols., 1867-70). He worked devotedly 
for Rationalism during the reaction of the 
Second Empire. D. July 1, 1876. 

AYMON, Jean, D.D., French writer. 
B. 1661. Aymon was a Roman Catholic 
priest who seceded, retired to Holland, and 
wrote Metamorphoses de la religion Romaine 
(1700). In 1719 he published La vie et 
I esprit de M. Benoit Spinoza, which was 
afterwards modified and issued as the 
famous Traite des Trois Imposteurs. D. 



AYRTON, Professor William Edward, 

B.A., F.E.S., physicist and engineer. B. 
Sep. 14, 1847. Ed. University College 
School and University College (London), 
where he won the Andrews mathematical 
scholarship. In 1868 he passed the 
examination of the Indian telegraphic 
service, and was sent to study under Lord 
Kelvin at Glasgow. He was one of 
Kelvin s most brilliant pupils. From 1868 
to 1873 he practised in India, and in the 
latter year he accepted the chair of physics 
at the Imperial Engineering College, Tokyo. 
Eeturning to England in 1878, he taught 
in succession at the City and Guilds of 
London Institute (1879-81), the Finsbury 
Technical College (1881-84), and the 
Central Technical College (1884-1908). 
Professor Ayrton made many discoveries, 
and was one of the first to advocate the 
transmission of power from generating 
stations. He was a man of great energy 
and integrity, and had, as his colleague 
Professor Perry says, " a keen sense of 
justice, a high regard for truth, and noble 
ideals" (Nature, Nov. 19, 1908). He was 
an Agnostic, and had a secular burial. 
D. Nov. 8, 1908. 

BABEUF, Francois Noel, French 
economist. B. Nov. 23, 1764. Left an 
orphan at sixteen, Babeuf earned his living 
as a clerk, then as a secretary, and worked 
hard at social and economic questions. 
He was a single-taxer, and had other views 
which attracted notice. At the outbreak 
of the Eevolution he took the pen-name of 
" Caius Gracchus," and edited a series of 
ephemeral papers advocating complete 
equality. He was an Atheist, and was the 
founder of the Soci6te des Egaux. Con 
demned to death for plotting against the 
Directorate, he committed suicide in court 
May 27, 1797. 

BACCELLI, Professor Guido, Italian 
statesman. B. Nov. 25, 1832. Ed. Eome 
University. In 1856 he w r as appointed 
professor of medical jurisprudence and, 
later, of pathological anatomy at Eome 

University. In 1863 he became Director 
of the Eoman General Medical Clinic. 
After the fall of the Papacy he entered the 
Camera (1874) and sat with the Anti- 
Clericals. He was four times Minister of 
Public Instruction, and to him is mainly 
due the reorganization of Italian education, 
! which the Popes had left in a disgraceful 
state. In spite of the clamours of the 
! clergy, he appointed Ardigo [SEE] to the 
chair of philosophy at Padua. In 1890 he 
I became Senator and President of the 
! Superior Medical Council. From 1901 to 
! 1903 he was Minister of Agriculture. 
I Baccelli, who held the Grand Cordon of 
| the Crown of Italy and was an Honorary 
I Associate of the London Medical Society, 
was a prominent Freemason and fearless 
Eationalist. D. Jan. 10, 1916. 

BAGE, Robert, novelist. B. Feb. 29, 
1728. Ed. Derby. He knew Latin well 
at the age of seven, and, though he was 
early put to his father s business of paper- 
making and became himself a prosperous 
manufacturer, he continued to study in 
dustriously. For four years (1775-79) he 
was a partner with Erasmus Darwin in 
a large iron enterprise. It failed, and to 
divert his mind from his losses he took to 
writing novels as a means of propagating 
his views. The first, Mount Henneth 
(1781), was not successful, but his later 
stories had a high reputation, and were in 
some cases translated into German. He 
had quitted the Society of Friends for 
Deism. His pious and intimate friend 
Hutton puts it that Bage " laid no stress 
upon revelation " and was " barely a Chris 
tian" (Chalmers s Biog. Diet.}. D. Sep. 1, 

BAGEHOT, Walter, M.A., economist. 
B. Feb. 3, 1826. Ed. Bristol and 
London University College, where he 
won the gold medal in philosophy and 
: political economy. He was called to the 
bar in 1852, but he preferred to join his 
father in a banking business, and he became 
one of the leading authorities on financial 



and economic questions. From 1860 to 
1877 he edited The Economist. His works 
on political philosophy (The English Con 
stitution, 1867, and Physics and Politics, 
1872) are not less authoritative. In regard 
to religion his expressions were cautious 
and conservative, but he undoubtedly 
describes his own position in the following 
passage: " Few cultivated persons willingly 
think on the special dogmas of distinct 
theology.... They do not question the 
existence of Kamschatka, but they have no 
call to busy themselves with Kamschatka " 
(Literary Studies, 1879, i, 38). In a letter 
to Percy Greg we find Bagehot plainly 
repudiating the authority of the Gospels 
(Works, x, 227). D. Mar. 24, 1877. 

BAGGESEN, Professor Jens Im- 
manuel, Danish poet. B. Feb. 15, 1764. 
He was put to work at an early age, but 
he studied so zealously that he was sent to 
Copenhagen University. In 1785 his 
Comic Stories won recognition of his great 
power as a humorist. He travelled over 
Europe (1789-90), and enthusiastically 
accepted Voltaireanism and the French 
Revolution. In 1796 he took charge of 
the Students Hostel at Copenhagen, and 
in 1798 became Director of the theatre. 
After then spending ten years at Paris, he 
ended as professor of the Danish language 
and literature at Kiel University. Baggesen 
is one of the greatest poets of Denmark. 
His collected works fill ten volumes (1827- 
32), and contain a great deal of satire on 
religion (especially a mock-epic on Adam 
and Eve which he published in 1826). 
D. Oct. 3, 1826. 

BAHNSEN, Julius Friedrich August, 

German philosopher. B. Mar. 30, 1830. 
Ed. Kiel University. After taking part in 
the Danish War in 1849, he devoted him 
self to philosophy, and was recognized as 
the chief authority on, and follower of, 
Schopenhauer s " aesthetic pessimism." He 
taught philosophy at Anklam gymnasium 
from 1858 to 1862, then at Lauenberg. 
His chief work is Der Widerspruch im 


Wisscn und Wesen der Welt (2 vols., 
1880-82). D. Dec. 6, 1881. 

BAHRDT, Professor Karl Friedrich, 

German Deist. B. Aug. 25, 1741. Ed. 
Leipzig University. Educated for the 
Church, Bahrdt was professor of Biblical 
philology at Leipzig (1766-68), then of 
Biblical archaeology at Erfurt. In 1771 he 
was driven from Erfurt for heresy, and 
became professor at Giessen. Here again 
he lost his chair by heresy, and, though 
a man of great learning and high 
character, was reduced to an adventurous 
life. In 1788 he suffered a year in prison 
for the violent Deism of his writings. 
D. Apr. 23, 1792. 

BAILEY, Samuel, philosophical writer 
and philanthropist. 5.1791. Mr. Bailey 
" Bailey of Sheffield " as he was familiarly 
known to readers of philosophy was a 
prosperous cutler who gave his leisure to 
study. He was Chairman of the Sheffield 
Banking Company and, from 1828 onward, 
one of the Trustees of Sheffield. He was 
very widely esteemed for his philanthropy 
and his zeal for education. At his death 
he left 80,000 to the Town-Trust, which 
more than doubled its income. His philo 
sophic works (especially Letters on the 
Philosophy of the Human Mind, 3 vols., 
1855-63) were well known. He was a 
Determinist and Utilitarian, but his towns 
men were surprised to hear, after his death, 
that he was the author of an anonymous 
little work, Letters from an Egyptian Kafir 
on a Visit to England in Search of a 
Religion (1839), which mordantly criticized 
Christianity. D. Jan. 18, 1870. 

BAILLIE, George, philanthropist. 
B. Dec. 23, 1784. Ed. Glasgow. He was 
received into the Glasgow faculty of pro 
curators and practised until 1825, when 
he was appointed Sheriff -Substitute for 
the western district of Perthshire. 
Baillie, who seems to have been a 
Deist, offered several substantial pi izes 
for the writing of Rationalist works. 



In 1863 he handed over his fortune 
(18,000) to the Glasgow faculty of pro 
curators to erect an institute for the educa 
tion of the workers, on condition that the 
interest was allowed to accumulate for 
twenty-one years. " Baillie s Institution " 
was duly opened in 1887, and is active in 
Glasgow to-day. D. Feb. 8, 1873. 

BAIN, Alexander, psychologist. 
B. (Aberdeen) June 11, 1818. He began 
to earn his living at the age of eleven, but 
by diligent study and attendance at the 
Mechanics Institution he secured a bursary 
at Marischal College and graduated, heading 
the honours list, in 1840. In 1841 he was 
appointed assistant professor of moral 
philosophy. He lost the position, and 
failed to get another in Scotland, on 
account of his profession of Kationalism. 
Coming to London in 1848, he was in 
succession a civil servant, lecturer at 
Bedford College, and examiner to the 
London University. His Senses and the 
Intellect (1855) and Emotions and the Will 
(1859) established his reputation, and in 
1860 he was, in spite of strong religious 
opposition, appointed professor of logic and 
English at Aberdeen University. He 
retired in 1880, and was elected Lord 
Eector in 1882 and 1884. He, at his own 
expense, established the review Mind 
(1876), and he w r orked devotedly in the 
cause of education. Although Bain is often 
described as a Positivist, he was merely in 
general agreement with Comte in rejecting 
metaphysics and theology. He was an 
Agnostic, and one of the finest psychologists 
Britain has yet produced. D. Sep. 18, 

BAKUNIN, Mikhail, agitator. B. 1814. 
Bakunin came of a noble Eussian family, 
served in the army (1832-38), and made an 
extensive study of philosophy. He travelled 
widely, and met the advanced thinkers of 
every country. As he refused to return to 
Russia, his property was confiscated, and 
in 1848 he took part in the German revolu- 
tionary movement. He was sent to 


Siberia (1850), and escaped to England, 
later retiring to Switzerland. The Inter 
national Socialist Movement rejected him 
for his Anarchist views (1872). In his 
God and the State (Eng. trans. 1893) he 
avowed himself an Atheist and Materialist. 
D. June 13, 1876. 

BALDWIN, Professor James Mark, 

M.A., Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., American 
psychologist. B. Jan. 12, 1861. Ed. 
Princeton, Leipzig, and Berlin Universities. 
He was instructor at Princeton (1885-87), 
professor of philosophy at Lake Forest 
(1887-90), of logic and metaphysics at 
Toronto (1890-93), of psychology at 
Princeton (1893-1903), and of philosophy 
and psychology at John Hopkins (1903-9). 
Since 1909 he has been on the staff of the 
National University of Mexico. He holds 
the Gold Medal of the Danish Academy of 
Science, and was in 1915 Herbert Spencer 
lecturer at Oxford. Besides his many 
important works on psychology, including 
a History of Psychology (2 vols., 1913) 
which he wrote for the B.P.A., he is editor 
of The Psychological Revieiv and the 
Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology. 
In his Fragments of Philosophy and Science 
(1903) he dissents from the creeds, accept 
ing God only as " a construction of the 
imagination " (based on reality) or the 
ideal self." 

BALL, William Platt, writer. B. Nov. 
28, 1844. Ed. Birkbeck School, London. 
He was a London schoolmaster who 
resigned rather than give religious lessons. 
Ball afterwards entered the service of the 
Sultan, received the Order of the Medjidieh, 
and wrote Poems from Tttrkey (1872). He 
contributed to the National Reformer and 
the Freethinker, co-operated with Mr. 
Foote in his Bible Handbook, and wrote 
a number of pamphlets. D. Jan., 1917. 

BALLANCE, the Hon. John, Prime 

Minister of New Zealand. B. (Ireland) 

Mar. 27, 1839. He was apprenticed to an 

ironmonger in Belfast, kept a shop in 




Birmingham from 1858 to 1866, and then 
emigrated to New Zealand. Settling at 
Wanganui, he opened a shop and estab 
lished the Wanganui Herald. He was 
elected to the House of Representatives, 
and became Minister of Education, then of 
Finance. In 1884 he was appointed Native 
Minister and Minister for Defence and 
Lands. In 1891 he was elected Prime 
Minister, and to him is largely due the repute 
of New Zealand for progressive legislation. 
Ballance was an outspoken Rationalist 
and a high-minded humanitarian. D. 
Apr. 27, 1893. 

BALMACEDA, Jose Manoel, President 
of the Republic of Chile. B. 1838. Ed. 
at the Jesuit Seminary, Santiago. Bal- 
maceda early abandoned his creed, and 
was one of the founders of the anti-clerical 
Reform Club in 1868. In 1876 he entered 
Parliament and became the leader of the 
anti-clerical Liberals. As Minister of the 
Interior (from 1882) he passed the divorce 
law and other measures which the Church 
opposed. He was President of the Republic 
from 1886 to 1890, but his severe methods 
led to a civil war, and, being forced to fly, 
he ended his life Sep. 18, 1891. 

BALTZER, Wilhelm Eduard, German 
reformer. B. Oct. 24, 1814. Ed. Leipzig 
and Halle Universities. He entered the 
Lutheran ministry, and was hospital- 
chaplain at Delitzsch. In 1848 his licence 
to preach was withdrawn on account of his 
Rationalism, and he founded a free com 
munity at Nordhausen. He was a Deputy 
to the Frankfort Parliament in 1848. 
Baltzer translated the life of Apollonius 
of Tyana and wrote several works on 
religion. D. June 24, 1887. 

BALZAC, Honore de, French novelist. 
B. May 20, 1799. Ed. Vendome College 
(by the Oratorian priests) and Pension 
Lepitre, Paris. His parents made him a 
lawyer s clerk, and, when he took to letters 
against their will, they lodged him in an 
attic and reduced his allowance. For 


eleven years he worked, in great privation, 
producing unsuccessful novels which he 
has excluded from editions of his works. 
At last, in 1829, an historical novel, Les 
Chouans, won recognition for him. In 
the following year he conceived the vast 
scheme of his Comedie Humaine, of which 
he wrote forty-seven volumes, besides 
twenty-four separate novels. He often 
worked fifteen, and sometimes eighteen, 
hours a day. By his severe and intensely 
conscientious work he won a place which 
many regard as the highest in French 
fiction, and he had a deep and lasting 
influence on French literature. There were 
many admirers who called him " the Christ 
of modern art." His complete freedom 
from religion is seen in the whole of his 
work. In his youth he was a friend of 
Arago, and wrote a history of the Jesuits. 
D. Aug. 18, 1850. 

BANCEL, Francois Desire, French 
politician and historian. B. Feb. 12, 1822. 
Ed. Tournon and Grenoble. Bancel was 
a lawyer, but in 1849 he entered the 
Legislative Assembly, and was one of the 
most fiery opponents of the clericals and 
royalists. Napoleon III expelled him in 
1852, and he went to Brussels. He taught 
in the Free University, and gave great 
assistance in the Belgian Rationalist move 
ment. He was a Deist, but drastically 
anti-clerical. After his return to France 
he was elected to the Legislative Body. 
D. Jan. 22, 1871. 

BANCROFT, Hubert Howe, American 
historian. B. May 5, 1832. Bancroft was 
a bookseller in California, and he began at 
an early date to collect books and docu 
ments bearing on the history of the Pacific 
Coast. His library eventually amounted 
to 60,000 volumes. After retiring from 
business in 1868 he wrote a series of 
thirty-nine volumes on the history of 
Western America, and is the highest 
authority on it. His last work, Retrospec 
tion (1913), shows that he is a liberal 
Deist, with a great scorn of Churches and 




creeds. "There is but little religion in 
the Churches," he says, " and that little 
graft is strangling" (p. 278). 

BARETTI, Giuseppe Marc Antonio, 

Italian writer. B. Apr. 25, 1719. After 
a scanty and irregular education, Baretti 
became a clerk, and afterwards a literary 
man. He migrated to London in 1751, 
and was a great friend of Dr. Johnson. 
He wrote an Italian dictionary and other 
works. In 1760 he returned to Italy, but 
his advanced views excited opposition 
which drove him back to England. The 
chair of Italian at Dublin University was 
offered to him. " He early abandoned the 
doctrines of the Koman Catholic Church 
without adopting those of any other " 
(Diet. Nat. Biog.). D. May 5, 1789. 

BARLOW, George, poet. B. June 19, 
1847. Ed. Harrow and Oxford (Exeter 
Coll.). His first volume, Poems and Son 
nets, appeared in 1871, and from that date 
until 1890 his output was considerable. 
Agnosticism is conspicuous in his work, 
especially in The Gospel of Humanity 
(1876), The Pageant of Life (1888), The 
Crucifixion of Man (1893), and Jesus of 
Nazareth (1896). His collected poems 
were published in 11 vols. (1902-14). 

BARLOW, Jane, LL.D., Irish poet and 
novelist. B. Oct. 17, I860, daughter of 
the Eev. J. W. Barlow, Vice-Provost of 
Trinity College. She opened her literary 
record with Bogland Studies in 1892, and 
reached a high position as a novelist. In 
1894 she translated the Batrachomyomachia 
of Homer. A lady of rare culture, Miss 
Barlow hardly conceals her Agnosticism 
in a little volume of late poems, Between 
Doubt and Daring (1916). The first poem, 
" Harvest," closes : 
" Be to the great Dark gathered man and brute." 

She took a warm interest in the work of 
the E. P. A. D. Apr. 17, 1917. 

BARLOW, Joel, American poet. B. 
Mar. 24, 1754. Ed. Dartmouth College 


and Yale. He served as chaplain in the 
War of Independence, and in 1785 he 
issued an edition of The Book of Psalms 
which was used in the Congregationalist 
Churches until he left the ministry. He 
next adopted law, but quitted the bar for 
letters and journalism, and in 1787 pro 
duced his famous poem, The Vision of 
Columbus. In the following year he went 
to France, where he adopted Deism (Life 
and Letters of J. Barloiv, by C. B. Todd, 
1886, p. 220) and translated Volney s 
Ruins. He was American ambassador at 
Napoleon s court in 1811. D. Dec. 24, 

BARN A YE, Antoine Pierre Joseph 
Marie, French politician. B. Oct. 22, 
1761. Ed. Grenoble. A very successful 
lawyer, and author of a Deistic Diction- 
naire de Pensees, Barnave accepted the 
sounder principles of the Eevolution, and 
in 1790 he was President of the National 
Assembly. He was " one of the greatest 
figures of the French Eevolution " (Nouv. 
Biog. Gen.), and it was his moderation 
and integrity that brought him to the 
guillotine Nov. 30, 1793. 

BARN I, Professor Jules Romain, 

French educationist. B. June 1, 1818. 
Ed. College Eoyal, Amiens, and Ecole 
Normale, Paris. Barni was professor of 
philosophy at Eouen (1851-61) and later 
at Geneva, where he worked zealously for 
an International Peace Congress. He 
returned to France in 1870, became General 
Inspector of Secular Instruction, and was 
for a time a member of Parliament. He 
translated Kant and wrote a number of 
works. Barni was of Cousin s school, but 
very anti-clerical. " Eationalism is my 
only religion," he said. D. July 4, 1878. 

BAROT, Francois Odysse,French writer. 
B. 1830. Barot began his literary career 
as a journalist on La Reforme in 1849, and 
in 1865 he purchased and edited La Liberte. 
Later he founded the Revue des Cours 
Scientifiques et Litteraires, and he edited 



La Marseillaise from 1879 to 1882. He 
was an ardent anti-clerical (L Agonie de la 
Papaute, 1868, etc.), and a high authority 
on English literature. He translated 
Carlyle s French Revolution. 

BARRETT, Thomas Squire, philoso 
phical writer. B. Sep. 9, 1842. Ed. 
Queenwood College and Oxford. He came 
of Quaker parents, but early adopted 
Rationalism and contributed occasionally 
to the National Reformer (1865-70). He 
wrote A New View of Causation (1871) 
and other philosophical works, and was 
Honorary Secretary of the London Dialec 
tical Society. In 1886 he edited The Present 
Day, which he bought from G. J. Holyoake. 
Mr. Barrett is a member of the R. P. A. 

Jules, philosopher and statesman. B. 
Aug. 19, 1805. From 1825 to 1828 he was 
Minister of Finance. He took part in the 
Revolution of 1830 and, as an active 
member of the society " Aide-toi, le ciel 
t aidera " ( " Help yourself and Heaven will 
help you")i zealously fought reaction. 
He was professor of French literature at 
the Polytechnic (1834-48) and of Greek 
philosophy at the College de France 
(1848-52). In 1869 he joined the Oppo 
sition in the Legislative Body, and he 
afterwards held office under the Repub 
lic. It is said that he converted Thiers to 
the idea of a republic. He never accepted 
money for political service. In 1875 he 
became a Senator, and in 1880 Minister of 
Foreign Affairs and Vice-President of the 
Senate. A close friend of Cousin and a 
member of the Institut since 1839, lie 
translated all Aristotle s works (17 vols.) into 
French, and wrote a number of philosophical 
works. He was, like Cousin, a liberal non- 
Christian Theist. D. Nov. 25, 1895. 

BARTHEZ, Paul Joseph, M.D., Ency 
clopaedist. B. Dec. 11, 1734. Ed. Nar- 
bonne and Montpellier. He practised 
medicine at Paris and became Consulting 
Physician to the King and a Councillor of 

State. In 1761 ho was appointed pro 
fessor of medicine at Montpellier, and in 
1880 he graduated also in law. He was 
a member of the Academy of Sciences and 
other learned bodies, and was a brilliant 
and versatile writer. A great friend of 
D Alembert, he wrote several articles in 
the Dictionnaire Encyclopedique, and was 
for a time associate-editor of the Journal 
des Savants. Larousse records in his 
Dictionary that when tho Archbishop of 
Sens showed him some local ritual works 
he said : " These are the ceremonies of 
Sens, but can you show me the sense 
[sens] of ceremonies?" D. Oct. 15, 1806. 

BARTOLI, Professor Hector Alex- 
andre, Corsican Rationalist. B. 1820. He 
graduated in medicine in 1843, and became 
professor of pathology at Marseilles. He 
was until his death a leader of the Corsican 
Liberals, arid he entered the Chambre in 
1876 and 1881. Bartoli was a zealous 
worker for the divorce law, and a strong 
anti-clerical. D. Nov. 11, 1883. 

BARTOSEK, Theodor, Ph.D., LL.D., 
Moravian lawyer. B. Nov. 4, 1877. Ed. 
Higher College, Brno, and in an ecclesias 
tical seminary. He developed Rationalistic 
views in the seminary, and left for Prague 
University, where he graduated, completing 
his studies at Berlin, Paris, and Geneva 
Universities. As he was a Socialist he 
was debarred from an academic career, 
and he chose law, greatly distinguishing 
himself at the bar. In 1904 he began to 
take an active part in the Rationalist 
Movement, and he was conspicuous at the 
International Congresses in 1906 and 1907. 
Bartosek is a powerful and tireless propa 
gandist. He edits the Volne Skola. 

BARZELOTTI, Professor Giacomo, 

philosopher. B. July 7, 1844. Ed. Pisa 
University. He was professor of philo 
sophy at Florence (1868-78), of the history 
of philosophy at the University of Rome 
(1881), and of moral philosophy at Pavia 
(1882-3), Rome (1886), and Naples 



(1887-96). Since 1896 he has been pro 
fessor of the history of philosophy at Home. 
He is a brilliant lecturer and writer on 
philosophy, " a sort of Italian Cousin, 
attracted by Taine and Spencer to the 
positive school " (Gubernatis). His David 
Lazzaretti, which Kenan greatly admired, 
is on the Index. For some years he has 
been on the Superior Council of Public 
Instruction for the Kingdom of Italy. 

BASEDOW, Johann Bernhard, educa 
tionist. B. Sep. 11, 1723. Ed. Leipzig. 
He lost his place as teacher by his out 
spoken Deism and violent criticism of 
Christianity, and became an intimate 
friend of Goethe. Inspired by Eousseau, 
he worked for the reform of education in 
Germany and wrote on the subject. The 
Prince of Anhalt-Dessau embodied his ideas 
in a school at Dessau. D. July 25, 1790. 

BASHKIRTSEFF, Marie, Eussian 
artist. B. Nov. 23, 1860. She belonged to 
a wealthy and noble Kussian family, and 
spent her early years in France and Italy. 
From 1877 she studied painting in Paris 
under Fleury and Bastien-Lepage, and 
made notable progress, which was cut short 
by consumption. She is chiefly known by 
her Journal, which she began to write in 
her thirteenth year. In the latter part 
(and especially in the suppressed fragments 
which were published in the Revue des 
Reviles, Feb. and Sep., 1900) she freely 
expresses her scepticism. D. Oct. 31 , 1884. 

BASKERYILLE, John, printer. B. 
Jan. 28, 1706. Baskerville was, suc 
cessively, a footman, teacher, and stone 
cutter before he established a japanning- 
business, at which he made a fortune. In 
1750 he took up type-founding and printing, 
and he became one of the most famous 
printers of his time. The " Baskerville 
Bible " (which Dibdin calls " one of the 
most beautifully printed books in the 
world") was produced in 1763. Basker 
ville directed that he should be buried in 
unconsecrated ground, and he wrote for his 

tomb an inscription which warns the visitor 
to " emancipate thy mind from the idle 
fears of Superstition and the wicked arts of 
Priesthood." D. Jan. 8, 1775. 

BASTIAN, Professor Adolf, German 
anthropologist. B. June 26, 1826. Ed. 
Heidelberg, Berlin, Jena, Wiirzburg, and 
Prague Universities. Bastian, whom 
Achelis describes as " the spiritual father 
and founder of modern ethnology," spent a 
large part of his life travelling over the 
earth, and his observations and studies of 
races are recorded in no less than sixty 
important volumes. He visited the whole 
of Asia and Africa, and was President of 
the Berlin Geographical Society (1871-73), 
professor at the Berlin Museum of Anthro 
pology, and joint editor of the Zeitschrift 
fiir Ethnologic. Ho was one of the most 
distinguished anthropologists of Europe, 
and a man of " winning uprightness of life 
and personal veracity," as Professor Achelis 
says (Adolf Bastian, 1892). That he was 
an Agnostic, and drastically opposed to all 
creeds, is very emphatically expressed in 
his chief work, Der Mensch in der Ges- 
chichte (3 vols., 1860). " We have," he 
says, " unmasked the lie that would deceive 
us with its mirages ; we have no longer to 
endure the tyrannical moods of a jealous 
God ; we no longer fear when a mighty foe 
shakes our protector from his heaven, to 
sink with him into an abyss of annihilation. 

The yoke is broken, and we are free 

The artificial horizon of fairy-tales and 
mythologies has been destroyed by science" 
(I, 29). Professor Achelis [SEE] adds, after 
quoting this fine passage, that it is " from 
the scientific point of view an entirely sound 
conception." D. Feb. 3, 1905. 

BASTIAN, Professor Henry Charlton, 

M.A., M.D., F.L.S., F.R.S., physician. B. 
Apr. 26, 1837. Ed. London University 
College. From 1860 to 1863 he was 
assistant-curator at the college. He then 
served for two years as assistant medical 
officer at Broadmoor, and from 1867 to 
1887 he was professor of the Principles and 



Practice of Medicine at London University. 
He was also Consulting Physician to the 
National Hospital for the Paralysed and 
Epileptic, Physician to the University 
College Hospital, and Censor of the Royal 
College of Physicians. In 1871 Dr. Bastian 
championed " spontaneous generation " 
against Pasteur and Tyndall, and after he 
had retired from his professorship he 
devoted himself to experiments which, he 
contended, prove this. His conclusions are 
not generally accepted, but must remain 
open. See his illustrated work, The Origin of 
Life (1911). His chief work, The Brain as 
an Organ of Mind (1881), is Materialistic. 
Bastian was a fearless and uncompro 
mising Eationalist, passionately devoted to 
truth. D. Nov. 17, 1915. 

BASTIAT, Frederic, French economist. 
B. June 29, 1801. Bastiat inherited pro 
perty in 1827, and he devoted himself 
particularly to economic questions. He 
adopted the principles of Cobden, and 
attracted much attention by advocating 
(especially in his journal Libre Echange) 
Free Trade in France. In 1848 he was 
returned to the National Assembly. His 
chief works are Sophismes Economiques 
(2 vols., 1847-48) and Harmonies Eco 
nomiques (1850), in which his Rationalism 
finds occasional expression. D. Dec. 24, 

BATES, Henry Walter, F.R.S., F.L.S., 
naturalist. B. Leicester, Feb. 8, 1825. 
Ed. Billesden. Bates was apprenticed to a 
Leicester hosier at the age of fourteen, 
and he completed his education at the 
Mechanics Institute. A. R. Wallace, who 
then taught in Leicester, encouraged him 
to study natural history, and Bates began to 
collect and to write in the Zoologist. In 
1845 he went as clerk to Burton-on-Trent, 
but three years later he sailed with Wallace 
to South America. In 1850 he left Wallace 
and continued to travel in the upper 
Amazons. He returned to England in 
1859 and, at Darwin s suggestion, wrote 
his Naturalist on the Amazons (published 

1863). The memoir which Mr. Clodd pre 
fixes to the 1892 edition of this work shows 
(p. Ixxxvi) that Bates was an outspoken 
Agnostic. In 1864 he became assistant 
secretary to the Geographical Society. He 
was President of the Entomological Society 
in 1869 and 1878, and was a Chevalier of the 
Brazilian Order of the Rose. D. Feb. 16, 

BATTELLI, Professor Angelo, Italian 
physicist. B. Mar. 1, 1862. He was 
professor of experimental physics at, 
successively, the universities of Cagliari, 
Padua, and Pisa, and has written a long 
series of works and papers on physical 
questions, especially magnetism and elec 
tricity. His writings have won the prize 
of the Academia dei Lincei (in 1889 and 
1891) and the Bressa prize of 12,000 lire 
(1893). He has been Socialist Deputy for 
Pisa, then Urbino, in the Italian Parlia 
ment, and is a vigorous Rationalist and 

BATTISTI, Cesare, Italian geographer. 
B. Feb. 4, 1875. Ed. Vienna, Gratz (for 
law), and Florence (geography) Universities. 
He graduated in law in 1897, but chiefly 
devoted his life to advanced politics and to 
geography. In the Trentino (where he was 
born) he was one of the leading Pro-Italians 
(especially through his review, the Tri- 
dentuni), and he was prosecuted forty times. 
He edited the Socialist daily II Popolo, and 
was an ardent anti-clerical. His geo 
graphical works deal particularly with his 
native Trentino. Battisti was captured by 
the Austrians in the War, and hanged as a 
traitor. D. July 16, 1916. 

BAUDELAIRE, Charles Pierre, French 
poet. B. Paris, Apr. 9, 1821. Ed. 
College de Lyon and Lycee Louis le Grand. 
Although Baudelaire came of a Catholic 
and aristocratic family, he adopted revolu 
tionary opinions, and fought at the bar 
ricades in 1848. His family had in 1841 
tried to divert him from the field of letters 
by travel, but his radical ideas were only 



strengthened, and he completely rejected 
religious traditions. In 1856 he translated 
E. A. Foe s Tales, and in 1857 appeared 
his famous Les Fleurs du Mai, a collection 
of 151 of his short poems, in which, a critic 
said, "he cultivated his hysteria with 
delight and terror." The work was pro 
secuted, and a few of the poems had to he 
suppressed. He worked slowly to attain 
the hectic beauty of his lines, and the use 
of nerve-stimulants ruined his mental 
health. C. Asselineau and E. Crepet (1906) 
have written the best studies of him in 
French. A. Symons and others have 
translated much of his work. D. Aug. 31, 

BAUDISSIN, Wilhelm Friedrich, 
Count Yon, Ph.D., German theological 
writer. B. Sep. 26, 1847. Ed. (in 
theology) Erlangen, Berlin, Leipzig, and 
Kiel Universities. He was appointed 
teacher of theology at Leipzig in 1874, and 
he was afterwards professor of theology 
at Strassburg (1876-81) and Marburg 
(1881-86). He was Eector of Marburg 
University 1892-94, and in 1900 he became 
professor of theology at Berlin. In 1912-13 
he was Eector of Berlin University. Bau- 
dissin has written several important Biblical 
works, and in his Adonis und Esmun (1911) 
he discusses with great frankness the 
sources of the resurrection-myth, and of 
the characteristics of Jehovah and of 
Christ, in Syrian mythology. He clearly 
rejects the characteristic Christian doc 

BAUDRILLART, Professor Henri, 

French economist. B. Nov. 28, 1821. Ed. 
Coll6ge Bourbon, Paris. After a brilliant 
scholastic career Baudrillart became in 
1855 editor of the Journal des Economistes. 
In 1863 he was elected to the Academy. 
Three years later he was appointed professor 
at the College de France, and in 1881 at the 
Ecole les Ponts et des Chaussees. Besides 
important works on economics he published 
an eloquent panegyric of Voltaire (Discours 
sur Voltaire, 1844). D. Jan. 24, 1892. 

BAUER, Bruno, German Biblical critic. 
B. Sept. 6, 1809. Ed. Berlin University, 
where, in 1834, he was appointed a private 
teacherof theology. In 1839 he became pro 
fessor at Bonn, but he w r as deprived of his 
chair in 1842 on account of his Eationalistic 
conclusions. He settled at Berlin and 
founded the Allgemeine Litteraturzeitung . 
In his numerous historical and Scriptural 
works Bauer rejects all supernatural 
religion, and represents Christianity as a 
natural product of the mingling of the Stoic 
and Alexandrian philosophies. D.Apr. 13, 

BAUER, Edgar, German Biblical critic, 
brother of Bruno Bauer. B. Oct. 7, 1820. 
Ed. Berlin (theology and law). He shared 
his brother s views and actively engaged in 
the defence of them. His pamphlet Bruno 
Bauer und seine Gegner (1842) was seized 
by the authorities, and in the following year 
he was sentenced to imprisonment. In 
1843-44 he, in conjunction with Bruno, 
issued in twelve parts the Denkivttrdigkeiten 
ziir Geschichte der ncucren zeit, and he 
wrote various historical works. He took 
part in the revolutionary movement of 
1848-49, and was obliged to quit Germany. 
D. Aug. 18, 1886. 

BAX, Ernest Belfort, philosophic and 
\ social writer. B. July 23, 1854. Ed. 
I privately in England and Germany, 
devoting himself particularly to music and 
philosophy. On his return to England 
Mr. Bax qualified as a barrister (Middle 
Temple), but adopted journalism (1880), 
and, with William Morris, founded the 
English Socialist League. He was for a 
time joint editor of the Commonwealth, and 
later of Justice. He translated Kant s 
Prolegomena (1883), and wrote The Roots of 
Reality (1907) and other philosophical 
works. In his Problems of Men, Mind, and 
Morals (1912) he remarks that "for those 

who accept Socialism it is scarcely 

possible to conscientiously describe them 
selves as Christians, or even Theists " 
(p. 140). He prefers the title Atheist to 



Agnostic. See also his Outspoken Essays 
(1897) and recent Reminiscences and Re 
flexions (1918). 

BAYLE, Pierre, French philosopher and 
critic. B. Nov. 18, 1647. Ed. Puy- 
Laurens and Toulouse. In the Jesuit 
college at Toulouse he (1669) embraced 
Catholicism, but he was re-called to 
Protestantism by his father, a Protestant 
minister. He continued his study of 
philosophy at Geneva, and in 1675 he was 
appointed professor of philosophy in a 
Protestant school at Sedan. At its sup 
pression (1681) he went to Rotterdam and 
taught there. His salary and license to 
teach were withdrawn by the Dutch in 
1693, as he advocated universal toleration, 
even of Atheists. He then devoted himself 
to compiling his Dictionnaire Historique et 
Critique, which was published at Rotterdam 
in 1692. An English translation appeared 
in 1736. There are no articles on " God," 
" Christ," or " Immortality," and Bayle s 
opinions are not fully known, but may be 
inferred. The caustic and elaborately 
polite thrusts at both Catholic and Protes 
tant doctrines, the vindication of Greek 
and Roman thought, and the firm advocacy 
of toleration and of the independence of 
ethics, gave the Dictionary, of which 
very numerous editions and translations 
appeared, a very large share in the spread 
of Rationalism. In view of certain articles, 
written in the light mood of the age, it 
should be stated that Bayle was a man of 
very sober and dignified life. Various 
small works had preceded the Dictionary, 
and he wrote a further series in defence of 
it. D. Dec. 28, 1706. 

BEADNELL, Charles Marsh, M.R.C.S., 
L.R. C. P. ,L.S. A., naval surgeon. B. (India) 
Feb. 17, 1872. Ed. Cheltenham College 
and Guy s Hospital. Mr. Beadnell entered 
the Royal Navy as a surgeon in 1896. He 
served in the American Filipino War in 
1899, and the Boer War (1899-1900). In 
the latter war he was thrice mentioned in 
dispatches for gallantry in the field, and 


was specially promoted eight years 
seniority. During the European War he 
served in H.M.S. Shannon, of the Grand 
Fleet. He has written a number of papers 
and works on medical and naval subjects, 
expressing his Rationalist views particularly 
in A Ilylozoistic View of Mind and Matter 
(1915). He believes that " the only mental 
attitude consistent with intellectual nor 
mality and honesty is one of Agnosticism." 

"BEAUCHAMP, Philip." See 


BEAUSOBRE, Louis de, French writer. 
B. Aug. 22, 1730. Ed. Frankfort and 
Paris. Beausobre, though French, was 
born at Berlin, and adopted by Frederick 
the Great. He fully sustained the philo 
sophy of his adopted father. His Le 
Pyrrhonisms du Sage (1754) was con 
demned to the flames by the Paris Parlia 
ment. He is equally sceptical in his 
Songes d Epicure and other writings. 
D. Dec. 3, 1783. 

BEBEL, Ferdinand August, German 
Socialist leader. B. Feb. 22, 1840. He 
was the son of a non-commissioned officer, 
a Prussian Pole, and was at an early age 
put to dairy-work. In 1864 he became a 
master-turner at Leipzig, and, under the 
influence of Liebknecht, took an active part 
in the Labour Movement. In 1869 he 
helped to found the Social Democratic 
Party, and in 1871 entered the Reichstag. 
He vigorously denounced the French War 
and the ambition of Prussia, and was in 
1872 sentenced to two years and nine 
months in a fortress, during which period 
he improved his education. He served 
other terms of imprisonment, but (except 
in 1881-83) remained a fiery critic in the 
Reichstag until he died. He was zealously 
opposed to theology, as may be seen in his 
Christenthum und Sozialismus, Die Frau 
in der Vergangenheit, and Die Moham- 
medanisch-arabische Kulturperiode. D. Aug. 
14, 1913. 




Cesare, Italian reformer. B. Mar. 15, 
1735. He studied philosophy, accepted 
the teaching of the French Encyclopaedists, 
and became the leading figure of a group of 
Italian Eationalists. His famous plea for 
penal reform, Trattato del delitti e delle 
pene, was published anonymously at 
Monaco in 1764, and under his own name 
in 1781. It was enthusiastically received 
by the French Eationalists, and, by the 
many translations, it had a great influence 
all over Europe. Beccaria opposed capital 
punishment and insisted that general 
education would lessen crime. He was 
cautious as to religion, because, as he wrote 
to the Abbe Morellet, he " heard the noise 
of the chains rattled by superstition and 
fanaticism." In 1768 he became professor 
of State-Law in the Milan Academy. 
D. Nov. 28, 1794. 

BECKER, Professor Erich, Ph.D., 

German philosopher. B. Sep. 1, 1882. Ed. 
Bonn, where he graduated and became a 
private teacher. Since 1909 he has been 
professor of philosophy at the Miinster 
University. He is a Monist (see p. 419 of 
his Naturphilosoiriiie, 1914) in philosophy, 
or "critical realist," and a utilitarian in 
ethics, and has written many philosophical 
works. He regards reality as psychic, but 
rejects the idea of a separable soul. 

BECKER, Sir Walter Frederick, 

K.B.E., shipowner. B. 1855. Ed. Fal- 
mouth Classical and Grammar School. 
He has large shipowning interests in 
various countries, and since 1880 has been 
much engaged in his business in Sicily and 
Italy. Sir Walter, who is an Agnostic, 
has a high philanthropic record. He 
founded, maintained, and is chairman of 
the Maternity and Eescue Home at Turin. 
During the War he founded, maintained, 
and directed a hospital at Turin for the 
British Expeditionary Force, and did much 
other valuable work for British soldiers 
and sailors. He lives at Turin. 

BECKERS, Professor Hubert, German 
philosopher. B. Nov. 4, 1806. Ed. Munich. 
He became in 1832 a private teacher of 
philosophy at Munich, and in 1847 pro 
fessor of philosophy at the same university. 
In 1853 he was admitted to the Bavarian 
Academy of Science. Beckers followed 
Schelling s Pantheism and wrote a number 
of works on Schilling and philosophy. 
D. Mar. 11, 1889. 

BECKFORD, William, author of Vathelc. 
B. Sep. 29, 1759 ; son of the Lord Mayor 
of London. Ed. privately Fonthill and 
Geneva. From 1777 to 1782 he made the 
Continental tour, and during the next two 
years he wrote his brilliant oriental story, 
Vathek. The statement attributed to him 
by Eedding, that he wrote the work in 
three days, is false (see L. Melville, The 
Life and Letters of W. B., 1910, ch. vii). 
The work was written in French, published 
in Paris in 1787, and published anony 
mously in English in 1784. He wrote 
also on Italy, Spain, and Portugal, and 
bought Gibbon s library. Melville, who 
clears his character of many gossipy 
charges, says that he " leant towards 
Agnosticism" (p. 276). He believed in an 
" Eternal Power " and rejected all creeds. 
D. May 2, 1844. 

BEDDOES, Thomas, M.D., physician. 
B. Apr. 13, 1760. Ed. Bridgnorth Gram 
mar School and Oxford (Pembroke College), 
and (for medicine) London and Edinburgh. 
He was reader in chemistry at Oxford 
1788-92, but he resigned, under pressure, 
on account of his sympathies with the 
French Eevolution and his attacks on 
the clergy. For some years he directed 
a medical institute at Bristol, and he then 
lived by private practice. Beddoes, a 
Deist and friend of Erasmus Darwin (see 
Memoirs of the Life of T. B., J. E. Stock, 
1811), was an able and learned writer and 
an enthusiast for human progress. " From 
Beddoes I hoped for more good for the 
human race than any other individual," said 
Southey (Diet. Nat. Biog.}. D.Dec. 24, 1808. 



BEDDOES, Thomas Lovell, poet. B. 
July 20, 1803, eldest son of preceding. 
Ed. Bath Grammar School, Charterhouse, 
and Oxford (Pembroke College). He began 
at school to write poetry and drama, and 
at Oxford he freely expressed republican 
sentiments. His play, The Bride s Tragedy 
(1822), opened a successful career in letters; 
but in 1825 he went to Germany to study 
medicine. He took an active part in the 
revolutionary movement, and was driven 
to Switzerland. His most famous work, 
Death s Jest-Boole, occupied him for twenty 
years (1825-45), and was published after his 
death. In his letters (included in Kelsall s 
Memoir of him) he frequently expresses his 
advanced Rationalism. D. Jan. 26, 1849. 

BEESLY, Edward Spencer, Positivist. 
.B.June 23, 1831. Ed. privately and at Oxford 
(Wadham College), where he mefc Frederic 
Harrison. He was for some years assistant 
master of Marlborough College, and was 
introduced to Positivism by Congreve. 
In 1860 he became professor of history at 
University College and Principal of Univer 
sity College Hall. He began to edit the 
Positivist Eevieio in 1893, translated 
Comte s Discourse on the Positive Spirit 
(1903), and wrote various works. He 
made two unsuccessful attempts (in 1880 
and 1886) to enter Parliament, and did 
much to secure the recognition of Trade 
Unions and to further the welfare of the 
workers. D. July 7, 1915. 

BEETHOVEN, Ludwig von, German 
composer. B. at Bonn, Dec. 16, 1770. 
Trained by his father, a Catholic choir- 
singer, he became an assistant organist in 
1784, and was then sent to study under 
Haydn at Vienna. He adopted Goethe s 
Pantheistic philosophy and abandoned 
Catholicism (and Christianity). When 
Moscheles returned to him a manuscript 
with the words " With God s help " on it, 
Beethoven wrote: "Man, help thyself." 
The complete deafness which darkened his 
brilliant musical career in 1802 deepened 
his religious sentiment ; but it was never 

other than Pantheistic, even when he 
composed his famous " Missa Solemnis " 
(1818-21), which Sir G. Macfarren calls 
" perhaps the grandest piece of musical 
expression which art possesses." His friend 
and biographer, A. Schindler, observes that 
he was " inclined to Deism," and the 
careful study which Nohl prefixes to his 
edition of Beethoven s Brevier (1870) shows 
that he lived and died a Pantheist. Of his 
later years Nohl says (p. Ixxxvii) : " His 
religious feelings had now assumed such 
a character that no dogmas or narrow 
philosophy of life could satisfy him." At 
the entreaty of Catholic friends he received 
the ministrations of the Church before he 
died. Nohl says (p. Iv) that when the 
priest left the room Beethoven said to his 
friends in Latin : " Applaud, friends ; the 
comedy is over." Schindler, however, 
states that these words were addressed to 
himself at an earlier date, and referred to 
the expected close of Beethoven s life. It 
is at least clear in all the authorities that 
he accepted the sacraments only sym 
bolically. The Catholic Encyclopedia 
(which includes the more radical Free 
thinker Berlioz) omits Beethoven. Sir G. 
Macfarren describes him as " a free 
thinker " (Imper. Diet. Univ. Biog.). D. 
Mar. 26, 1827. 

BEGBIE, Major-General Elphinstone 
Waters, C.B., D.S.O. B. June 15, 1842. 
Ed. Crewkerne Grammar School, Bonn, 
and Canstatt. He was promoted Ensign 
of the Madras Infantry in 1859, Colonel in 
1889, Major-General in 1898, and D.A.G., 
Madras Command, with rank of Brigadier- 
General, 1895. General Begbie served in 
the Abyssinian Campaign, the Duffla Expe 
dition, and the Third Burmese War. He 
wrote several military works, and was a 
cordial supporter of the R. P. A. D. Feb. 
11, 1919. 

BEKKER, Balthasar, D.D., Dutch 
writer. B. Mar. 30, 1634. Ed. Groningen 
and Francken. He entered the ministry 
of the Reformed Church, but adopted the 




Cartesian philosophy and was much perse 
cuted for heresy. In 1680 he ridiculed 
the fear of the great comet which then 
appeared, and he nobly assailed the cruel 
superstition of witchcraft in DC, Betoovcrde 
Wereld (4 vols., 1691-93). The Church 
Synod condemned the book and deposed 
him (1692), and he was reduced to beggary. 
D. July 11, 1698. 

BELL, Major Thomas Evans, soldier 
and writer. B. Nov. 11, 1825. Ed. 
Wandsworth. Entering the Army in 1842, 
he served his term in India, and in 1861 
became Commissioner of Police for Madras. 
He retired in 1865, and after that date took 
a more open part in Eationalist work. 
The Task of To-day (1852), published in 
Watson s "Cabinet of Eeason," was written 
by Major Bell. He was an Agnostic and 
Secularist, of Holyoake s school. " The 
age of faith has passed away, and Chris 
tianity is now a mere abstraction " (p. 136). 
D. Sep. 12, 1887. 

BELOT, Professor Gustave, French 
Positivist philosopher. B. 1859. Ed. Lycee 
de Lyon and Ecole Normale Superieure. 
From 1881 to 1900 he was professor of 
philosophy at, successively, Saint-Quentin, 
Brest, Tours, and Janson-de-Sailly. Since 
1900 he has been professor at the Lycee 
Louis le Grand. Professor Belot is a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, Officer 
of Public Instruction, and member of the 
Conseil Superieur de 1 Instruction Publique. 
He has translated Mill s Logic (1897) and 
written various Positivist works. 

BENDER, Hedwig, German writer. B. 
Feb. 22, 1854. Ed. at various ladies 
colleges. She was trained as a teacher, 
but left the profession and devoted herself 
to letters and reform. Friiulein Bender 
has been a conspicuous worker in the 
German woman-movement, and has written 
a number of philosophical and Eationalist 
works. She is a Monist or Pantheist (in 
the sense of Spinoza). 

B E N E K E , Professor Friedrich 
Edward, German philosopher. B. Feb. 17, 
1798. Ed. Halle and Berlin Universities. 
He was a private teacher of philosophy afc 
Berlin (1820-22) and Gottingen (1824-27), 
then professor of philosophy at Berlin 
University from 1827 to his death. Beneke 
was a Critical Empiricist, and strongly 
opposed purely metaphysical speculation 
(like that of Hegel). Soul (a complex of 
forces) and body he regarded as two aspects 
of one reality ; and he held that we have 
no knowledge of the nature of " the uncon 
ditioned." His Lehrbuch der Psychologic 
(1833) and other works had a deep 
influence on German psychology and 
paedagogy. D. Mar. 1, 1854. 

BENN, Alfred William, B.A., philo 
sophical writer. B. Westmeath (Ireland), 
1843, son of an Irish clergyman. Ed. 
privately and at London University, where 
he took first-class honours in classics and 
third in logic and moral philosophy. He 
left England in 1866, and lived in Italy and 
Switzerland until his death. From 1885 
to 1897 he was on the staff of the Academy, 
and he was a member of the Society for the 
Promotion of Hellenic Studies and of the 
British Astronomical Association. His 
chief works were: The Greek Philosophers 
(2 vols., 1882), The History of English 
Rationalism in the Nineteenth Century 
(2 vols., 1906), and The History of Ancient 
and Modern Philosophy (2 vols., 1912). 
He was Agnostic, and an Honorary Asso 
ciate of the E. P. A. D. Sept. 16, 1915. 

BENNETT, De Robigne Mortimer, 

American Freethinker. B. Dec. 23, 1818. 
Ed. Cooperstown. In 1833 he became a 
Shaker, but heleft the community in 1846 and 
entered into business. He was subsequently 
an aggressive Freethinker, and in 1873 estab 
lished the Truthseeker. He was arrested 
three times, and spent a year in prison, for . 
heresy. During his imprisonment a peti 
tion for his release was signed by 200,000 
Americans. He wrote several Eationalist 
works, and the Freethinkers of America 



erected a monument over his grave. 
D. Dec. 6, 1882. 

BENNETT, Enoch Arnold, novelist and 
playwright. B. Staffordshire, May 27, 
1867. Ed. Newcastle Middle School and 
London University. He began to study 
law in his father s office, and in 1889 he 
entered a solicitor s office in London. In 
1893 he abandoned law for journalism, and 
from 1896 to 1900 was the editor of Woman. 
A Nan from the North (1898), his first 
no^el, opened to him a more distinguished 
career. His first play, Cupid and Common 
Sense, appeared in 1908. From 1900 to 
1908 he lived at Fontainebleau. Mr. 
Bennett is an Honorary Associate of the 
E. P. A. and an Agnostic. His genial 
philosophy of life is best seen in The 
Human Machine (1908), but the general 
humanism of his stories must have a fine 
influence on his millions of readers. 

BENTHAM, Jeremy, jurist and reformer. 
B. London, Feb. 15, 1748. Ed. by his 
father he began to learn Latin at four 
Westminster School, and Queen s College 
(Oxford). In later years he expressed his 
lively disgust of the theological atmosphere 
of " mendacity and insincerity," and 
declared these vices " the sure, and only 
sure, element of an English University 
education." He took his B.A. in his six 
teenth year, and M.A. in 1766. In 1767 
he was called to the bar, but he was little 
less disgusted with the legal atmosphere, 
and he quitted it. In 1775 he wrote his 
Rationale of Punishments and Rewards, 
and from 1776 to 1780 he was busy on his 
great work, Introduction to the Principles of 
Morals and Legislation, in which he ex 
pounded the utilitarian philosophy. To his 
zeal for the rational reform of law and 
prisons he joined a keen interest in political 
reform, the poor-law, education, the aboli 
tion of the oath, and other social ideals. 
In 1792 his father left him a large fortune, 
and he devoted his life to the cause of 
reform. In the same year the National 
Assembly at Paris made him a citizen of 

France. He was known throughout 
Europe as one of the most distinguished 
humanitarians of the time, and he had a 
profound influence on social progress and 
the advance of Eationalism in England. 
He was a declared Atheist, holding Chris 
tianity in such contempt that in some of 
his manuscripts it is called " Jug [gernaut] " 
(Stephen s Utilitarians, ii, 339). His rejec 
tion of all religion is fully expressed in a 
little work which he wrote in collaboration 
with Grote (under the pseudonym of 
"Philip Beauchamp "), Analysis of the 
Influence of Natural Religion on the Tem 
poral Happiness of Mankind (published 
1822). He was the first to design the cir 
cular prison, and he continued to the end 
of his life to work laboriously for reform. 
D. June 6, 1832, leaving his body for the 
use of science. 

BERANGER, Pierre Jean de, French 
poet. B. Aug. 19, 1780. He had no 
schooling, and was apprenticed at the age 
of fourteen to a printer, when he learned 
to read and write. He settled at Paris in 
1 797, and, his early poems winning some 
esteem, became a Secretary at the University 
(1809-21). The first volume of his songs 
appeared in 1815, and had a great success. 
From that date he wrote gay and unceasing 
satires on the clergy and reactionaries who 
had succeeded Napoleon, and his second 
volume (1821) got for him three months in 
prison. His fourth volume was visited by 
a heavier sentence, but he continued to fire 
the people against " the enemies of progress 
and freedom." After the Eevolution of 
1830 he refused all offers of office, and after 
1848 declined the seat in Parliament for 
which he was returned. He did incalcu 
lable work for the anti-clericals and demo 
crats, and at his death was granted the 
funeral honours of a marshal. D. July 16, 

BERGSON, Professor Henri Louis, 

D. es L., French philosopher. B. Paris, 
Oct. 18, 1859. Ed. Lycee Condorcet and 
Ecole Normale Superieure. He has been 
66 E 



professor of philosophy at the Lycee 
d Angers (1881-83), Lycee de Clermont 
(1883-88), College Eollin (1888-89), Lycee 
Henri IV (1889-97), and at the College de 
France (since 1900) and the Academie des 
Sciences Morales et Politiques (since 1901). 
Bergson is a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour, Member of the Insfcitut, and Officer 
of Public Instruction. He appeals (in 
theory) to instinct or intuition against 
reason, but is in his conclusions an advanced 
Eationalist. The fundamental^ reality is a 
creative or vital force which is " personal " 
only in a new sense of the word, and is not 
a perfect and eternal being (Creative Evolu 
tion, pp. 186-87), but may be called God. 
The God of theology " is nothing, since he 
does nothing" (p. 197). The immortality 
of the soul is " so probable that the burden 
of proof comes to lie on him who denies it " 
(Address to the Soc. Psych. Ees., 1914). 

BERKENHOUT, John, M.D., physician 
and writer. B. Leeds, 1730. Ed. Leeds 
Grammar School and in Germany. He 
served in the Prussian, and later in the 
English, army, and then studied medicine 
at Edinburgh and Leyden. He was not 
less eminent as a literary man than as a 
physician, and his writings range over 
medicine, natural history, and history. 
His chief work is his Biographia Literaria 
(1777), the preface of which is candidly 
Voltairean (see p. xxxi, etc.). His hostility 
to all theology pervades the work. In 1778 
he discharged a government mission to 
America. He was a man of great learning 
and versatility, a bold and sagacious thinker. 
D. Apr. 3, 1791. 

BERLIOZ, Hector, French musical com 
poser. B. Dec. 11, 1803. He was sent to 
Paris to study medicine, but he turned to 
music and wrote a cantata, " Sardanapale," 
which won a prize at the Conservatoire. 
In 1835 he became musical critic of the 
Journal des Debats, and in 1856 a member 
of the Institut. Berlioz, whose composi 
tions won for him a world-wide repute, 
turned out sacred pieces like his "Te 

Deum," " Messe des Morts," " Enfance de 
Jesus," etc., as well as secular compositions, 
but he was (though enshrined in the 
Catholic Encyclopedia) a complete Agnostic. 
His letters often betray this, and in one of 
the latest, written shortly before his death, 
he says : " I believe nothing " (G. K. Boult s 
Life of H. Berlioz, 1903, p. 298). D. Mar. 9, 

BERNARD, Professor Claude, M.D., 
D.Sc., French physiologist. B. July 12, 
1813. Ed. Jesuit College, Villefranche. In 
1834 he went to Paris, and, after some 
years study of medicine, became assistant 
to Majendie, whom he later succeeded as 
professor of physiology at the College de 
France. For his masterly services to 
physiology and medicine he was made a 
member of the Institut, the Academy, and 
the Berlin and St. Petersburg Academies of 
Science, a Fellow of the Eoyal Society 
(London), and a Commander of the Legion 
of Honour. He was the first man of 
science in France to be buried at the public 
expense, and, as the cortege started from 
Notre Dame, Bernard is claimed by Catho 
lics. It is clear, however, that the last- 
hour ministrations of the Church which 
were given him had no more significance 
than in the case of Beethoven. In his Claude 
Bernard (1899) Sir Michael Foster quotes 
him saying : " The Vespers are an opera for 
servant-girls " (p. 205). His chief work, 
Introduction d I etude de la medicine experi- 
mentale (1865), frequently expresses Agnos 
tic sentiments. "The best philosophical 
system is to have none at all " (p. 51). 
Philosophy represents " the eternal aspira 
tion of human reason toward a knowledge 
of the unknown " (351), and he speaks ^ of 
the " questions which torment humanity 
and which humanity has not yet solved " 
(p. 355; 1898 edition). He opposed Vitalism, 
and was one of the chief founders of 
mechanistic science. D. Feb. 10, 1878. 

BERNARD, Henry Meyners, biologist. 
In 1889 Bernard worked under Haeckel at 
Jena. He translated A. Lang s Text-Book 




of Comparative Anatomy (1891) and wrote 
several biological works. In his Some 
Neglected Factors of Evolution (1911) he 
speaks of the " intellectual dreams " of the 
Churches as " frightful nightmares to those 
who wake up and think rather than feel." 
D. Nov., 1907. 

BERNSTEIN, Aaron, Jewish writer. 
B. 1812. Ed. Berlin. He was destined 
for the synagogue, but he turned to science 
and letters, and in 1834, under the pseu 
donym of A. Eebenstein, published a trans 
lation of The Song of Songs. He wrote 
also works on philosophy and science, and 
a few novels. He was conspicuous in the 
democratic Eationalist activity in Germany 
in the forties. D. Feb. 12, 1884. 

BERNSTEIN, Edward, German poli 
tician. B. Jan. 6, 1850. Ed. High School, 
Berlin. He was a bank clerk from 1866 
to 1878, and private secretary from 1878 
to 1880. He joined the Social Demo 
cratic Party in 1872, and was expelled from 
Germany. Bernstein lived in Switzerland 
in 1878-88, and at London 1888-1901. 
Eeturning to Germany in 1901, he has 
since 1902 been Deputy for Breslau in the 
Eeichstag and a leader of the Minority 
group. Bernstein rejects the theories of 
Karl Marx, and follows the Kantian philo- 
sophy (but not theology). He is an 

BERT, Paul, M.D., D.Sc., French states 
man. B. Oct. 17, 1833. Ed. Auxerre and 
Paris (law and science). After teaching 
zoology for some years at Bordeaux, he in 
1869 succeeded Claude Bernard as pro 
fessor of physiology at the Sorbonne. In 
1875 he won the Grand Prize of the 
Academy of Science. In 1871 Gambetta 
offered him the position of Prefect of the 
North. In 1874 he entered Parliament, 
and, as he had discarded all religion since 
his youth, became one of the most powerful 
opponents of the clericals. As Minister 
of Public Instruction he in 1884 secured 
secular education in the schools of France. 

He urged the Government to disestablish 
the Church and purchase all ecclesiastical 
buildings. In 1886 he was made Governor- 
General of French Indo-China. His Eation- 
alism is best seen in his Morale des Jesuites 
(1880) and Le Clericalisme (1900). D. 
Dec. 11, 1886. 

BERTANI, Agostino, M.D., Italian poli 
tician. B. Oct. 19, 1812. Ed. Pavia. He 
sacrificed his medical practice for his politi 
cal views, and was exiled for taking part 
in the 1848 rebellion against Austria and 
the Papacy. He supported the Garibaldian 
campaign, and became secretary of the 
Provisional Government at Naples, repub 
lican member of Parliament, and one of 
the founders of the Democratic League. 
Bertani was a strenuous and thorough 
anti-clerical. D. Apr. 30, 1886. 

BERTHELOT, Professor Pierre Eugene 
Marcellin, D.Sc., founder of organic chem 
istry. B. Oct. 25, 1827. Ed. College 
Henri IV. In 1859 Berthelot was appointed 
professor of chemistry at the School of 
Pharmacy, and his great work, Chimie 
organique fondee sur la synthese (2 vols., 
1860), which he was then writing, is 
regarded as the basis of modern organic 
chemistry. In 1865 a chair of organic 
chemistry was created for him at the 
College de France. He was admitted to 
the Academy of Sciences in 1873. He 
was also General Inspector of Public 
Instruction (1876), Senator (1881), Grand 
Officer of the Legion of Honour (1886), 
Minister of Public Instruction (1887), and 
Perpetual Secretary of the Academy of 
Sciences (1889). Berthelot was an 
Honorary Associate of the Eationalist 
Press Association, and as ardent for the 
spread of Eationalism as he was distin 
guished in science. He would listen to no 
compromise whatever with religion. See 
his Science et Morale (1897) and Science et 
Libre Pensee (1905). In a letter addressed 
to the Eome Congress of Freethinkers in 
1904 he scorns " the poison vapours of 
superstition " and longs for a " reign of 




reason " (quoted in Dr. J. B. Wilson s Trip 
to Rome, p. 158). D. Mar. 18, 1907. 

BERTHOLLET, Claude Louis, Count 

de, French chemist. B. Dec. 9, 1748. Ed. 
Turin. He settled at Paris in 1772, and 
was appointed professor of chemistry at 
the Ecole Normale. Berthollet was one 
of the scientific men who accompanied 
Napoleon to Egypt, and the Emperor made 
him Count and Senator. Louis XVIII 
confirmed his title, but he avoided the 
political world during the period of reaction 
and devoted himself to his science. He 
made a number of important discoveries 
(including that of the composition of 
ammonia) in theoretical science and in 
the application of chemistry to industry, 
and he traced the laws of affinity and 
greatly improved chemical terminology. 
Berthollet was a grave, high-minded man, 
always loyal to the Eationalism of the 
revolutionary period in which he had been 
educated. D. Nov. 6, 1822. 

BERTI, Professor Domenico, Ph.D., 

Italian philosopher and statesman. B. 
Dec. 17, 1820. Ed. Turin. In 1846 he 
became professor of methodology at Novara, 
and in 1849 professor of paedagogy at Turin 
University. In the following year he 
entered the Camera, founded the Italian 
Education Society, and was appointed 
professor of moral philosophy at Turin 
University. He was Eeferendary of the 
State Council (1860-62), General Secretary 
of the Board of Trade (1862-64), Minister of 
Public Instruction (1866-67), professor of 
philosophy at Eome University (1871-77), 
Minister of Agriculture and Commerce 
(1881-84), Vice-President of the Camera 
(1884), and Chancellor of the Order of the 
Crown of Italy (1889). Berti was a liberal 
Theist or Pantheist, a warm admirer of 
Giordano Bruno, and throughout his dis 
tinguished career a moderate progressist 
and anti-clerical. D. Apr. 21, 1897. 

BERTILLON, Alphonse, French crimi- 
nologist. B. Apr. 22, 1853. He was 


appointed Chief of the Identification Office 
in the Paris Prefecture de Police, and his- 
brilliant work culminated in the establish 
ment, in 1879, of the famous Bertillon 
system of measurement, which was adopted 
in most other countries. The English 
police adopted it in 1896. Bertillon, who 
shared his father s advanced views, wrote 
a number of works on anthropology and 
criminology. D. Feb. 13, 1914. 

BERTILLON, Professor Louis 
Adolphe, French anthropologist, father of 
the preceding. B. Apr. 1, 1821. Ed. 
Paris. He was physician to the Mont- 
morency Hospital from 1854 to 1860, then 
professor of demography at the Paris 
School of Anthropology and head of the 
Municipal Statistical Bureau. He wrote 
many works on medicine and anthropology. 
Wheeler quotes him writing to Bishop 
Dupanloup : " You hope to die a Catholic ; . 
I hope to die a Freethinker " (Diet, of 
Freethinkers). D. Feb. 28, 1883. 

BERWICK, George, M.D., surgeon. 
Dr. Berwick was a surgeon in the service 
of the East India Company from 1828- 
to 1852. After his retirement he wrote 
Awas-i-hind (1861), which he describes as 
" a solution of the true source of Chris 
tianity." He wrote also Forces of the 
Universe (1870) and, under the pseudonym 
of " Presbyter Anglicanus," published 
several pamphlets in Scott s series. D. 

BESANT, Sir Walter, novelist. B. 
Aug. 14, 1836. Ed. London (King s Col 
lege) and Cambridge (Christ s College), 
From 1861 to 1867 he was senior professor 
at the Eoyal College of Mauritius. On his 
return to London he devoted himself to- 
fiction, especially to romances of London 
life. He founded the Society of Authors 
in 1884, and was knighted in 1895. Besant 
took a great interest in social reform, and 
he was largely instrumental in the estab 
lishment of the People s Palace in East 
London. In his Autobiography (pp. 280- 



85) he expressly rejects Christian doctrines. 
He professes a pure Theism, and in a long 
profession of faith is significantly silent 
about the belief in immortality. He says : 
The whole of the ecclesiastical system, 
with the pretensions of the clergy, the 
mock mystery of their ritual, the super 
natural nonsense of their claims, their 
schemes for the domination of the human 

intellect are foolish, baseless, and to 

the highest degree mischievous." He 
thinks that our age has " not a single rag 
or scrap of the ecclesiastical rubbish left." 
D. June 9, 1901. 

BETHAM-EDWARDS, Matilda, writer. 
B. 1836. Ed. " at home, by herself " (she 
says). Her first novel, Kitty, was published 
in 1872. Besides her well-known novels, 
she wrote a number of valuable works on 
France, where she lived for forty years. 
She knew and appreciated France as few 
Englishmen do. In 1891 the French 
Government made her an Officier de 
1 Instruction Publique. In the course of 
an obituary notice in the Positivist Review 
(Feb., 1919) Mr. F. Harrison, who knew 
her well, describes her as "an uncom 
promising opponent of the Catholic Church 

hardly more tolerant of the Anglican 

Church." He adds that she was too 
" Voltairean " to join the Positivists. D. 
Jan. 4, 1919. 

BETTINELLI, Saverio, Italian ex- 
Jesuit. B. July 18, 1718. Ed. Jesuit 
College, Bologna. He entered the Jesuit 
Society, and filled in succession the offices 
of professor of rhetoric at Venice, rector 
of the Royal College at Parma (1751-58), 
and professor of rhetoric at Modena. When 
the Society was suppressed Bettinelli, who 
was one of its most learned Italian repre 
sentatives, remained nominally in the 
ranks of the clergy ; but he was a friend 
and admirer of Voltaire, and his numerous 
and weighty works (published in a collected 
edition of 24 vols. in 1801) show that he 
shared Voltaire s Deism. See especially his 
Discours philosophiques. D. Sep. 13, 1808. 

BEYINGTON, Louisa Sarah. 



BEYLE, Marie Henri (" M. de Stend 
hal"), French writer. B. Jan. 23, 1783. 
Beyle was educated by a priest, but he 
became a Rationalist at an early age. He 
served in Napoleon s army and in the 
French civil administration, and after the 
Restoration in 1815 he went to Milan to 
study the arts and sciences. He joined 
the Carbonari, and was expelled by the 
Austrians in 1821. The French then 
appointed him Consul at Civita Vecchia. 
Beyle s numerous, solid, and laboriously 
written works on art were little appreciated. 
Even his Essai sur I amour (1822), which 
has been much admired by later genera 
tions, sold only seventeen copies in eleven 
years. La Chartreuse de Parme (1839) 
was his first work to win attention, and he 
was greatly appreciated by Flaubert and 
other distinguished writers. His experience 
with the general public had not a little to 
do with his cynicism. He was an Atheist. 
" Ce qui excuse Dieu, c est qu il n existe 
pas," he said (quoted in Prosper Merimee s 
privately printed memoir, H.B., by " P. M.," 
1853, a fine and candid appreciation, full 
of Rationalism). D. Mar. 23, 1842. 

BIANCHI-GIOYINI, Aurelio, Italian 
historian. B. Nov. 25, 1799. Ed. Catholic 
Seminary, Milan. In 1830 the Austrian 
authorities drove him to Switzerland, 
where he founded II Eepublicano in 1835. 
He was a powerful opponent, in journalism 
and letters, of Austria and the Papacy. 
His Biografia da Fra Paolo Sarpi (2 vols., 
1836) was put on the Index ; and he wrote 
also a valuable Storia del Papi (12 vols., 
1850-54) and a number of other Rationalist 
historical works. D. May 16, 1862. 

BICHAT, Marie Frangois Xavier, 

French anatomist. B. Nov. 11, 1771. Ed. 
by his father (a physician), and at Lyons 
and Paris. From 1797 onward he taught 
anatomy and surgery at Paris, and he early 
entered upon the original researches into 



the nature of living tissue which have made 
him a classic authority in anatomy. Bichat 
was appointed physician to the Hotel-Dieu 
at the early age of twenty-seven (1799). 
His chief works Traitc des membranes 
(1800), Anatomie generate (1801), and 
Recherches physiologiques sur la vie et la 
mort (1801) are manuals of Materialism, 
but his generous life and high ideals show 
that, as in the case of other Materialists, 
his philosophy did not lack inspiration. 
D. July 22, 1802. 

BIERCE, Ambrose, (" Dod Grile"), 
American humorist. B. June 24, 1842. 
Bierce served in the Civil War, and was 
brevetted major "for distinguished ser 
vices." He afterwards adopted journalism 
and edited the Argonaut and the Wasp 
(1877-84). His Cobwebs from an Empty 
Skull (1874) was the first of a series of 
humorous works which made him a 
great favourite of the American public. 
His collected works were published 
in twelve volumes in 1912. Bierce s 
thorough Eationalism is best seen in his 
Cynic s Word Book (1906), which contains 
many caustic definitions of religious things. 
" Canonicals " are said to be " the motley 
worn by jesters at the Court of Heaven." 
Faith is defined as " belief without evidence 
in what is told by one who speaks without 
knowledge of things without parallel." 

BICKERSTETH, Henry, M.A., Baron 
Langdale, Master of the Kolls. B. June 18, 
1783. Ed. Kirkby Lonsdale Grammar 
School, Edinburgh, and Cambridge (Caius 
College). He was senior wrangler and 
senior Smith s prizeman. Admitted to the 
Inner Temple in 1808, and called to the bar 
in 1811, he became a King s Counsel in 
1827. In 1834 he declined the position of 
Solicitor General, which was offered him, 
and two years later he was appointed 
Master of the Eolls, admitted to the Privy 
Council, and created Baron Langdale. In 
1850 he refused the Lord Chancellorship. 
Baron Langdale, who adjudicated on the 
Gorham case in 1850, had a high repute 

both for ability and conscientiousness. He 
was a great friend of Bentham, James 
Mill, and Sir F. Burdett, and he agreed 
with them in rejecting the prevailing creed. 
His biographer, T. D. Hardy (Memoirs of 
the Bight Honourable Henry Lord Langdale, 
2 vols., 1852), diplomatically says that his- 
religious feeling was "too deep and too 
exalted for the common opinions of the 
age," but admits that he w^as generally 
regarded by those who knew him as 
" destitute of religious feeling " (i, 25). He 
does not attempt to say what Lord 
Langdale s beliefs were. He was, in fact, 
an ardent Benthamite, but he apparently 
admitted some shade of Theism. He was 
a great admirer of the works of J. S. Mill. 
D. Apr. 18, 1851. 

BINET, Alfred, French psychologist. 
B. July 8, 1857. Ed. Paris (law and 
medicine). From 1880 onward he devoted 
himself to psychology, and in 1886 his 
Psychologie du raisonnement inaugurated a, 
brilliant series of psychological works. In 
1895 he became joint editor of L Annee 
Psychologique. He was Director of the 
Laboratory of Physiological Psychology at 
the Sorbonne, and was especially interested 
in the psychology of the child. In its 
obituary notice Nature observed : "The 
science of psychology has suffered a severe 
loss by his death." Binet was not a 
dogmatic Materialist, as is sometimes said, 
but he held that mind cannot exist apart 
from matter (see L dme et le corps, 1905, 
English translation 1907). D. Oct., 1911. 

BIOT, Jean Baptiste, F.E.S., French 
astronomer. B. Apr. 21, 1774. Ed. 
College Louis le Grand and Ecole Poly- 
technique, Paris. After teaching for some 
years at Beauvais he was, in 1800, 
appointed professor at the College de 
France. Biot reached the first rank of 
French astronomers and mathematicians, a 
very brilliant group in his time, and 
rendered great service to his science. He 
was admitted to the Institut, the English 
Eoyal Society (1815), and the Legion of 



Honour (1814). Besides his many tech 
nical works he published an enthusiastic 
eulogy of Montaigne (Eloge de Montaigne, 
1812), and throughout the period of re 
action he was loyal to the Rationalism of 
his early years. D. Feb. 3, 1862. 

BIRCH, William John, M.A., lawyer. 
B. Jan. 4, 1811. Ed, Oxford (Balliol) and 
New Inn. He was admitted to the bar in 
1841. Birch was a very versatile man and 
an outspoken friend of reform. He was a 
member of the Italian Asiatic Society and 
a generous supporter of the Mazzinians. 
The early Rationalist movement had his 
constant sympathy and aid. He edited the 
account of the trial of Thomas Paterson for 
blasphemy, brought out the " Library of 
Reason," and supported and contributed to 
the Reasoner and the Investigator. He 
wrote An Inquiry into the Philosophy and 
Religion of Shakespeare (1848 a work of 
great value), An Inquiry into the Philosophy 
and Religion of the Bible (1856), and other 
works. D. 1863. 

BIRKBECK, George, M.D., founder of 
the Mechanics Institutions. B. Jan. 10, 
1776. Ed. Edinburgh and London. 
Graduating in medicine in 1799, he was 
appointed professor of philosophy at the 
Andersonian University, Glasgow. In 1800 
he established courses of lectures for the 
workers, and these became in 1823 the 
Glasgow Mechanics Institution. In 1804 
he resigned his chair, and engaged in legal 
practice at London, where he founded the 
Mechanics Institution which is now known 
as the Birkbeck Institution. He gave it 
very generous financial and personal aid, 
and he was also one of the founders of 
University College in 1827. J. S. Godard 
says in his biography (George Birkbeck, 
1884) that he came of a Quaker family, and 
never abandoned Theism, but that in his 
later years he " does not appear to have 
identified himself with any special 
denomination" (p. 185). D. Dec. 1, 1841. 

BITHELL, Richard, Ph.D., B.Sc., 

author. B. Mar. 22, 1821. Ed. Gottingen 
and London Universities. Dr. Bithell, who 
was in the service of the Rothschilds, was 
a cultivated and outspoken Rationalist. 
His Creed of a Modern Agnostic (1883) and 
Agnostic Problems (1887) were of consider 
able service in the early days of the move 
ment. He was a member of the Ration 
alist Press Committee, which founded the 
Rationalist Press Association. 

BIZET, Alexandre Cesar Leopold 

(generally known as "Georges" Bizet), 
French composer. B. Oct. 25, 1838. He 
entered the Paris Conservatoire at the age 
of nine, and for ten years won nearly every 
available prize there. Among others he 
won the Prix de Rome, and went to Italy 
to complete his education. After his 
return he produced several operas of dis 
tinction, but he had little public success 
until he composed Carmen in 1875 ; though 
the merit of even this work was not recog 
nized until after his premature death. His 
letters (edited by L. Ganderax, 1908) are 
full of drastic Rationalism. " I have," he 
says, " always read the ancient pagans 
with infinite pleasure, while in Christian 
writers I find only system, egoism, in 
tolerance, and a complete lack of artistic 
taste" (p. 238). D. June 3, 1875. 

BJORKMANN, Edwin August, Ameri 
can writer. B. (Sweden) Oct. 19, 1866. 
Ed. Stockholm Higher Latin School. After 
spending some years as clerk, actor, and 
journalist, he migrated to America in 1891, 
and definitely adopted journalism. He 
edited the Minnesota Post (1892-94), and 
worked on the Minneapolis Times (1894- 
97) and the New York Sun and Times 
(1897-1905). From 1906 to 1912 he was 
on the editorial staff of the Evening Post, 
and he then became Department-Editor of 
The World s Work. In 1914 he won a 
scholarship of the American- Scandinavian 
Foundation for literary study in Europe. 
Bjorkmann has written a number of works, 
which are all tinged with Rationalism. In 
Gleams (1912) he appreciates "the diminish- 



ing core of mystery left for our emotions 
to feed on " (p. 91), and says that his god 
is "the future" (p. 93). 

BJORNSON, Bjornstjerne, Norwegian 
poet, novelist, and dramatist. B. Dec. 8, 
1832. Ed. at a private school in Christiania 
(with Ibsen) and at Christiania University. 
Though the son of a Lutheran pastor, 
Bjornson became not only one of the most 
distinguished literary artists of Scandi 
navia, but the greatest Eationalist of his 
country. His first drama (Between the 
Battles) and first novel (Trust and Trial] 
appeared in 1857. From that year until 
1863 he was Director of the Bergen 
Theatre, and from 1863 to 1865 of the 
Christiania Theatre. His novels, dramas, 
and poems during these and later years 
brought him a European reputation little 
inferior to that of Ibsen, his great Scandi 
navian contemporary and fellow Eation 
alist. He remained a Christian until 1875, 
when the study of Herbert Spencer dissolved 
his belief and he became an aggressive 
Agnostic. His Whence came the Miracles 
of the New Testament ? (1882) was one of 
the first Eationalist publications to appear 
in Norway, and in the following year he 
translated a lecture of Ingersoll s. Bjornson 
was an Honorary Associate of the E. P. A., 
and he was a leader for thirty years of the 
Norwegian republicans. In 1903 he won 
the Nobel Prize for literature. To mention 
his name in Norway, says Dr. Brandes, 
was " like running up the national flag," 
and at his death the Athenaum observed 
that " European literature had sustained 
no such loss since Victor Hugo." D. Apr. 
26, 1910. 

BLAGOSYETLOY, Grigorevich, Eus- 
sian writer. B. 1826. Ed. Saratov and 
Petrograd. After teaching for some years 
in the military school at Petrograd he 
adopted letters, and he won a high position 
in the realist or naturalist school. His 
journal, Russian Speech, was suppressed, 
and he afterwards edited Action (Djelo). 
He translated Mill s Subjection of Women, 

and wrote on Mill, Shelley, Buckle, and 
Darwin. He was a very advanced thinker 
on religion and on social subjects. D. 1885. 

BLAKE, William, poet. B. Nov. 28, 
1757. Ed. Parr s drawing school and the 
Eoyal Academy. Blake was early appren 
ticed to engraving, and in 1784 he opened 
a shop for the sale of prints. In addition 
to his high skill as an engraver, he wrote 
remarkable poetry, in which mysticism 
was blended with a bold rejection of ortho 
dox traditions. His Songs of Innocence 
were published in 1789, and Songs of 
Experience in 1794. He was influenced 
by, but did not entirely follow, Swedenborg, 
declaring that he knew that his "visions" 
were purely subjective. See W. M. 
Eossetti s introduction to the 1874 edition 
of his poems (p. Ixxvi, etc.). He was a 
Theist, but Christian only in a dreamy and 
sentimental sense. D. Aug. 12, 1827. 

BLANC, Jean Joseph Charles Louis, 

French political writer. B. Oct. 29, 1811. 
Ed. Lycee Eodez, Madrid. His father 
having been ruined by the fall of Napoleon, 
Louis completed his education by personal 
study and became a tutor. Eeturning to 
Paris in 1834, he edited Bon Sens, and in 
1839 he founded the Eevue du Progres. 
His famous work L organisation du travail 
was published in 1840. In 1848 Blanc 
had a place in the Provisional Government, 
but he was not, as is often said, the creator 
of the National Workshops. He fled to 
England, returned to France in 1870, took 
part in the Commune, and afterwards 
sat for many years in Parliament. He 
founded L Homme Libre, and wrote several 
important historical works, in which his 
complete rejection of religion is often 
expressed. D. Dec. 6, 1882. 

BLANQUI, Louis Auguste, French Com 
munist. B. Feb. 7, 1805. A tutor in 
early life, he adopted communist ideas and 
took part in the Eevolutions of 1830 and 
1848. He had been condemned to imprison 
ment for life in 1840, but he was liberated 



in 1848. Blanqui was the leader of the 
Commune of 1871. In all he served thirty- 
seven years half his life in jail. He 
was no less advanced in regard to religion. 
" Neither god nor master " was his motto. 
Blanqui was a profoundly sincere and high- 
minded political enthusiast. D.Jan. 2, 1881. 

BLATCHFORD, Robert, Socialist writer. 
B. Mar. 17, 1851. Ed. "nowhere" (he 
says). He was apprenticed in his boyhood 
to a brushmaker, but he joined the army 
and became a sergeant. Leaving the army 
in 1878, he worked for six years as a clerk, 
and in 1884 he turned to journalism. From 
1885 to 1891 he was on the staff of the 
Sunday Chronicle. In the latter year he 
established the Clarion as the organ of his 
Socialist views. For the last twenty years 
Mr. Blatchford has been a powerful advo 
cate of Eationalism, especially in his God 
and My Neighbour (1903) and Not Guilty 
(1906), as well as in the columns of his 
paper. Determinism is one of the chief 
foundations of his social philosophy, and 
his bold and finely-written criticisms have 
been one of the main influences in with 
drawing British workers from clerical 
influence. The immense circulation of 
Haeckel s Riddle of the Universe among 
the workers is due in no small measure to 
his recommendation. 

BLATHWAYT, Lieutenant - Colonel 
Linley, soldier. B. Sept. 7, 1839. Ed. 
Maiiborough College. He took service in 
the 79th Highlanders and with them 
passed through the Indian Mutiny Cam 
paign. He served with the Expeditionary 
Force in China 1860-62 and the Bhootan 
Expedition 1864-65. From 1865 to 1880 
he was in Civil employ in Assam and 
Chutia-Nagpore. He retired from the 
Bengal Staff Corps in 1880, and settled 
for the remainder of his life at Batheaston. 
Colonel Blathwayt, who was an Agnostic 
and a member of the R. P. A., belonged to 
the Linnaean, the Entomological, the Bristol 
and Gloucester Archaeological, and the 
Somerset Archaelogical Societies. In 1891 

he was President of the Bath Microscopical 
Society. D. Sept. 17, 1919. 

BLEIBTREU, Carl, German poet and 
critic. B. Jan. 13, 1859. Ed. Berlin 
University. Bleibtreu is a leading repre 
sentative of naturalism in German letters, 
and a writer of marked individuality in 
style and thought. His dramatic works 
were published in three volumes in 1889, 
and he has written about fifty further 
volumes (poetry, history, criticism, etc.). 
In his Die Vertreter des Jahrhunderts 
(2 vols., 1904) he premises that he will 
" offend all parties." He is, like G. B. 
Shaw, equally scornful of Materialism and 

B L E I N, Baron Ange Francois 
Alexandre, French general. B. Nov. 27, 
1767. Ed. Military School, Paris. He 
entered the French Army in 1794, and 
served in all Napoleon s wars with great 
distinction. He was gazetted General of 
Brigade in 1815. Blein was dismissed at 
the Restoration, but was recalled to the 
Army as reaction approached its term in 
1830. He wrote a number of military, 
scientific, and political works, and a volume 
of essays (Essais philosophiques, 1843), in 
which his Voltaireanism finds expression. 
His death, curiously enough, is not recorded 
in any of the French authorities. 

BLIND, Karl, agitator. B. Sept. 4, 1826. 
Ed. Strassburg (law). He began while a 
university student to advocate extreme 
political opinions, was imprisoned in 1847 
for circulating a work by Heinzen, and 
was one of the leaders of the revolutionary 
movement in 1848. Condemned in 1849 
to eight years imprisonment, he was freed 
by the soldiers and people, and sent as 
representative to Paris. Napoleon expelled 
him from France, and he settled in London, 
taking an active part in the liberation move 
ment all over Europe, and publishing a 
number of works on mythology, history, etc. 
Blind disdainfully rejected all theology. 
D. May 31, 1907. 




BLIND, Mathilde, poet, step-daughter 
of Karl Blind. B. Mar. 21, 1841. Ed. 
Belgium and St. John s Wood (London). 
Her original name was Cohen, but she 
adopted Blind s name when her mother 
married him, and shared his views and his 
exile. In her Autobiography she says that 
she was for a time a Christian " in a certain 
sense," but she early rejected all religion, 
and was expelled from her London school 
for heresy. She began to publish poems 
in 1867, and in 1873 she translated Strauss s 
The Old Faith and the New. Her chief 
poem is The Ascent of Man (1888), and she 
wrote various biographies of women. Dr. 
Garnett says : " Her poetry is noble in 
execution as in aspiration, and her character 
was even more noble than her poetry." 
Miss Blind inherited (1892) the fortune of 
her step-brother, and bequeathed the greater 
part of it to Newnham College, of which 
she is one of the founders. D. Nov. 26, 

BLOCH, Ivan, M.D., German medical 
and social writer. B. Apr. 8, 1872. Ed. 
Bonn, Heidelberg, and Berlin Universities. 
A physician in medical practice at Berlin, 
Dr. Bloch has written a series of important 
works on such subjects as prostitution and 
sexual psychology. He is a distinguished 
member of the Berlin Medical Society, the 
Goethe Society, and the Anthropological 
Society, and is an outspoken Monist and 
supporter of Professor Haeckel. In Was 
Wir Ernst Haeckel Verdanken (1914) he 
describes the great Monist leader as " the 
St. George who has slain the dragon of 
the ills of modern man, and has ruthlessly 
branded all the dualistic survivals of pre- 
scientific culture as obstacles to the mental 
and moral progress of humanity " (II, 357). 

BLOUNT, Charles, Deist. B. Apr. 27, 
1654. In 1679 he published Anima Mundi, 
a Deistic work in which his father is said 
to h ave collaborated. The book was burned, 
but re-issued. He also translated the life 
of Apollonius of Tyana, and wrote Religio 
Laid and other works. Blount fought for 

liberty of expression and for legal recog 
nition of marriage with a deceased wife s 
sister. He professes in his works to be a 
Christian, though he is more outspoken in 
his posthumous Oracles of Reason (1693), 
and he everywhere undermines Christianity 
by pointing out its Pagan sources. D. 
Aug., 1693. 

BLOUNT, Sir Henry, Deist, father of 
preceding. B. Dec. 15, 1602. Ed. St. 
Albans and Oxford (Trinity Coll.). After 
graduating he studied law and travelled 
extensively, subsequently publishing a very 
popular Voyage to the Levant (1636). He 
was knighted in 1639, and served on various 
Eoyal Commissions. In The Oracles of 
Reason (mainly a collection of his son s 
letters) there is a Latin fragment on the 
soul by Sir H. Blount, in which he repre 
sents that God " is all things," that the 
material universe is his body, and that 
man is compacted of a union of God and 
the world and " dissipated by the dissolu 
tion of that union " (pp. 152-54). D. Oct. 9, 

BLOUNT, Sir Thomas Pope, writer, 
eldest son of Sir Henry Blount. B. Sep. 12, 
1649. Ed. privately. Blount, a man of 
considerable repute in his time, and member 
for St. Albans, was created a baronet in 
1679. After the Eevolution he was Com 
missioner of Accounts in the House of 
Commons. His Essays on Several Subjects 
(published 1692), which were regarded by 
some of his contemporaries as " in no way 
inferior to Montaigne," are openly Deistic 
(see, especially, the essay added in the 
third edition, 1697). He published also a 
remarkable biographical dictionary and 
other works. D. June 30, 1697. 

BLUM, Robert, German agitator. B. 
Nov. 10, 1807. Blum was the self-educated 
son of a worker, and was in succession 
a manual worker, a clerk, a soldier, and 
secretary to a theatre-director. He was 
one of the founders of the Schiller- Verein 
and a co-editor of the Theaterlexikon 



(7 vols., 1839-42). Holding very advanced 
opinions in politics as well as religion, he 
took an active part in the 1848 Revolution, 
and was Vice-President of the revolutionary 
Parliament. He was shot by the victorious 
authorities, and a sum of 120,000 marks 
was publicly subscribed for his dependents. 
D. Nov. 9, 1848. 

BOCAGE, Manoel Maria Barbosa, Por 
tuguese poet. B. Sep. 15, 1765. He served 
in the navy until 1790, and then turned to 
letters. Bocage is generally regarded as 
the greatest Portuguese poet since Camoens. 
On account of an open letter to Voltaire 
(Verdades Duras), in which he denied the 
immortality of the soul, he was imprisoned 
by the Inquisition in 1797, and he was 
later prosecuted for joining the Freemasons. 
T. Braga edited a collected edition of his 
poems in seven volumes (1876). D. Dec. 21, 

BODICHON, Barbara Leigh Smith, 

foundress of Girton College. B. Apr. 8, 1827. 
Linked through her father with Cobden 
and other distinguished politicians, Mme. 
Bodichon was equally intimate with 
advanced writers like George Eliot, D. G. 
Rossetti, and G. J. Holyoake. Several of 
her pamphlets were published by Holyoake, 
with whom she agreed. She is the model 
of George Eliot s Romola. In her early 
years she had founded The Englishivomaris 
Journal (which had been suggested by 
Holyoake), and throughout her life she 
was zealous for the education and emanci 
pation of her sex. " She may justly be 
regarded as the foundress of Girton College " 
(Diet. Nat. Biog.), of which she devised 
the plan, and for which she supplied large 
funds (over 11,000). D. June 11, 1891. 

BODIN, Jean, French lawyer and philo 
sopher. B. 1530. Ed. Toulouse (law). 
After teaching law for some years at 
Toulouse, Bodin devoted himself to litera 
ture and law at Paris, and he became in 
time a valued legal counsellor of the King. 
His zeal for toleration his mother is 

believed to have been a Jewess brought 
him under suspicion of heresy, and his 
works (especially a dialogue on religion, 
Heptaplomeres, which was not published 
in full until 1857) show that he was 
a Deist. He, however, professes a belief 
in witchcraft and astrology. His Methodus 
ad facilem historiarum cognitionem (1566) 
is one of the foundations of the philosophy 
of history in France. D. 1596. 

BOERNER, Wilhelm, Austrian Ethicist 
and Monist. B. June 26, 1882. He was 
secretary of the Vienna Ethical Society 
(1902-13), and secretary of the Vienna 
Volks-Bildung Verein (League of Popular 
Education) (1906-1909). Boerner is an 
able and courageous champion of Ethical 
and Rationalist principles in Austria, and 
he has written several works. He is 
a member of the Goethe Verein, the Grill- 
pjxrzer Gesellschaft, the Moral Education 
League, etc. 


French poet. B. Nov. 1, 1636. Ed. 
College de Beauvais. Boileau was destined 
for the Church in his youth and sent to the 
Sorbonne, but he abandoned theology and 
studied law. He was called to the bar in 
1656, but never practised. His father left 
him a small fortune, and he devoted 
himself to poetry, chiefly, at first, in the 
form of satires on other poets. His master 
piece, L Art Poetique, was published in 
1674 ; and in the same year he published 
his second greatest work, Le Lutrin, which 
is the model of Pope s Eape of the Lock. 
In 1677 he was appointed historiographer 
to the King. Under the influence of 
Bossuet and the clergy, who always 
regarded him as an enemy, he was long 
excluded from the Academy, though the 
world now recognizes that he was one of 
the greatest of French writers. The King 
forced the doors for him in 1684. The 
Jesuits persecuted him so fiercely that he 
was tempted in his later years to write an 
essay, Snr I amour de Dieu, on the strength 
of which modern Catholic writers some- 



times claim him as orthodox. Brunetiere, 
however, in the Grande Encyclopedic, can 
didly admits that " in regard to religion he 
is an independent, leaning to the side of 
Moliere [a drastic Eationalist] rather than 
Eacine." The Jesuits who denied that he 
was a Christian (and now claim him) were, 
Brunetiere says, right. Lanson, in his 
authoritative Histoire de la litterature 
Francaise (pp. 495-97), easily shows, by 
numerous quotations from his poetry, that 
he was a Eationalist. D. Mar. 13, 1711. 

BOINDIN, Nicolas, French writer. B. 
May 29, 1676. After a short period of 
service in the musketeers he succeeded to 
his father s position as Procureur du Eoi, 
and he afterwards became Eoyal Censor. 
He was a member of the Academy of 
Inscriptions, but his outspoken Atheism 
prevented him from obtaining admission to 
the Academy of Sciences, though he was 
one of the foremost French scholars of his 
day. Grimm says that he distinguished 
himself from a fellow unbeliever thus : 
" Dumarsais is a Jansenist Atheist ; I am a 
Molinist Atheist." He refused to retract 
before death, and was buried uncere 
moniously by night. D. Nov. 30, 1751. 

BOISSIER, Marie Louis Gaston, French 
historian. B. Aug. 15, 1823. Ed. Paris. 
After teaching for some years at Nimes and 
Angouleme he was appointed professor at 
the College Charlemagne (Paris), then at 
the College de France. In 1865 he became 
professor of rhetoric and ancient literature 
at the Ecole Normale. In 1876 he was 
admitted to the Academy, and he after 
wards became its Perpetual Secretary. 
Boissier was one of the highest authorities 
and most charming writers on ancient 
Eome (see, especially, his La Religion 
Romaine, 2 vols., 1878, and La Fin du 
Paganisme, 2 vols., 1891). He rarely 
touches controversy, but his Eationalist 
views are plainly expressed in an appendix 
to his Fin du Paganisme on the perse 
cutions. He is also severely criticized 
by the Abbe Delfour in his La Religion 

des Contemporains (1895). D. June 10, 

BOITO, Arrigo, Italian musical composer 
and poet. B. Feb. 24, 1842. Ed. Milan 
Conservatorio. He wrote a Cantata in 1861, 
but for some years occupied himself chiefly 
with poetry and criticism. A visit to 
Germany brought him under the influence 
of Wagner, and he returned to music. In 
1866, however, he took part in Garibaldi s 
campaign, and, at its failure, he fled to 
France. Two years later he put the opera 
Mefistofele (based on Goethe s Faust) on 
the stage at Milan, where its free derision 
of religious ideas caused a violent reaction 
on the part of the Catholics. He after 
wards became one of Italy s leading com 
posers, and he also published several 
volumes of poems. He was a Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honour (1895), a Com- 
mendatore (1892), and an Inspector- 
General of technical instruction in the 
Italian Conservatorio. D. June 10, 1918. 

BOJER, Johan, Swedish novelist. B. 
Mar. 6, 1872. Beginning life as a fisher 
man, Bojer turned after a time to clerical 
work, and eventually became a journalist. 
In 1895 he began to write for the stage, 
but the novel proved to be his best field, 
and he is well known as one of the most 
brilliant and prolific novelists of Sweden. 
Several of his novels (The Power of a Lie, 
trans. 1908; The Great Hunger, trans. 1918, 
etc.) have been translated into English. In 
the latter novel his drastic Eationalism is 
boldly expressed. He depicts humanity 
turning away equally from the blood 
stained Jehovah of the Old Testament and 
the pale ascetic of the New. The need of 
our age is a pure religion of humanity, he 

BOLIN, Professor Andreas Wilhelm, 

Ph.D., Finnish philosopher. B. Aug. 2, 
1835. Ed. Petrograd and Helsingfors. 
Bolin was appointed professor at Helsing 
fors University in 1865, and University 
Librarian in 1873. He has translated 





Shakespeare into Swedish (6 vols., 1879-87), 
and has written on the philosophies of 
Hume, Spinoza, and Feuerbach. In his 
own views he chiefly follows Feuerbach, 
of whom he is a great admirer. He has 
edited Fetierbach s works (1903) and letters 
(1904). His advanced Rationalism often 
drew upon him the attention of the re 
actionary Russian authorities before the 

BOLINGBROKE, Viscount. See ST. 

BOLIVAR, Simon, President of Bolivia. 
B. July 25, 1783. Ed. Madrid. Bolivar, 
on completing his studies, travelled exten 
sively in Europe and then in the United 
States. He developed advanced views on 
religion and politics, and devoted himself to 
freeing South America from its Spanish 
priests and politicians. First he organized 
a rebellion in Venezuela, and succeeded in 
driving out the Spaniards. In 1819 he was 
chosen first President of the new Republic 
of Columbia. In 1824 the Peruvians 
appointed him Dictator, and the southern 
part of Peru was converted into the 
Republic of Bolivia, of which he was the 
first President. His stern methods created 
many enemies, who united against him 
with the clericals, and in 1828 he was 
forced to deal drastically with a conspiracy 
against his life. He was compelled to 
retire in 1829, and he took his life in the 
following year. In 1842 the Bolivians 
brought back his remains to their capital, 
and buried them with great honour. D. 
Dec. 10, 1830. 

BOLSCHE, Wilhelm, German writer. 
B. Jan. 2, 1861. Ed. Cologne, Bonn, and 
Paris Universities (in philosophy, science, 
and art). Bolsche has been engaged since 
1885 in independent literary work, espe 
cially for the popularization of the doctrine 
of evolution. He has edited Goethe, 
Humboldt, Novalis, Heine, etc., and has 
written between forty and fifty volumes, 
which are not less admirable for their high 

literary art than for their wide and accurate 
erudition. The chief original work is, 
perhaps, Das Liebesleben in der Natur 
(2 vols., 1898 and 1900). His fine study 
of the life and views of Professor Haeckel 
has been translated into English (Haeckel, 
1906). He is one of the most brilliant 
and popular of the Monistic writers of 

BOLZANO, Professor Bernard, Aus 
trian mathematician. B. Oct. 5, 1781. 
Ed. Prague University. Bolzano entered 
the Roman Catholic clergy in 1805, and 
was appointed professor of the science of 
religions at Prague University. In 1820 
he was deposed and suspended by the 
Catholic authorities for heresy, and he 
retired to private literary work. He con 
tinued to call himself a Christian in a 
liberal sense of the word but he belonged 
to no Church, and was rather a Theist. 
He was a mathematician of great distinc 
tion, and is regarded by many as one of 
the founders of the modern science. D. 
Dec. 18, 1848. 

BONAPARTE, Prince Jerome, youngest 
brother of Napoleon I. B. Nov. 15, 1784. 
Ed. College de Juilly (Paris). He entered 
the navy and became a commander. 
During a visit to the United States he 
married Eliza Paterson (1803), but Napoleon 
declared the marriage invalid. Jerome 
submitted, and became an admiral, later 
a general and prince. In 1807 he was 
created King of Westphalia, and his rule was 
enlightened and able. He was a gifted 
man, though never in favour with Napoleon. 
After Waterloo he lived in Italy and 
Switzerland until 1848, when he returned 
to France, became President of the Senate, 
and directed his nephew (Napoleon III). 
P. de la Garce says in his Histoire du Second 
Empire (1894) that Jerome " cherished a 
systematic hostility to every religious creed 
in general and the Catholic religion in 
particular " (I, 119). He tried in vain to 
break the fatal alliance of the Second 
Empire with the Church. D. June 24, 1860. 



BONAPARTE, Prince Napoleon Joseph 
Charles Paul, second son of the preceding. 
B. Sep. 9, 1822. Ed. Vienna, Trieste, and 
Borne. After the Eevolution of 1848 he 
returned to France and sat in the Con 
stituent Assembly. He acted with the 
Eepublicans and anti-clericals, though he 
later modified his political (not his Bation- 
alist) views. He received the title of 
Prince, and a seat in the Senate and on 
the Council in 1853, and married Princess 
Clothilde of Italy. After the fall of the 
Empire he lived for some time in England 
and became friendly with Mr. Bradlaugh 
(see Mrs. Bradlaugh Bonner s biography 
of her father). He returned to France in 
1873, entered the Chambre in 1876, and 
strongly opposed the Clericals. French 
historians regard him as "by far the 
cleverest of the Bonapartes after the 
founder of the family." He was uncon 
scious when the clergy ministered to him 
on his death-bed, and had not altered his 
views. D. Mar. 17, 1891. 

BONGHI, Professor Ruggero, LL.D., 
Italian philosopher and statesman. B. 
Mar. 20, 1828. Bonghi translated from 
the Greek several chapters of Plotinus at 
the age of eighteen, and the Philebos of 
Plato in the following year. In 1859 he 
became professor of philosophy at Milan, 
in 1860 deputy to the Italian Parliament, 
in 1864 professor of Greek literature at 
Turin University, in 1865 professor of 
Latin at Florence and a member of the 
Higher Council of Education, and in 1870 
professor of ancient history at Eome 
University. He was Minister of Public 
Instruction 1874-76, when he greatly 
improved the schools of Italy and resisted 
the clericals. His writings are very 
numerous and varied, and they frequently 
express his Platonist Theism. Oxford 
University conferred on him the honorary 
degree in law. D. Oct. 22, 1895. 

BONHEUR, Marie Rosalie (" Eosa "), 
French painter. B. Oct. 22, 1822. She 
received her artistic education from her 

father, a Saint-Simonian, and at Paris. 
Her first picture, an animal picture, was 
exhibited in 1841, and she won gold medals 
in 1845 and 1848. In 1853 she painted 
her famous " Horse Fair " and earned 
a world- wide repute. She wore the cross 
of the Legion of Honour. T. Stanton s 
Reminiscences of Rosa Bonheur (1910) 
contains an interesting discussion of her 
views on religion (pp. 78-82). Her friend 
Louis Passy describes her as Agnostic, 
and she was at the most a Pantheist and 
non-Christian. She consented to a religious 
funeral in order to be buried near a friend, 
and said : " Though I make this concession 
as to my body, my philosophical belief 
remains unaltered." D. May 25, 1899. 

BONI, Filippo de, D. es L., Italian 
writer. B. 1820. He was educated for 
the Church and was ordained priest, but 
he abandoned his office and became a tutor. 
Expelled from Italy in 1846 on account 
of his advanced ideas, he migrated to 
Lausanne, and edited Cost la penso. In 
1848 he was chosen by Mazzini to edit 
the Italia del Popolo, and he was appointed 
Italian ambassador to Switzerland. He 
returned to Italy in 1859 and became 
a parliamentary leader of the anti-Clericals. 
His many works (especially Ragione e 
Dogma, 1861) are Agnostic. D. Nov. 7, 

BONNET, Charles, Swiss natural philo 
sopher. B. (of French refugee family) 
Mar. 13, 1720. He graduated in law, but 
devoted himself to natural history and 
became one of its foremost representatives 
in Europe in the eighteenth contury. 
From 1752 to 1768 he was a member 
of the Grand Conseil. Contemporaries 
describe him as an Atheist, but he was 
a Deist and had somewhat mystic ideas 
about a future life. D. June 20, 1793. 

BONNYCASTLE, John, mathematician. 

J5. 1750. He kept a school at Hackney 

(London), and some time between 1782 

and 1785 became professor of mathematics 




at the Woolwich Royal Military Academy. 
His mathematical works, some of which 
were translated into Turkish, had a very 
extensive circulation. Wheeler (Dictionary 
of Freethinkers) describes him, from per 
sonal information, as a Rationalist. D. 
May 15, 1821. 

BONSTETTEN, Karl Victor von, Swiss 
writer. B. Sept. 3, 1745. Ed. Yverdun, 
and Geneva, Leiden, Cambridge, and Paris 
Universities. Bonstetten, who was a man 
of extraordinarily wide culture, became a 
member of the Grand Council of Berne 
in 1775, and in 1787 he was appointed 
a provincial judge. He was afterwards a 
judge of the Superior Court at Lugano. 
He knew Voltaire and Rousseau, and wrote 
several Deistic works. D. Feb. 3, 1832. 

BONWICK, James, anthropologist. B. 
July 8, 1817. A long and adventurous 
career in Tasmania and Australia made 
Bonwick one of the leading authorities of 
his time on the natives of those islands. 
His Daily Life of the Tasmanians (1870) 
is a classic, and he wrote various other 
works on Australia. He was appointed 
Archivist to the Government of New South 
Wales, and was a member from its founda 
tion of the Anthropological Institute. In 
his Egyptian Belief and Modern Thought 
(1878) he makes a discreet attempt to 
show that all the Christian doctrines were 
borrowed from the ancient Egyptian reli 
gion. He was a Theist, and he held with 
Max Miiller that " there has been no 
entirely new religion since the beginning 
of the world " (p. 426). D. Feb. 6, 1906. 

BOOTH, James, C.B., lawyer. B. 1796. 
Ed. Cambridge (St. John s). Booth was 
admitted to the Society of Lincoln s Inn 
in 1818, and he practised in the Chancery 
Courts. In 1839 he was appointed counsel 
to the Speaker of the House of Commons, 
and from 1850 to 1865 he was Secretary 
to the Board of Trade. He received his 
title in 1866, on his retirement. In his 
Problem of the World and the Church 


Reconsidered (published anonymously in 
1871) Booth rejects Christianity, while he 
remains a Theist. " Truth, justice, and 
self-respect," he says, " which owe nothing 
to the Church, will not suffer from the 
extinction of a system of dogma which has 
too long usurped their place " (closing 
paragraph). In his last few years he was 
a Vice-President of the London Sunday 
Lecture Society. D. May 11, 1880. 

BORN, Baron Ignaz von, Austrian 
mineralogist. B. Dec. 26, 1742. Ed. 
Vienna. He entered the Jesuit Society, 
but quitted it and studied law at Prague 
University. He devoted himself, however, 
to geology and mineralogy, and in 1770 he 
was appointed Director of the Mint and 
Mines at Prague. In 1779 he became 
Royal Councillor and Director of the 
Vienna Mint. He made important dis 
coveries in metallurgy, and held a number 
of high offices in the Austrian adminis 
tration. We are assured that the Baron 
devoted his considerable income to philan 
thropy and to scientific experiments. Born 
was a Freemason and anti-clerical, appa 
rently a Deist. A drastic satire of the 
monastic bodies (Joannis PhysiophiU Speci 
men Monachologia) , in the form of a study 
of the natural history of monks, which 
was published anonymously in 1782, was 
written under his direction. Joseph II 
(who is said to have been interested in 
its production) refused the Archbishop s 
demand for its suppression. D. July 24, 

BORNE, Ludwig, German author. B. 
May 6, 1786. Ed. Berlin, Halle, Heidel 
berg, and Giessen Universities. Son of a 
Jewish banker named Baruch, he was com 
pelled by a law against the Jews to abandon 
his position in the civil service, and in 1818 
he formally adopted Christianity and the 
name of Ludwig Borne. He was, in reality, 
a Rationalist, and after the Revolution of 
1830 he went to live at Paris. In his later 
years he followed Lamennais [SEE] , and 
dreamed of establishing a sort of very 

liberal and entirely undogmatic Christian 
democracy. D. Feb. 12, 1837. 

BORROW, George, writer. B. July 5, 
1803. Ed. Norwich High School. At the age 
of seventeen he was articled to a Norwich 
solicitor, and he fell under the influence of 
William Taylor, a Pantheist, who turned 
his thoughts to letters and philology. He 
went to London to try a literary career in 
1824, and two years later published his 
Romantic Ballads. He had little success 
and much hardship, and in 1833 he became 
an agent of the Bible Society, travelling 
over Germany, Eussia, and the East. 
From 1835 to 1840 he worked for the 
Society in Portugal and Spain. His Bible 
in Spain (3 vols., 1843) made his literary 
reputation, and was followed by Lavengro 
(1851) and The Romany Rye (2 vols., 1857). 
Harriet Martineau tells us that Borrow s 
Eationalism was so notorious that his 
engagement with the Bible Society was 
greeted with a " burst of laughter." It 
seems, however, that for a time he was 
a sincere, if liberal, Christian. In later 
years he returned to heterodoxy. F. C. 
Cobbe, who knew him well, says that he 
believed in the existence of a " Spirit," 
which he refused to call God, and rejected 
Christian doctrines. See Knapp s Life, 
Writings, and Correspondence of G. Borroiv 
(2 vols., 1899). D. July 26, 1881. 

BOSANQUET, Professor Bernard, 

M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., philosopher. B. 
1848. Ed. Harrow and Oxford (Balliol 
first class in Moderations and Litterae 
Humaniores). He was lecturer at Univer 
sity College, Oxford (1871-81), University 
Extension lecturer and official of the 
Charity Organization Society (1881-97), 
professor of moral philosophy at St. 
Andrews (1903-1908), Gifford Lecturer 
(1911-12), and Adamson Lecturer (1913). 
Prof. Bosanquet has written a large number 
of works on philosophy, ethics, aesthetics, 
and social questions. From 1900 to 1905 
he occasionally lectured for the London 
Ethical Society, but in his Some Suggestions 

in Ethics (1918) he, while still dissenting 
from orthodox Christianity, describes non- 
religious ethical culture as inadequate. He 
is a Neo-Hegelian, or Absolute Idealist, and 
rejects the idea of personal immortality. 
See his Essays and Addresses (1889) and 
The Value and Destiny of the Individual 

BOSC, Louis Augustin Guillaume, 

French naturalist. B. Jan. 29, 1759. Ed. 
Dijon Academy. He entered the civil 
service, but devoted his leisure to natural 
history and letters. Bosc published the 
Memoires of Mme. Eoland, and was tutor 
to her daughter. His moderation during 
the Eevolution obliged him to quit France 
for America, on which he wrote some 
valuable papers. After the Eestoration he 
became professor at the Jardin des Plantes, 
and rendered great service to French 
agriculture. D. July 10, 1828. 

BOSIS, Adolfo de. See DE Bosis, A. 

BOSTROM, Professor Christopher 
Jacob, Swedish philosopher. B. Jan. 1, 
1797. Ed. Upsala University. He first 
taught at Upsala, then (1833) became 
tutor to the royal princes, and in 1838 
professor of philosophy at Upsala Univer 
sity (retiring in 1863). Bostrom wrote 
little, but he had a deep influence on 
Swedish thought, as he was one of the 
leading thinkers of Scandinavia. His 
system is Spiritualist and Pantheistic, only 
the Absolute, which is undefinable, having 
real being. He seems to have experienced 
the influence of Leibnitz. D. Mar. 22, 

PERTHES, Jacques, French archaeologist. 
B. Sep. 10, 1788. He was employed on 
diplomatic missions by Napoleon, and he 
then retired to Abbeville, where he began 
his famous collection of prehistoric imple 
ments. He was the first to establish the 
antiquity of man and the Stone Age (De 
la Creation, 5 vols., 1839-41, and other 



works), and he wrote also on political 
economy. Verliere describes him in his 
Guide du Libre Penseur as an advanced 
Deist. D. Aug. 5, 1868. 

BOUGAINVILLE, Count Louis Antoine 

de, F.E.S., French traveller. B. Nov. 11, 
1729. He made brilliant studies in mathe 
matics, and published a Traite du Calcul 
Integral (2 vols., 1752 and 1756), which 
became famous. He also studied law and 
served in the French army. At the close 
of the war in 1763 he embarked on a long 
voyage, and he was the first Frenchman to 
travel round the globe (Voyage Autour du 
Monde, 1771). He wanted the French 
Government to equip him for an expedition 
to the North Pole, and when it refused he 
sent his plans to the London Eoyal Society, 
which made use of them and admitted him 
as a Fellow. Bougainville was appointed 
Marshal in 1779 and Vice-Admiral in 1791. 
Napoleon made him a Count and Senator. 
He was a Deist. D. Aug. 31, 1811. 

BOUGLE, Professor Charles, French 
sociologist. Ed. Ecole Normale Superieure, 
and in Germany. In 1894 he became 
professor of philosophy at the Lyc6e Saint- 
Brieux, in 1898 at Montpellier, and in 
1900 at Toulouse. He is now professor of 
the history of social economy at the 
Sorbonne. In 1900 he published a series 
of lectures, Pour la Democratie Frangaise, 
in which he severely criticizes the clericals 
and expresses a moderate Eationalism. 
Professor Bougl6 has won a high position 
among European sociologists. 

BOUILLIER, Francisque, Ph.D., 
French philosophical writer. B. July 12, 
1813. Ed. College Stanislas (Paris) and 
Ecole Normale. He was professor of 
philosophy at Orleans (1839) and Lyons 
(1841), and later Director of the Ecole 
Normale Superieure at Lyons and inspector- 
general of the University. He was also a 
member of the Institut and of the Academy 
of Moral and Political Sciences. Bouillier 
was a Eationalist of the philosophical- 

spiritual school (see his Theorie de la raison 
impersonelle, 1845, etc.), and he translated 
Kant and Fichte. D. 1899. 

de St. Saire, French historian. B. Oct. 11, 
1658. Ed. College de Juilly, Paris. He 
served for some years in the army, then 
devoted himself to historical research, and 
wrote a number of works in which credulity 
and criticism are incongruously mingled. 
His Essai de Metaphysique dans les 
Principes de B. de Spinoza (published 
1731) purports to be a refutation, but is a 
timid acceptance, of the philosophy of 
Spinoza. His Vie de Mahomet (1730) was 
the first European work to speak tolerantly 
of the founder of Mohammedanism. D. 
Jan. 23, 1722. 

BOULANGER, Nicolas Antoine, 

Encyclopaedist. B. Nov. 11, 1722. Ed. 
College de Beauvais. After studying 
mathematics and architecture he served as 
an engineer in the army, and then entered 
the civil service. He retired in 1758 and 
lived at the chateau of Helvetius, writing 
various articles toi tiieDictionnaireEncyclo- 
pedique. Boulanger studied Hebrew and 
Syriac in order to be able to refute Genesis. 
Some of the anti-Christian works to which 
his name was attached after his death were 
probably written by Holbach and others. 
D. Sep. 16, 1759. 

BOURGEOIS, Leon Victor Auguste, 

French statesman. B. May 29, 1851. Ed. 
Lycee Charlemagne (law). In 1882 he 
became Prefet du Tarn ; in 1885, Prefet de 
la Haute Garonne ; and in 1887, head of 
the Paris police. He entered the French 
Chambre in 1888, and became Under 
secretary in the Ministry of the Interior. 
In 1890 he was Minister of Public Instruc 
tion, 1892 Minister of Justice, 1896 Pre 
sident du Conseil and Minister of Foreign 
Affairs, 1898 Minister of Public Instruction, 
1899 first French delegate at the Hague 
Conference, 1902-1903 President of the 
Chambre of Deputies, 1905 Senator, and 

98 F 



1906 Minister of Foreign Affairs. M. 
Bourgeois, who is one of the most powerful 
and ardent Pacifists in Europe, is a member 
of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at 
the Hague and President of the Society of 
Social Education. He is an Agnostic and 
" emphatically anti-clerical " (A. Brisson, 
Les Prophetes, pp. 276 and 285). In 1920 
he was elected President of the Senate. 

BOURNEYILLE, Magloire Desire, 

French author. B. Dec. 20, 1840. Ed. 
Paris. He entered the staff of the Bicetre 
Hospital and wrote a number of medical- 
Eationalistic works (Science et Miracle, 
1875, L Hysteriedans I histoire, 1876, etc.). 
From 1876 to 1883 he was on the Paris 
Municipal Council, and in the latter year 
he entered Parliament and supported 
the anti - clericals. In 1889 Bourneville 
delivered an eloquent oration at the un 
veiling of a statue of Etienne Dolet. 

BOUT MY, Professor Emile Gaston, 

French sociologist. B. Apr. 13, 1835. Ed. 
Paris. From journalism Boutmy passed to 
a chair in the School of Architecture, and 
later he became Director of, and professor 
in, the School of Political Science. He 
wrote a number of brilliant sociological 
works (notably one on the English Con 
stitution), and was a member of the 
Institut, the Academy of Moral and 
Political Science, and the Legion of 
Honour. In his beautiful little work, 
Taine, Scherer, Laboulaye (1901), Prof. 
Boutmy expresses his entire agreement 
with the Bationalism of his friends Taine 
and Scherer. D. Jan., 1906. 

BOUTROUX, Professor Etienne Emile 
Marie, French philosopher. B. July 28, 
1845. Ed. Lycee Henri IV, Ecole 
Normale Superieure, and Heidelberg Uni 
versity. He taught at Caen, Montpellier, 
and Nancy, and since 1885 he acted as 
professor of modern philosophy at the 
Sorbonne. He was an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour, Member of the Institut, 
Director of the Fondation Thiers, Member 

of the Academie des Sciences morales et 
politiques, Associate of the Accademia dei 
Lincei, and Correspondent of the British 
Academy. In his Science and Religion in 
Contemporary Philosophy (Eng. trans. ,1909) 
Prof. Boutroux states that he is " not a dog 
matic Kationalist who imposes a priori given 
and immutable forms." He is a liberal 
Theist, and he pleads for a sort of Chris 
tianity " without rites and dogmas." He 
does not accept personal immortality. D. 
Oct. 7, 1919. 

BOYIO, Professor Giovanni, Italian 
jurist and statesman. B. 1841. Ed. 
Naples. He was appointed professor of 
the philosophy of law, and later of political 
economy, at Naples University. In 1876 he 
entered the Italian Parliament, where he has 
supported all anti-clerical measures. A bril 
liant orator and weighty writer, Professor 
Bovio has not spared the expression of his 
Rationalist views, especially in his Schema 
del Naturalismo Matematico (1879). He 
delivered an eloquent anti-Christian ora 
tion at the unveiling of the statue of 
Giordano Bruno at Eome in 1889 
(appended to his pamphlet, L Etica da 
Dante a Bruno). Professor Domizio fully 
describes his Eationalist (or Monist) philo 
sophy in II Pensiero di Giovanni Bovio 

BOWEN, Charles Synge Christopher, 

Baron Bowen, M.A., D.C.L., judge. B. 
Jan. 1, 1835. Ed. Lille, Blackheath, 
Rugby, and Oxford (Balliol). Bowen won 
the Hertford and Ireland scholarship, 
first class in " greats," and the Arnold 
historical prize. He entered Lincoln s Inn 
in 1858, and while he studied for the bar 
he contributed to the Saturday Review, 
leaving that journal in 1861 as a protest 
against its attacks on Stanley and Jowett. 
In 1861 he was called to the bar, and he 
was junior counsel in the Tichborne case 
(1871-74). In 1879 he became a judge 
of the Queen s Bench division, and in 1893 
a Lord of Appeal and a Peer. His letters, 
in Sir H. G. Cunningham s Lord Bowen 



(1897), show that he disliked controversy 
and rarely spoke about religion, but was 
an Agnostic. He was an ardent admirer 
of Jowett. In a letter to a cousin in 1868 
he urges her to keep away from all " moods 
and phases of theological discussion," and 
says that " the true heroes of life are often 
to be found among those on whose fearless 
advocacy of what they believe the world is 
making social war " (p. 126). Sir H. G. 
Cunningham also reproduces a poem of 
his, "To Hermione," which is entirely 

Agnostic : 

the illimitable sigh 

Breathed upward to the throne of the deaf skies. 

the shore, 

The brighter shore we reach, I only know 
That it is night, Hermione, mere night 
Unbroken, unillumined, unexplored. 

Baron Bowen was a man of very high 

culture and character. D. Apr. 10, 1894. 

BOWMAN, Charles, testator of the 
" Bowman Bequest." There are few 
details about Mr. Bowman, whose generous 
bequest to the Secular Society, Limited, led 
to the establishment of the security of 
Eationalist bequests, except that he was 
.an early member of the National Secular 
Society and used to attend its lectures in 
London. He died in Apr., 1908, and had 
a Secularist funeral. His will, dated Sep. 
14, 1905, left his estate (about 10,000) to 
his wife for life, with reversion, subject to 
a few small legacies, to the Secular Society, 
Limited. Mrs. Bowman, a Secularist, 
died in 1914, and the relatives contested 
the will on the ground that bequests to 
anti-religious bodies are illegal. The 
Secular Society, Limited, won in the first 

court on Apr. 15, 1915, the Court of Appeal 
on July 13, 1915, and the House of Lords 

on May 14, 1917. Legacies to Kationalist 
bodies are now quite safe. 

BOYESEN, Professor Hjalmar Hjorth, 

Swedish-American writer. B. Sep. 23, 
1848. Ed. Christiania and Leipzig Uni 
versities. He emigrated to America in 
1869, and became editor of a Scandinavian 

paper at Chicago. From 1874 to 1880 he 
was professor of German at Cornell Uni 
versity, and he was professor at Columbia 
University from 1880 to 1895. Boyesen 
wrote a number of novels, some poetry, 
and a series of literary works of a Eation 
alist character (Essays on Scandinavian 
Literature, Essays on German Literature, 
Goethe and Schiller, etc.). D. Oct. 5, 

BRABROOK, Sir Edward William, 

C.B., anthropologist. B. 1839. Ed. private 
school, Barr. Sir Edward was appointed 
Assistant Eegistrar of Friendly Societies in 
1869, and was Chief Eegistrar from 1891 
to 1904. In 1898 he was President of 
Section H of the British Association, and 
in 1903 of Section F. He was also Presi 
dent of the Anthropological Institute 
(1895-97) and President of the Folk-Lore 
Society (1901-2). He is a Foreign 
Associate of the Paris Society of Anthro 
pology, and Director of the Society of 
Antiquaries. His works deal chiefly with 
the Friendly Societies, but he has written 
many papers (sometimes in the Literary 
Guide) on anthropology. He is an 
Honorary Associate of the Eationalist 
Press Association. 

BRADLAUGH, Charles, reformer. B. 
Sep. 26, 1833. At the age of eleven he 
was compelled to quit the elementary 
school and earn his living, and a few 
years later he was converted to Free- 
thought and virtually driven from his 
father s house. He joined the army, but 
got his discharge in 1853, and became 
a solicitor s clerk. Adopting the name of 
" Iconoclast," he now frequently wrote 
and lectured against Christianity, and in 
1858 he began to edit the Investigator. 
By 1860, when he founded the National 
Reformer, he was known throughout the 
country as a Secularist lecturer and 
debater, and he took an active part in 
progressive political movements at home 
and on the Continent. He was a Vice- 
President of the National Eeform League. 



In 1866 he founded the National Secular 
Society, which nourished greatly under his 
care. In 1868-69 Mr. Bradlaugh s defence 
of the National Reformer against the Law 
Officers of the Crown under two Govern 
ments compelled the repeal of the odious 
Security Laws, and so placed cheap demo 
cratic and heretical periodical publications 
on an equal footing with more highly priced 
ones. In 1868 he first contested Northamp 
ton, for which he was returned in 1880, 
though, on account of the House refusing 
to permit him to take the oath, it was only 
in 1886, after an heroic struggle and 
repeated re-election, that he took his seat. 
He lectured three times in the United 
States (1873, 1874, and 1875), and in 1889 
paid a memorable visit to India, where his 
services to the people were many and great. 
In 1876 he was prosecuted with Mrs. 
Besant for publishing a Malthusian work 
and convicted, but he successfully appealed 
against the sentence. In 1888 he forced 
through Parliament a Bill giving the right 
to affirm instead of taking an oath, and 
in the following year he introduced a Bill 
for the Abolition of the Blasphemy Laws. 
Mr. Bradlaugh preferred tho title of Atheist 
("but I do not say there is no God," he 
explained), and his vast energy and power 
ful oratory were the main influence in 
emancipating the workers of Britain. 
D. Jan. 30, 1891. 


writer, second daughter of Charles Brad- 
laugh. B. Mar. 31, 1858. Ed. private 
schools England and Paris, and London 
University. She qualified in chemistry 
and mathematics, and taught those sub 
jects at the Hall of Science evening classes 
from 1880 to 1888. Prior to 1878 and 
again in 1888 she acted as secretary to her 
father, and she worked on the staff of the 
National Reformer. She married Arthur 
Bonner in 1885. Mrs. Bradlaugh Bonner 
is an Atheist, like her father, and has 
rendered great service to Eationalism by 
her lectures and writings. Her chief work, 
written in collaboration with Mr. J. M. 


Robertson, is her Life of her father (2 vols.,. 

BRADLEY, Francis Herbert, philo 
sopher. B. 1846. Ed. Cheltenham and 
Marlborough. He is a Fellow of Merton- 
College, Oxford, and one of the principal 
English philosophical writers of our time. 
In his best known work, Appearance and 
Reality (1893), Mr. Bradley rejects em 
phatically the doctrine of a personal God 
" a person is finite and meaningless," he- 
says and, in regard to immortality, he 
thinks that " the balance of hostile proba 
bility seems so large that the fraction on 
the other side to my mind is not consider 
able " (pp. 507 and 532-33). He declares, 
that " there is but one Reality," that this 
is spiritual and inscrutable, and that this 
Absolute is " not the God of religion " 
(p. 447). In his later Essays on Truth 
and Reality (1914) the teaching is un 
altered. God is merely " the Supreme 
Will for good which is experienced within 
finite minds " (p. 435), and Christianity is. 
rebuked by the dictum that " any but an 
inferior religion must condemn all self- 
seeking after death " (p. 459). 

BR^EKSTAD, Hans Lien, art jour 
nalist. B. (Norway) Sep. 7, 1845. Son 
of a Norse shipmaster, Brsekstad came to- 
England in 1877, and, after some years in 
a bookseller s shop, he adopted journalism 
and became assistant-editor of Black and 
White. He translated into English various 
works by Bjornson and other Scandinavian 
and Danish writers. An enthusiastic 
champion of the independence of Norway, 
his house in London was for many years 
a patriotic centre, and from 1909 to 1915 
he was Norwegian Vice-Consul. In 1914 
the Norwegian Storthing voted him a 
pension of 300 a year. Braekstad was 
an Agnostic, an active Director for many 
years of the Rationalist Press Association,, 
and a zealous worker in the popularization 
of art, letters, and international good 
feeling. D. June 8, 1915. 



BRAGA, President Theophilo, Portu 
guese poet and statesman, second President 
of the Eepublicof Portugal. B. Feb. 24, 1843. 
Ed. at his father s school in the Azores and 
at Coimbra University. In early years he 
was apprenticed to a printer, and at the 
age of sixteen he published a volume of 
verse. In 1861 he took up the study of 
law at Coimbra, and graduated there in 
1868. In 1872 he competed for and won 
the chair of modern languages at the Cursu 
Superior de Lettras, Lisbon University. 
Dr. Braga, who became one of the most 
distinguished and most prolific of modern 
Portuguese writers, applied himself to 
science and philosophy, as well as to 
letters and history. His long epic, Vision 
of the Ages (1864), and his History of 
Portuguese Literature (32 vols.) are the 
best known of the hundred works he has 
written. He adopted Positivism, assisted 
in editing Positivismo, and was the 
Republican leader in the Cortes. After 
the Eevolution he was, on Oct. 4, 1910, 
made President of the Provisional Govern 
ment, and in 1915 he had a short term of 
office as second President of the Eepublic. 
He is an ardent Eationalist, Pacifist, and 
Humanitarian, and has taken an active 
interest in the annual Freethought Con 
gresses. He is a member of the Inter 
national Freethought Federation. 

BRAHMS, Johannes, Ph.D., German 
composer. B. May 7, 1833. Ed. by his 
father, a musician. Brahms was discovered 
by Schumann in 1853. In 1854 he became 
conductor for the Prince of Lippe-Detmold, 
in 1863 director of the Vienna Sing- 
akademie, and in 1871 director of the 
Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde. His com 
positions were now of so high an order 
that Cambridge University offered him a 
degree in 1877 an offer which he ignored 
and Breslau University conferred on 
him a degree in philosophy. He received 
the Prussian order Pour le Merite in 1886. 
The magnificent German Requiem which 
he composed in 1868, in which he sub 
stitutes phrases from the German Bible 


for the phrases of the Latin liturgy, is 
claimed by his more superficial biographers 
to be an expression of deep personal reli 
gious feeling, but his letters to his friend 
Herzogenberg show that he was an Agnostic 
to the end of his life (see Letters of J. 
Brahms : the Herzogenberg Correspondence, 
Eng. trans., 1909). The words of the first 
of his Vier Ernste Gesange (1896), written 
in the year before his death, are defiantly 
sceptical about a future life, and in a letter 
to Herzogenberg (June, 1896) he endorses 
them. These Songs are his " supreme 
achievement in dignified utterance of noble 
thoughts " (Enc. Brit.}. D. Apr. 3, 1897. 

BRAMWiELL, George William 
Wilshere, Baron Bramwell, judge. B. 
June 12, 1808. Ed. Enfield Palace School. 
He was employed in his father s bank, but 
in 1830 he took up the study of law. He 
was called to the Bar in 1838, and became 
a Queen s Counsel in 1851. In 1856 he 
became a judge and was knighted, proving 
one of the strongest judges that ever sat 
on the bench " (Diet. Nat. Biog.). In 1876 
he became a Lord Justice of Appeal, and 
in 1882 a Peer. Baron Bramwell was a 
thorough Benthamite. His sympathies 
were with " that band of enlightened and 
advanced Liberals who used to make 
joyous demonstrations of kid-gloved Agnos 
ticism at the annual British Association 
Meetings " (C. Fairfield s Some Account of 
. G. W. Wilshere, 1898, p. 102). The letters 
to him (in this volume) of Lord Coleridge 
and the Duke of Argyle confirm this. D. 
May 9, 1892. 

BRANDES, Carl Edvard Cohen, Ph.D., 

Danish writer. B. Oct. 21, 1847, brother 
of Georg Brandes. Ed. Copenhagen Uni 
versity (philosophy and oriental languages). 
He took to letters and politics, and edited 
the Eadical Morgenbladet (1881-84) and, 
later, the Politiken (1884-1901). His 
novels, dramas, and other literary works 
abound in advanced Eationalist and social 
ideas. Eefusing to take the oath when he 
was elected to the Folketing in 1880, he 




defeated the Government, which tried to 
unseat him, and won the right to affirm. 
Although an avowed Materialist, he became 
Minister of Finance in 1909, and has again 
held that position since 1913. 

BRAN DBS, Georg, LL.D., Danish 
literary and dramatic critic. B. (Copen 
hagen) Feb. 4, 1842. Ed. Copenhagen 
University (gold medal). Except for a few 
years (1872-77) when he was teaching at 
Copenhagen University, Dr. Brandes passed 
from one European capital to another, 
between 1866 and 1877, when he settled 
in Berlin. Since that time he has again 
travelled extensively in Eussia, Spain, 
Greece, Egypt, England, and America, 
acquiring an incomparable mastery of 
international life and letters. He trans 
lated J. S. Mill into Danish, and he wrote 
a vigorous defence of Ferrer. Of his thirty 
works, the chief is Main Currents of the 
Literature of the Nineteenth Century (6 vols., 
Eng. trans., 1901-1905). He owes his 
degree to St. Andrews University ; and he 
is an Honorary Associate of the Eationalist 
Press Association and a member of the 
American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
and the Eoyal Society of Literature. Like 
his brother Edvard, he is an outspoken 
Agnostic and zealous propagandist. 

BRANDIN, Professor Louis Maurice, 

L. es L., Ph.D., French philologist. B. 
Mar. 18, 1874. Ed. Paris and Greifswald. 
Dr. Brandin is Fielden Professor of French 
and of Eomance Philology in the London 
University, though he transferred his 
services to the French army for the dura 
tion of the War. He has written a 
Hebrew -French Glossary of the XII Cen 
tury (1906) and other works, and is an 
Officer of Public Instruction and Laureate 
of the Institute (Prix Chavee). He rejects 
all creeds (personal knowledge). 

BRANTING, Karl Hjalmar, Swedish 
Socialist leader. B. Nov. 23, 1860. Ed. 
gymnasium Stockholm and Upsala Uni 
versity. In 1884 Branting began to con- 

tribute to the Social Democratic Tiden and 
take an active part in advanced movements. 
He afterwards edited the Tiden and, later, 
the Social Democraten, an article in which 
brought upon him a sentence of three 
months imprisonment for blasphemy. He 
is an outspoken Eationalist and a strong 
opponent of militarism, as he proves in 
his various works. Since 1896 he has 
been the leader of the Swedish Social 
Democrats, and he is pre-eminent among 
Labour leaders for his high sense of 
responsibility and his intellectual ability. 

BRAUN, Eugen. See GHILLANY, F. W. 

BRAUN, Lily, German writer and 
reformer. B. July 2, 1865, daughter of 
General von Kretschman. Ed. privately. 
She first married Prof. Georg von Gizycki 
(SEE) and worked with him in the Ethical- 
Eationalist Movement at Berlin. Later 
she became one of the leaders of the Ger 
man feminists and a prominent Socialist. 
Her aunt, the Countess Clotilde von 
Hermann, disinherited her on account of 
her advanced ideas. Her attitude towards. 
Christianity was disdainful and Nietzschean 
(see her Mcmoiren einer Sozialisten, 2 vols., 
1900). D. Aug. 9, 1916. 

BRAUN, Wilhelm von, Swedish poet. 
B. Nov. 8, 1813. He served in the army 
in his earlier years, but quitted it in 1846 
for letters. His poetry, which won for 
him considerable repute in Sweden, is 
frequently of a satirical chai acter, and in 
some of the earlier poems he exercises his 
faculty on the Bible. His collected works 
fill six volumes (1875-76). D. Sep. 12, 

BRAY, Charles, philosophical writer, 
B. Jan. 31, 1811. A Coventry manufac 
turer, Bray fell under the influence of 
Combe and Owen, and devoted his means 
largely to philanthropy and social work. 
In his chief publication, The Philosophy of 
Necessity (1841), he accepts Pantheism 
(p. 318) and denies personal immortality 



(p. 88). He married a sister of Hennell 
(SEE), and for some time George Eliot 
lived with them. Bray describes his 
religious development in his Phases of 
Opinion and Experience (1884). D. Oct. 5, 

BREITENBACH, Wilhelm, Ph.D., Ger 
man writer and publisher. B. Dec. 21, 
1857. Ed. Eealschule Lippstadt, and Jena 
and Marburg Universities. At first a 
private teacher at Bonn and Godesberg, 
he in 1888 took up publishing and writing. 
He is one of the leading supporters of 
Professor Haeckel, especially in his periodi 
cal, Die Nene Weltanschauung, and is 
President of the Humboldt Association for 
Scientific Philosophy and editor of the 
Humboldt Library. 

BRENTANO, Professor Franz, German 
philosopher. B. Jan. 16, 1838 (nephew of 
Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim). 
Ed. Berlin and Munich Universities. 
Ordained Catholic priest in 1864, he 
became a private teacher at Wiirzburg in 
1866, and professor there in 1873. He 
resigned his position on account of the 
declaration that the Pope was infallible, 
and a few years later he left the Church. 
From 1874 to 1895 he held the chair of 
philosophy at Vienna University. In his 
philosophy he in the main follows Lotze, 
and adopts an eclectic spiritualist system. 

BREWER, Ebenezer Cobham, LL.D., 

D.C.L., writer. B. May 2, 1810. Ed. 
private tutors and Cambridge (Trinity 
Hall). Brewer was ordained a priest of 
the Church of England in 1836, but he 
quitted the ministry for law, in which he 
graduated in 1840, and then devoted 
himself to letters. He wrote under the 
pseudonym of "Julian." The chief of his 
many works is A Dictionary of Miracles, 
Imitative, Realistic, and Dogmatic (1884). 
The preface, which disclaims the idea of 
attacking miracles, is merely a discreet 
preparation of the reader for a rejection 
of the Christian claims. He remarks of 

the miracles of the early Church that " the 
supply met the demand," and he severely 
censures the Church for permitting the 
legends. The Biblical miracles he under 
mines by giving pagan and other legendary 
parallels. In his later years he took a 
warm interest in the spread of Eationalism. 
D. Mar. 6, 1897. 

BREWSTER, Henry, writer. B. 1851. 
Ed. France. Brewster, who had been 
born in France of an American father, 
lived most of his life in France and Italy, 
and was one of the very few English 
authors who could write in perfect French. 
He was a great friend of E. Eod, and lived 
in a cosmopolitan circle of artists and 
writers. In his most characteristic work, 
L dme paienne (1902), a manual of very 
advanced ethical " paganism," he disdains 
all religion. He wrote also on philosophy, 
and published a number of dramas and 
poems. D. June 13, 1908. 

BRIAND, Aristide, D. es L., French 
statesman. B. Mar. 28, 1862. Ed. Lycee 
de Nantes. He graduated in law and 
practised for some years at the French 
bar. Entering the Chambre, he became 
Minister of Public Instruction and Cults 
in 1906, President of the Council in 1909, 
Minister of Justice and Cults in 1914, and 
Premier in 1915. Briand was entrusted, 
at the time of the separation of Church 
and State, with the report on their rela 
tions, and his masterly study was made 
the basis of the law. During the long 
debates in the Chambre he was one of the 
most powerful and eloquent opponents of 
the clericals. His speeches have been 
published in several volumes. He is an 
extreme Eationalist, a man of high social 
and personal ideals, and one of the ablest 
and most respected of French statesmen. 

BRIDGES, Horace James, American 
lecturer. B. (London) Aug. 31, 1880. 
From 1905 to 1912 Mr. Bridges was asso 
ciated with Dr. Stanton Coit in the West 
London Ethical Society. In 1913 he 



migrated to America, and has since then 
led the Chicago Ethical Society. He is 
also a Trustee of the Booth House. He 
has written The Ethical Movement (1911), 
Criticisms of Life (1913), and The Religion 
of Experience (1916). 

BRIDGES, John Henry, M.D., Posi- 
tivist. B. Oct. 11, 1832. Ed. private 
schools, Eugby, and Oxford (Wadham 
College). He took his degree in 1855 and 
became a Fellow of Oriel, and in 1856 he 
gained the Arnold prize. He then studied 
medicine and went to practise in Australia, 
but his wife died, and he returned and 
settled in Bradford. In 1870 he was 
appointed metropolitan medical inspector 
in London. At Wadham Bridges had 
embraced Positivism, under the influence 
of Dr. Congreve, and he translated several 
of Comte s works and lectured frequently 
for the Positivists. He edited Bacon s 
Opus Majus (1897), and wrote several 
works. In 1892 he gave the Harveian 
Oration at the Eoyal College of Physicians. 
D. June 15, 1906. 

BRIEUX, Eugene, French dramatist. 
B. Jan. 19, 1858. He devoted himself in 
his early years to journalism, and worked 
on the Patrie, the Gaulois, and the Figaro. 
In 1890 he produced Menage d" artistes, 
the first of the series of realistic plays 
which have made him famous. He is a 
member of the French Academy and an 
officer of the Legion of Honour. Brieux s 
attitude towards religion is sufficiently 
shown in his play La Foi (1912, in English 
False Gods), an Egyptian drama depicting 
the power and obstinacy of priestcraft in 
face of a demand for the reform of religion. 

BRINTON, Daniel Garrison, M.D., 
American ethnologist. B. May 13,1837. Ed. 
Yale, Jefferson Medical College, Paris, and 
Heidelberg. After some years of service 
as army-surgeon, he became editor of the 
Medical and Surgical Reporter (1867-88), 
professor of ethnology at the Pennsylvania 
Academy (1884), professor of American 

linguistics at the University of Pennsyl 
vania (1886), and President of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science. 
Brinton wrote a large number of works on 
ethnology and comparative religion. He 
was a Theist, but he rejected personal 
immortality and all " crumbling theo 
logies " (The Religious Sentiment : its 
Sources and Aims, 1876). D. July 31, 

BRISSON, Adolphe, French writer. 
B. Apr. 17, 1860. He was dramatic critic 
to Le Temps, and he succeeded his father 
as editor of the Annales Politiques et 
Littcraires. From 1893 to 1901 he edited 
the Revue Illustree. Brisson, who is an 
officer of the Legion of Honour and Presi 
dent of the Association de la critique 
dramatique, gives many sympathetic and 
lively sketches of distinguished French 
Eationalists in his Portraits Intimes 
(5 vols., 1894-1900) and Les Prophetes 

BRISSON, Eugene Henri, French states 
man. B. July 31, 1835. From practice 
at the Parisian bar Brisson passed to 
politics, and in 1870 he was appointed 
Deputy Mayor of Paris. In 1871 he 
entered Parliament, sitting among the 
anti-clericals of the extreme Left ; and he 
rose to the highest dignities except the 
Presidency of the Eepublic, for which he 
was twice a candidate. He was twice 
President of the Chambre (1881-85 and 
1895-98), and twice Premier (1885 and 
1898). A pronounced Eationalist, Brisson 
was very active in the secularization of 
the French schools and the later separation 
of Church and State. He was a states 
man of high ideals and recognized character, 
and he took no small part in exposing the 
Panama scandal. D. Apr. 14, 1912. 

BRISSOT, Jacques Pierre, French re 
former. B. Jan. 14, 1754. Ed. Chartres. 
Brissot migrated to Paris and joined the 
Deistic school, taking a keen interest in 
penal reform and drastically opposing the 



Church. He was twice imprisoned in the 
Bastille, and, after a stay in America, he 
aspired to be " the Penn of Europe." His 
chief legal worts are Theorie des lois 
criminelles (1780) and Bibliothcque philoso- 
phique du Legislateur (1782). Many of 
his works attack the prevailing creed. 
D. Oct. 31, 1793. 

BRISTOL, Augusta Cooper, American 
reformer. B. Apr. 17, 1835. Ed. Kimball 
Union Academy (U.S.A.). She became a 
teacher, and won considerable repute in 
America by her lectures and writings on 
education, the woman question, and general 
social reform, as well as by a volume of 
verse (Poems, 1868). In 1880 she was 
sent to Europe to study the Guise social 
institute, and she represented American 
Freethinkers at the Brussels Conference of 
that year. On her return she was appointed 
State-lecturer in New Jersey, and in 1884 
she received a mission to study the institu 
tions of the various States. Her chief 
work is Science and its Relations to Human 
Character (1878). D. Oct. 1910. 

BROCA, Pierre Paul, French anthro 
pologist. B. June 28, 1824. Ed. Paris. 
From 1854 Broca practised medicine at 
Paris and attracted much attention by his 
brilliant scientific papers and works. He 
became a member of the Academy of 
Medicine in 1867, and held various high 
appointments. Gradually developing a 
special interest in anthropology, he succes 
sively founded the Societ6 d Anthropologie 
(1859), the Revue d Anthropologie (1872), 
and the Ecole d Anthropologie. All his 
work was carried out in the teeth of 
violent clerical opposition, and when the 
Republic triumphed over the Catholics it 
was consolidated in the Institut Anthro- 
pologique. He was promoted to the Senate. 
D. July 9, 1880. 

BRODIE, Sir Benjamin Collins, B.A., 

D.C.L., chemist. B. London 1817. Ed. 

Harrow and Oxford (Balliol). Brodie 

devoted himself to chemistry, and began in 


1843 to publish notable papers on the 
science, frequently contributing to the 
Philosophical Transactions. He made a 
number of important discoveries, and was 
President of the Chemical Society in 
1859-60. In 1865 he became professor of 
chemistry at Oxford University, He had 
in 1854 refused to subscribe to the Thirty- 
nine Articles at Oxford, and we find Jowett 
(in his Letters] writing to him in 1844 to 
complain that Brodie not merely takes a 
Eationalist view of the Bible, but " you do 
not leave any place for religion at all." 
Later correspondence with Jowett, with 
whom he was friendly, shows that he 
maintained his Rationalism. He held a 
very attenuated Theism. " It is hard for 
a dog to run with thirty-nine stones round 
its neck," he said (Life of Lord Sherbrook, 
ii, 530). D. Nov. 24, 1880. 

BROOKE, Rupert, poet. B. Aug. 3, 
1887. Ed. Rugby and Cambridge (King s 
College). Brooke won a prize for poetry 
in 1905, and took the classical tripos at 
Cambridge. His Poems was published in 
1911, and in 1913 he was elected a fellow 
of King s College. He entered the Naval 
.Volunteer Reserve in 1914, and was in the 
Antwerp Expeditionary Force and the 
Mediterranean Expeditionary Force, in the 
course of which he suffered a fatal sun 
stroke. His 1914, and Other Poems (1915), 
which showed what he might have become 
had he lived, contain Theistic expressions, 
yet there is throughout a broad vein of 
scepticism. He feels sure that there is 
another life, yet is plainly not sure (p. 27). 
The poem " Heaven " is an entertaining 
parody of the prevailing doctrine. In the 
poem " Mutability " he says, meeting the 
confident assertion of an after-life, 

Dear, we know only that we sigh, 

The laugh dies with the lips. 

D. Apr. 23, 1915. 

BROOKE, Stopford Augustus, author. 
B. Ireland, Nov. 14, 1832. Ed. Kidder 
minster, Kingstown, and Trinity College 
(Dublin). At Trinity he won the Downe 




prize and the Vice-Chancellor s prize for 
English verse. Entering the ministry of 
the Church of England, and accepting a 
curacy in Marylebone (London), Brooke 
won such repute for eloquence and literary 
scholarship that in 1872 he was appointed 
Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the Queen. He 
seceded from the Church in 1880, and 
devoted himself to letters. He remained 
a Theist, but he did not, as is often said, 
join the Unitarians, and he rejected that 
title (Life and Letters of Stopford Brooke, 
by L. P. Jacks, 1917, p. 496). Mr. Jacks 
candidly says : " When he left the Church 
he did not pass from the fold of one 
denomination into that of another " 
(p. 320). D. Mar. 18, 1916. 

BROOKSBANK, William, writer. B. 
Dec. 6, 1801. In 1824 he contributed to 
Carlile s Lion, and he later wrote for the 
Eeasoner and the National Reformer. He 
published also A Sketch of the Religions of 
the Earth (1856) and a number of pam 
phlets. A friend of J. Watson, he helped 
materially in the early propaganda of 
Eationalism in England. 

B ROSSES, President Charles de, 

French historian. B. June 17, 1709. Ed. 
Jesuit College, Dijon. De Brosses became 
a Counsellor to the Parlement at the early 
age of twenty-one, and in later years he 
was President of the Dijon Parlement. All 
his life he was assiduous in the study of 
science, letters, and law, and he wrote 
various historical and archaeological works. 
He was intimate with all the "philo 
sophers " (except Voltaire, with whom he 
had a private quarrel), and he wrote a 
number of articles for the Dictionnaire 
Encyclopedique. D. Mar. 7, 1777. 

BROUSSAIS, Professor Francois 
Joseph Victor, French physiologist. B. 
Dec. 17, 1772. Ed. College de Dinan. 
He became a surgeon in the Eevolutionary 
army, and in 1799 he went to Paris to 
complete his medical education, working 
under Bichat.and adopting his Materialistic 

views. His chief medical works had a 
profound influence on French medicine, of 
which he was one of the foremost reformers. 
Broussais is generally regarded as the 
founder of the physiological school of 
medicine. In 1830 he became professor of 
pathology and general therapeutics at Paris. 
D. Nov. 17, 1838. 

BROWN, Professor Arthur, M.A., 

LL.D., jurist. B. Apr. 5, 1884. Ed. 
Cambridge (St. John s College). Professor 
Brown had a brilliant scholastic career. 
He won First Class Honours in History 
and Law in 1905, 1906, and 1907, and was 
Macmahon Law Student in 1907 and 
Senior Whewell Scholar in International 
Law in 1908. In 1910 and 1911 he was 
secretary to Dr. Oppenheim, Whewell Pro 
fessor of International Law. He was 
called to the Bar (Inner Temple) in 1932, 
and for two years worked as University 
Extension Lecturer in Economics, Politics, 
and Sociology. In 1914 he accepted the 
position of Professor of Politics and Eco 
nomics at the Cotton College, Gauhati 
(India). In 1914 and 1915 he gave courses 
of lectures at Calcutta University. At the 
close of 1919 he was appointed Professor 
of International Law at Calcutta Uni 
versity. Professor Brown is a member of 
the Eationalist Press Association. 

BROWN, Ford Madox, painter. B. 
Apr. 16, 1821. Ed. Bruges, Ghent, and 
Antwerp. He exhibited his first picture at 
Ghent in 1837, and in 1846 he settled in 
London. Though he was intimate with 
Eossetti and the Pre-Eaphaelites, he did 
not join them. He gave lessons in drawing 
to working men at Camden Town, and later 
at the Working Men s College. Brown 
painted a large number of distinguished 
religious pictures, but he was an utter 
Eationalist. His grandson, Ford Madox 
Hueffer, observes in his biography of the 
painter (Ford Madox Brown, 1896, p. 401) : 
In his early days he was a conventional 
member of the Church of England ; in 
later years he was an absolute Agnostic, 



with a great dislike of anything of the 
nature of priestcraft." D. Oct. 6, 1893. 

BROWN, George William, M.D., 

American reformer. B. Oct., 1820. At the 
age of eighteen Brown was expelled from 
the Baptist Church for denying the reality 
of hell. He edited the Kansas Herald of 
Freedom, and in 1856 had his office raided 
by the pro-slavery crowd. He contributed 
to the Eationalist journals of America, and 
wrote Researches in Jeivish History. 

BROWN, Titus L., M.D., American 
physician. B. Oct. 16, 1823. Ed. Medical 
College, New York, and the Homoeopathic 
College, Philadelphia. While engaged in 
medical practice at New York, Dr. Brown 
openly assisted the Eationalist cause in 
America. He contributed to the Boston 
Investigator, and he was in 1877 President 
of the Freethinkers Association. He was 
an avowed Materialist. D. Aug. 17, 1887. 

BROWN, Walston Hill, banker and 
contractor. B. 1842. Ed. Columbia Uni 
versity. He was admitted to the American 
Bar in 1868, but he preferred business, and 
in 1869 he joined his father in founding 
the banking firm of A. J. Brown and Son. 
He was also a partner in Merriam and 
Brown, and later of the contracting firm, 
Brown, Howard, and Co., which in 1872 
became the banking firm, Walston H. 
Brown and Co. Mr. Brown married Inger- 
soll s daughter Eva, and is, like her, an 
Agnostic. Their home in New York is 
a fine and hospitable centre of enlighten 
ment. In connection with his various firms 
Mr. Brown has carried through many large 
undertakings, especially in railway con 
struction, and he is a Fellow of the 
National Academy of Design. 

BROWN, Bishop William Mont 
gomery, D.D. B. Sep. 4, 1855. Ed. 
Seabury Hall and Gambier (Ohio). In 
1884 he entered the ministry of the Ameri 
can Episcopal Church ; and he became 
Archdeacon of the diocese of Ohio in 1891, 

Bishop-coadjutor of Arkansas in 1898, and 
Bishop of Arkansas in 1900. He resigned 
in 1912, and, though he retains the title of 
Bishop, he has published a series of bold 
and drastic criticisms of the supernatural 
claims of Christianity (The Level Plan for 
Church Union, 1910, etc.). He emphati 
cally rejects " uniquism " and stands for 
a very liberal Theism. 

Charles Edward, LL.D., M.D., F.E.S., 
F.E.C.P., physiologist. B. Apr. 8, 1817. 
He had a little schooling in Mauritius, 
where he was born, and became a clerk, 
but his French mother saved money and 
took him to study medicine in France. It 
was in recognition of her sacrifices that 
he adopted her maiden name (Sequard). 
In 1849 he was appointed auxiliary 
physician at Gros-Caillou Military Hos 
pital. Throughout these early and difficult 
years he pursued the studies in neural 
physiology which made him famous. In 
1852 he took part in the Eepublican and 
anti-clerical movement against Napoleon 
III, and was compelled to fly to America. 
In 1854 he showed such heroic conduct 
during an epidemic of cholera in Mauritius 
that the authorities struck a gold medal in 
his honour. He was appointed professor 
of medicine in the Virginia Medical College 
in the following year, but after a few 
months he returned to France and, receiv 
ing an award from the Academy of Sciences, 
devoted himself to research. He edited 
the Journal de Physiologic (1858-64), 
lectured at the London Eoyal College 
of Surgeons (1858), and delivered the 
Croonian Lecture (1861). From 1859 to 
1363 he was physician to the London 
National Hospital for the Paralysed and 
Epileptic, from 1863 to 1868 professor of 
the physiology and pathology of the 
nervous system at Harvard University, 
from 1869 to 1872 professor of pathology 
at Paris University, in 1877 professor of 
physiology at Geneva, and from 1878 to 
1894 professor of experimental medicine 
at the College de France. He won the 




Lacaze Prize of the French Academy of 
Sciences, the Daly Medal of the Eoyal 
College of Physicians, and a large number 
of other honours. Throughout his dis 
tinguished and laborious career Brown- 
Sequard remained a poor and modest 
man, sacrificing for research his chances 
of a very lucrative practice. D. Apr. 1, 

BROWNE, Sir Thomas, M.D., physi 
cian. B. Oct. 19, 1605. Ed. Winchester, 
Leyden, and Oxford. He graduated at 
both Leyden (1633) and Oxford (1637) 
Universities, and settled in practice at 
Norwich. His famous Eeligio Medici was 
probably written in 1635, and was pub 
lished in 1642. It was translated into 
Latin, Dutch, French, German, and Italian, 
and, although it was put on the Index at 
Rome, has given rise to endless controversy 
in regard to the author s views. Even 
J. A. Symonds describes him as a " pas 
sionate Christian " and a " God-intoxicated 
man," while the German authority, W. 
Schmach, describes the book as a "monu 
ment of English Deism." Browne certainly 
professed to be orthodox, believed in witch 
craft, and went to church regularly ; but 
when one compares the Eeligio Medici 
with his more outspoken Urn Burial and 
Pseudodoxia Epidemica one sees that the 
passages which Symonds had in mind 
must not be taken literally. In Urn 
Burial he says : " A dialogue between two 
infants in the womb concerning the state 
of this world might handsomely illustrate 
our ignorance of the next, whereof methinks 
all yet discourse in Plato s den, and are but 
embryo philosophers" (1886 ed., p. 158). 
In Section viii he says : " I perceive the 
wisest, heads prove, at last, almost all 
Scepticks, and stand like Janus in the field 
of knowledge," and he thinks that, since 
it is " vanity to waste our days in the 
pursuit of knowledge," we had better wait 
until we die to learn the truth. He 
entirely ignores "revelation," and is plainly 
sceptical about a future life. D. Oct. 19, 


BROWNE, William George, traveller. 
B. July 25, 1768. Ed. privately and at 
Oxford (Oriel College). He adopted law 
as a profession, but, becoming independent, 
turned to African exploration (1792-98). 
The work in which he describes his travels 
(1800) contains many sarcastic observa 
tions on Christian Europe. " In politics 
he was a republican, in religion a Free 
thinker " (Diet. Nat. Biog.). He set out 
in 1812 for a journey across Asia, and was 
murdered in Persia in 1813. 

BROWNING, Robert, poet. B. Lon 
don, May 7, 1812. Ed. private school and 
London University College. He began to 
write verse at the age of twelve, and in 
1833 published Pauline. Paracelsus was 
written in 1834-35, and Sordello in 1838. 
It was not until about 1845 that his 
peculiar poetical genius gained wide recog 
nition. In 1868 Oxford University granted 
him a degree, and he became a Fellow of 
Balliol. The strict orthodoxy of his early 
years began to waver during his association 
with W. J. Fox (SEE) in 1830-35, and his 
Christmas Eve and Easter Day (1850) 
reflects the growing trouble of his faith. 
After the death of his wife in 1861 the 
last relics of his Christian orthodoxy 
disappeared. Mr. Benn, in his History, 
finely traces the development through his 
successive poems (especially A Death in 
the Desert, 1864 ; The Bing and the Book, 
1868; The Inn Album, 1875; and La 
Saisiaz, 1875). In the latter poem he 
professes a pure Theism : " Soul and God 
stand sure." He plainly intimates that 
all else has gone. D. Dec. 12, 1889. 

BRUNO, Giordano, Italian philosopher 
and martyr. B. 1548. He entered the 
Dominican Order at Naples in his fifteenth 
year, taking the name of Giordano instead 
of his baptismal name, Filippo. Accused 
of heresy, he fled from his convent and 
wandered over Europe from 1576 to 1592. 
From 1583 to 1585 he was in England. 
Bruno was a warm admirer of the Greek 
philosophers, especially Epicurus and the 



Stoics, and was well acquainted with 
Greek science as it became known to 
Europe through the Arabs and during the 
Renaissance. He adopted the Copernican 
theory. His philosophy was Pantheistic 
and far in advance of that of any other 
thinker of the time. In 1592 he returned 
to Italy and was arrested by the Inquisition. 
After seven years in prison he was burned 
at the stake. The modern Romans have 
redeemed the stain by erecting a statue to 
him in the Campo dei Fiori (June 9, 1889) 
and issuing his works at the public expense 
(1879-91). D. Feb. 17, 1600. 

BUCHANAN, Robert, Owenite. B. 
1813. Buchanan gave up a position as 
schoolmaster to become an Owenite lec 
turer, and worked devotedly in the north | 
of England. Among other works, he pub 
lished A Concise History of Modern Priest 
craft (1840). He contributed to the 
Chartist Press, and after the decline of 
Owenism he edited a journal at Glasgow. 
D. Mar. 4, 1866. 

BUCHANAN, Robert, poet and novelist, 
son of the preceding. B. Aug. 18, 1841. 
Ed. private schools and Glasgow Academy, 
High School, and University. Migrating 
to London, he applied himself to journalism 
and letters, with little success for many 
years. His Idylls and Legends of Inverburn 
(1865) and London Poems (1866) inaugu 
rated a more successful period, and his 
novels and dramas were greatly esteemed. 
He was, however, improvident, and died in 
want. " He was loyal throughout life to 
the anti-religious tradition in which he 
was bred " (Diet. Nat. Biog.). D. June 10, 

BUCHNER, Friedrich Karl Christian 
Ludwig, M.D., author of Force and Matter. 
B. Mar. 28, 1824. Ed. Giessen, Strassburg, 
Wiirzburg, and Vienna Universities. Dr. 
Biichner was a private teacher of medicine 
at Tubingen University when, in 1855, he 
published his famous work, Kraft und Stoff 
(Force and Matter). He was deprived of 

his position, and he took up medical 
practice at Darmstadt, occasionally pub 
lishing further scientific and Rationalist 
works. He did not profess Materialism, 
but Monism (Last Words on Materialism, 
Eng. trans. 1901, p. 273). He was a man 
of marked poetical and idealist nature, and 
in 1885 published a volume of verse entitled 
The Neio Hamlet. D. May 1, 1899. 

BUCHNER, Professor Alexander, 

German writer, brother of Ludwig Biichner. 
B. Oct. 25, 1827. Ed. Zurich University. 
He taught philosophy at Zurich, but in 1857 
he entered the service of France, and in 
1862 became professor of foreign literature 
at Caen University. Biichner was a high 
authority on the English poets, and wrote 
a History of English Poetry as well as 
works on Shakespeare, Chatterton, Heine, 
etc. In a preface to the English trans 
lation of his brother s essays, Last Words 
on Materialism (1901), he genially expresses 
his own Rationalism. 

BUCKLE, Thomas, historian. B. 
Nov. 24, 1821. Ed. privately. At the age 
of seventeen he entered his father s ship 
ping business, but the death of his father 
in the following year gave him means to 
travel and study. Gifted with a phenomenal 
memory and great diligence, he devoted 
fourteen years to gathering the material of 
his History of Civilization, the first volume 
of which appeared in 1856 and was an 
immediate success. Buckle read nine 
teen languages, and was one of the first 
chess-players of Europe. In 1859 he 
warmly attacked Sir J. Coleridge for his 
severe sentence on Pooley for blasphemy. 
The second volume of his History appeared 
in 1861, and was followed by a few other 
works. Helen Taylor published a collected 
edition of his works in 1872, in three 
volumes. He was a Theist, and admitted 
the idea of personal immortality, but was 
not a Christian. D. May 29, 1862. 

BUEN Y DEL COS, Professor Odon de, 

Spanish geographer. B. Nov. 18, 1863. 



Ed. Zuera Institute and Madrid University. 
He made various scientific expeditions in 
Europe and Africa, and was in 1886 
appointed naturalist on the scientific ex 
ploration of the Blanca. He then received 
a chair at Barcelona University, from 
which the clericals ejected him in 1895, 
but he recovered it. Professor de Buen is 
one of the most distinguished men of 
science and most outspoken Eationalists of 
Spain. One of his numerous works is on 
the Index, and he contributes frequently to 
Las Dominicales del Libre Pensamiento 
and warmly supports the International 
Freethought Congresses. He is an Agnostic. 

BUFFON, Count Georges Louis 
Leclerc de, French naturalist. B. Sep. 7, 
1707. Ed. Dijon. Buffon, on completing 
his studies, travelled over the Continent 
with the Duke of Kingston and accom 
panied him to London, where he obtained 
a good command of English. In 1739 he 
was appointed Director of the Jardin des 
Plantes, and he devoted his time to 
laborious studies of history, physics, and 
mathematics. The first volume of his 
celebrated Natural History (an encyclo 
paedia of the science of his time) was 
published in 1749, and during the next 
thirty-four years he produced twenty-three 
further volumes. The work includes his 
famous evolutionary Theory of the Earth, 
which develops Descartes s theory of the 
origin of the sun and planets and leads on 
to that of Laplace. In 1751 he was com 
pelled by the Catholic authorities to with 
draw certain anti-scriptural passages, but 
the " retraction" was merely a forced con 
cession to ecclesiastical tyranny. Herault 
de Sechelles afterwards visited Buffon, and 
describes his sentiments in his little-known 
work, Voyage a Montbar. Buffon said to 
him : I have everywhere mentioned the 
Creator, but you have only to omit the 
word and put naturally in its place the 
power of nature " (p. 36). He also rejected 
the belief in immortality. But, living in a 
tyrannical age and holding an official 
position, he conformed outwardly with the 

Church s requirements. D. Apr. 16, 1788. 

B U I S S N , Professor Ferdinand 
Edouard, D. es L., French educationist. 
B. Dec. 20, 1841. Ed. College d Argentan, 
Lycee de St. Etienne, and Lycee Condorcet. 
As Director of Primary Instruction and 
Minister of Public Instruction (1879-96) 
Professor Buisson was one of the foremost 
workers in the laicization of the French 
schools. He is professor of the science of 
Education at the Sorbonne, commander of 
the Legion of Honour, and deputy for the 
Seine. His various works on religion 
(besides many on education) have been 
violently attacked by both Catholics and 
Protestants, since he rejects both creeds 
(La religion, la morale, et la science, 1900), 
though he pleads for religion in an idealist 

BULLER, Charles, B.A., politician. 
B. Aug. 6, 1806. Ed. Harrow and Cam 
bridge (Trinity College). He had to leave 
Harrow prematurely on account of his 
health, and for some time Carlyle was his 
tutor. He took to law and politics (1830), 
and became a brilliant debater and parlia 
mentarian. With J. Mill, Grote, and 
Molesworth, he strongly supported the 
reform party, and he was prominent at the 
London Debating Society. Jowett (Life 
and Letters, i, 433) quotes him saying : 
"Destroy the Church of England, sir! 
Why, you must be mad. It is the one 
thing which stands between us and real 
religion." In 1838 he accompanied Lord 
Durham to Canada, and was the chief 
author of Durham s report. In 1846 he 
became judge-advocate-general, in 1847 
a Poor Law Commissioner. An exception 
ally gifted man of high character, he 
described " doing good " as the aim of his 
life, but he died prematurely. D. Nov. 29, 

BURBANK, Luther, Sc.D., American 

horticulturist. B. Mar. 7, 1849. Ed. 

Lancaster Academy. Burbank spent his 

early years on a farm, and he attracted 




attention both by his inventiveness and 
his keen study of nature. In 1875 he 
moved from Massachusetts to California, 
and it was not long before he established 
the experimental farms at Santa Rosa 
which (with his later enterprises) have 
spread his name all over the world. He 
has created countless new species of vege 
tables, trees, fruit, grasses, and flowers. 
To-day (1920) he raises more than a 
million plants annually. He is Special 
Lecturer on Evolution at Leland Stanford 
University, Life-Fellow of the A. A. S., 
Honorary Member of the Swedish and 
Italian Royal Agricultural Societies, etc. 
He describes his life-work in Luther 
Burbank, His Methods and Discoveries 
(12 vols., 1914). Burbank is as rare in 
character as he is in genius. He works for 
the good of humanity, and is idolized by 
those who know him. He is an Emer 
sonian Theist, and has a profound regard 
for his ethical teacher. See, especially, 
New Creations in Plant Life, by W. S. 
Harwood, 1905. 

BURCKHARDT, Professor Jakob, 

Swiss historian. B. May 25, 1818. Ed. 
Basle and Berlin. He was professor of 
history and of the history of art at Basle 
University in 1845-47, 1849-55, and 
1858-93, spending the intervals in Italy 
in preparation of his famous works on the 
Italian Renaissance (Die Kultur der Renais 
sance in Italien, 1860, and Geschichte der 
Renaissance in Italien, 1867). In these 
and other works published during his life 
the learned historian reserves his personal 
opinions on religion, but in his posthumous 
Weltgeschichtliche Betrachtungen (1905) he 
rejects all Churches and creeds. D. Aug. 7, 

BURDACH, Professor Karl Friedrich, 

German physiologist. B. June 12, 1776. 
Ed. Leipzig University. He was succes 
sively professor of physiology at Leipzig 
(1806), Dorpat (1811), and Konigsberg 
(1815), and wrote a number of important 
works on the science. One of these was 

put on the Index for its Materialistic 
tendency. D. July 16, 1847. 

BURDETT, Sir Francis, reformer. B. 
Jan. 25, 1770. Ed. Westminster and 
Oxford. He entered Parliament in 1796, 
and took a prominent place among the 
reforming Liberals. He attacked the 
French War, advocated parliamentary 
reform, and exposed the evils of prison 
life. On one occasion he was imprisoned 
in the Tower, and on another fined 2,000 
for defying the reactionary authorities. 
Few reforms of the time did not receive 
his generous aid and personal advocacy. 
The foundation of the Birkbeck Mechanics 
Institution was largely due to him. Burdett 
was a close friend of Bentham, Place, and 
H. Tooke, and shared their Rationalism. 
He was, says Mrs. de Morgan, " what in 
these days would be called an Agnostic " 
(Threescore Years and Ten, p. 12). D. 
Jan. 23, 1844. 

BURDON, William, M.A., Deist. B. 
1764. Ed. Newcastle and Cambridge 
(Emmanuel). He was elected a Fellow 
of Emmanuel, but he declined to take 
orders and resigned (1796). Having wealth 
and leisure, he devoted himself to philo 
sophic writing and political pamphlets. 
His Deism is plainly expressed in his 
Materials for Thinking (1806). D. May 30, 

BURGERS, Thomas Francis, D.D., 

President of the Transvaal Republic. B. 
Apr. 15, 1834. Ed. Utrecht University. 
On his return to South Africa he entered 
the ministry of the Dutch Reformed 
Church. In 1864 he was suspended for 
heresy, but he successfully appealed. " His 
creed," says Theal, " was not in unison 
with that of nineteen-twentieths of the 
people of the Republic " (History of the 
South African Republic, 1908, iv, 400). It 
appears from his posthumous volume of 
stories (Toneelen uit ons Dorp, 1882) that 
he was really an Agnostic. In 1872 the 
Boers, says Theal, overlooked his heresies 



in their search for an able leader, and j 
appointed him President. D. Dec. 9, 1881. 

BURIGNY, Jean Levesque de, French 
historian. B. 1692. It is not now generally 
admitted that Burigny wrote the Examen 
critique de la religion chretienne, which was i 
long attributed to him, but his learned 
Traite de Vautorite du Pape (1720) and : 
Histoire de la philosophic paienne (1724) ; 
are Deistic. In 1756 he was admitted to I 
the Academy of Inscriptions and Letters, j 
D. Oct. 8, 1785. 

BURNET, Thomas, M.A., master of the 
Charterhouse. B. about 1635. Ed. North- 
allerton and Cambridge (Clare College). 
He was a Fellow of Christ s College and 
Proctor. In 1685 he became master of 
the Charterhouse, and after the Eevolution 
he was appointed chaplain and clerk of the 
closet to the king. In 1692 he published 
Archceologice Philosophic^, and the cry of 
heresy led to the loss of his position at 
court. In posthumous works he rejects 
Christian teaching so extensively that he 
was probably a Deist. D. Sep. 27, 1715. 

BURNETT, James, Lord Monboddo, 
judge. B. 1714. Ed. Marischal College, 
Aberdeen, and Edinburgh and Groningen 
Universities. Burnett was admitted to 
the Faculty of Advocates at Edinburgh in 
1737, and became Sheriff of Kincardine- 
shire in 1764. In 1767, on becoming a 
Lord of Session, he took the title Lord 
Monboddo (from his birthplace). A learned 
and highly respected judge, Lord Monboddo 
was an enthusiast for Greek culture, and 
his works are inspired by it. Hence the 
evolutionary ideas (in his Of the Origin 
and Progress of Language, 6vols., 1773-92) 
in which he, with inevitable extravagances, 
anticipated later thought. He suggested 
that man at first walked on all fours and 
gradually adopted the upright posture and 
developed speech. D. May 26, 1799. 

BURNETT, John, philanthropist. B. 
Aberdeen 1729. Prospering in business, 


John and his brother paid off their father s 
debts (about 8,000), and John also spent 
large sums in charities. " He gave up 
attending public worship lest he should be 
committed to the creed of a Church " (Diet. 
Nat. Biog.). At his death he left a large 
part of his estate for the welfare of the 
poor of Aberdeen and to found a prize for 
essays in proof of the existence of a Creator 
(the Burnett Prize). He was a Deist. D. 
Nov. 9, 1784. 

BURNOUF, Emile Louis, French philo 
logist. B. Aug. 25, 1821. Ed. College de 
St. Louis and Ecole Normale, Paris. He 
became in 1854 professor of ancient litera 
ture at Nancy, in 1867 Director of the 
French School at Athens, and in 1875 
professor at Bordeaux. Besides his philo 
logical works on Sanscrit and Greek, he 
wrote a number of Eationalist works (La 
Science des Religions, 1872 ; La Vie et la 
Pensee, 1886, etc.), in which he entirely 
rejects Christianity, hub advocates a thin 
shade of Pantheism. D. Jan. 15, 1907. 

BURNOUF, Eugene, French orientalist, 
brother of preceding. B. Aug. 12, 1801. 
Ed. Paris. After teaching for three years 
at the Ecole Normale, Burnouf was in 
1832 appointed professor of Sanscrit at 
the College de France, and he taught there 
until his death. He was in the same year 
admitted to the Academie des Inscriptions. 
He was one of the first philologists in 
Europe to master Pali, and his studies of 
the Hindu and Persian sacred books put 
him in the first rank of European orien 
talists. He seems from his letters to have 
been a Theist, but he carefully avoided pro 
nouncements on Christianity. D. May 28, 

BURNS, The Right Honourable John, 

statesman. B. Oct., 1858. Ed. Battersea 
elementary school and at night schools, 
" and still learning " (he says). At the 
age of ten he began to work in a candle 
factory. Paine s Age of Reason and the 
influence of Eobert Owen destroyed his 



Christian belief, and he was active among 
the early Secularists. In his boyhood he 
had been in a church choir, " but since 
then John Burns has not often darkened 
the door of a church," says Mr. Stead (Our 
New Rulers, 1906, p. 39). Mr. Belfort Bax 
(Reminiscences, p. 104) refers to his Secu 
larist days. He passed to the Social 
Democratic Society and became a leader 
of the workers. In 1878 he was arrested 
for a Socialist address on Clapham Common, 
and in 1887 he was sent to prison for 
enforcing the public right of meeting in 
Trafalgar Square. Mr. Burns was the first 
Labour member of the London County 
Council, and he was M.P. for Battersea from 
1892 to 1918. He was President of the Local 
Government Board 1905-14, and President 
of the Board of Trade for some months in 
1914, resigning at the declaration of war. 
Mr. Stead describes him as " an Agnostic " 
(p. 8), and " an austere moralist who neither 
drinks nor smokes, nor bets nor swears " 
(p. 40). 

BURNS, Robert, poet. B. Jan. 25, 
1759. Ed. local school and at Ayr. Burns 
was put to surveying, but he turned to flax- 
dressing and later to farming. The bitter 
feud of the Calvinists and the " New Light " 
attracted his growing power of verse, and 
he wrote sharp satires on the older school. 
His first poem was the Two Herds (the 
rival schools of theology), 1785, which was 
soon followed by Holy Willie s Prayer and 
Holy Fair. The letters he wrote at the 
time confirm that he was now entirely 
sceptical about religion. In 1788 he 
returned to farming, and in 1789 he 
obtained a post in the Excise. In his 
later years he read the Bible much, and 
he occasionally addresses the Deity in his 
poems ; but such lines as 

Thou Great Being ! what thou art 
Surpasses me to know 

show that he remained more or less 
Agnostic. See A. Webster s Burns and 
the Kirk (1889). D. July 21, 1796. 

BURROUGHS, John, Litt.D., American 


naturalist. B. Apr. 3, 1837. Burroughs 
taught in a school for eight years, and 
then served as a clerk in the Treasury 
(1864-73). Until 1884 he next acted as 
national bank examiner, and for the 
remainder of his life he lived on a farm, 
dividing his time between letters and 
gardening. He was admitted to the 
American Academy of Arts and Letters. 
Besides a few early works on Whitman, 
he has written a number of natural-history 
works of great charm (Wake Robin, 1871, 
etc.). He admired England his An October 
Abroad is one of the most generous appre 
ciations of England that an American ever 
wrote and he counts M. Arnold, with 
Whitman and Emerson, as one of his chief 
guides. In later works, especially The 
Light of Day (1900) and Time and Change 
(1912), he rejects, not only Christianity, 
but the belief in a personal God and per 
sonal immortality. In the latter work he 
speaks of the Christian Deity as the God 
we have made ourselves out of our dreams 
and fears and aspirations " (p. 179), and 
declares that " man s religion is on the 
wane, but his humanitarianism is a rising 
tide " (p. 195). " There is, and can be, 
nothing not inherent in Nature," he says 
(p. 247). 

BURT, the Right Honourable Thomas, 

D.C.L., Labour leader. B. Nov. 12, 1837. 
Son of a miner, Burt got only two years 
of poor schooling, and at ten he began to 
work in the pit. He studied in his leisure, 
and in 1865 he became secretary of the 
Northumberland Miners Mutual Associa 
tion. He was M.P. for Morpeth from 1874 
to 1918. He was for many years Presi 
dent of the Miners National Union, and 
was President of the Trades Union Con 
gress in 1891. From 1892 to 1895 he was 
Parliamentary Secretary to the Board of 
Trade. He became a Governor of the 
Imperial Institute in 1891, and was 
admitted to the Privy Council in 1906. 
In a sketch of his life Aaron Watson says 
that he passed from Methodism to " a 
rather detached interest in Unitarianism " 
130 G 



(p. 165). He was a friend of Bradlaugh, 
and loyally supported him in his parlia 
mentary struggle. Speaking at the funeral 
of H. Boyle in 1907, he said : " Will it be 
the end of it all ? We know not. To 
again quote Tennyson, We have but faith ; 
we cannot know and, if it be frankly 
spoken, some of us have little enough 
faith " (p. 309). Earl Grey described Burt 
as "the finest gentleman I ever knew." 

BURTON, John Hill, historian. B. Aug. 
22, 1809. Ed. Aberdeen University. He 
devoted himself to law and letters and 
became an ardent Benthamite. In con 
junction with Sir J. Bowring he edited 
Bentham s works, and in 1843 he pub 
lished Benthamiana. His chief work is a 
History of Scotland. In 1854 he became 
secretary to the Prisons Board. He was 
all his life a zealous and practical Utili 
tarian, and a very generous and high- 
minded man. D. Aug. 10, 1881. 

BURTON, Sir Richard Francis, 

explorer. B. Mar. 19, 1821. Ed. by tutors 
and at Oxford (Trinity College). Burton 
was destined for the Church, but he pre 
ferred the Army. Serving in India (1842- 
49), he carefully studied oriental languages 
and the ways of the Mohammedans, and 
in later years he made adventurous journeys 
through the East (1853-54), Africa (1856- 
59 and 1861-65), South America (1868-69), 
and Syria (1869). He was British Consul 
at Trieste from 1872 until he died. His 
Book of a Thousand Nights and a Night 
(10 vols.) was published in 1885-86. 
Although he was a notorious Eationalist, 
his Catholic wife had the rites of her 
Church administered to him while he was 
dying. The farce is scathingly described 
by Burton s niece, Georgiana Stisted, in 
her True Life of Sir R. F. Burton (1896, 
pp. 413-16). She describes also how Lady 
Burton burned the manuscript of her 
husband s translation of The Scented 
Garden (pp. 403-5). Burton was, she 
says, "a sturdy Deist" (p. 352). He 
detested Eome, believed only in an " Un- 


knowable and Impersonal God," and was 
sceptical about a future life. He was 
rather an Agnostic or Spencerian. D. Oct. 
20, 1890. 

BURY, Professor John Bagnell, M.A., 
LL.D., Litt.D., historian. B. Oct. 16, 
1861 (son of the Eev. E. J. Bury, Canon 
of Clogher). Ed. Trinity College, Dublin. 
He was Professor of Modern History at 
Dublin University 1893-1902, Eegius Pro 
fessor of Greek 1898, and Eomanes Lecturer 
1911 ; and he has been Eegius Professor 
of Modern History at Cambridge University 
since 1902. His chief works, besides his 
superb edition of Gibbon, are History of 
the Later Boman Empire (1889), History 
of Greece (1900), and History of the 
Eastern Boman Empire (1912). His 
Eationalism is finely expressed in his 
History of Freedom of Thought (1913). 
Professor Bury is a Fellow of King s 
College (Cambridge), member of the British 
Academy, and corresponding member of 
the Eussian Imperial Academy of Science, 
the Hungarian Academy of Science, the 
Eumanian Academy, the Massachusetts 
Historical Society, and the Eussian Archaeo 
logical Institute at Constantinople. He is 
an Honorary Associate of the Eationalist 
Press Association. 

BUTLER, Samuel, author of Hudibras. 
B. Feb. 8, 1612. Ed, Worcester Free School. 
Butler was valet for some years in the 
service of a Puritan gentleman. He there 
conceived his celebrated poem, a pungent 
satire on the Puritans, with his master 
(more or less blended with Don Quixote) 
as hero. He published Hudibras after the 
death of Cromwell (1663). It discreetly 
satirizes all creeds, as in the couplet : 

A light that falls down from on high 
For spiritual trades to cozen by. 

(Pt. i, Canto i.) 

D. Sep. 25, 1680. 

BUTLER, Samuel, philosophical writer. 
B. Dec. 4, 1835. Ed. Shrewsbury and St. 
John s (Cambridge). Butler was destined 



for the Church and became a lay reader ; 
but he lost his orthodoxy and emigrated to 
New Zealand (1859), where he was later a 
prosperous sheep-breeder. Keturning to 
London in 1864, he applied himself to art 
and letters. His chief works, Ereiohon 
(1872), The Fair Haven (1873), Life and 
Habit (1877), Erewhon Revisited (1901), 
and The Way of all Flesh (1903), are 
generally biting satires of Christianity ; but 
Butler equally detested Darwinism and 
science (much as his disciple, Mr. G. B. 
Shaw, does), and held an isolated position. 
He professed to find a mind and purpose 
in the universe, but was not a Theist. 
D. June 18, 1902. 

BYELINSKY, Yissarion Grigorye- 
Yitch, Russian literary critic. B. 1810. 
Ed. Penza Gymnasium and Moscow 
University. At Moscow he joined Herzen 
and Bakunin, and was expelled for attack 
ing serfdom (1832). In 1834 he began to 
write his Literary Reveries. Migrating to 
Pefcrograd in 1839, he issued a series of 
brilliant literary works, in which all con 
ventions and hypocrisies and creeds were 
fiercely assailed. See Comte de Vogue, 
Le Boman Russe, p. 218. He emitted 
rebellion with volcanic glow and energy 
until consumption prematurely closed his 
career. D. 1848. 

BYRON, Lord George Gordon. B. Lou- 
don, Jan. 22, 1788. Ed. private schools, 
Aberdeen Grammar School, Harrow, and 
Cambridge (Trinity). He embraced the 
Deism of the French Rationalists in his 
youth, and in 1806 published his first 
volume of poems. In 1808, after gradua 
ting at Cambridge and taking his seat in 
the House of Lords, he made the tour of 
the continent, and began to compose his 
Childe Harold. The first part (published 
1812) was so successful that he turned 
entirely from politics to literature and 
became the idol of London. His conduct 
was irregular, but the gross calumnies of 
his wife, a religious woman from whom he 
was forced to separate, so exaggerated the 

facts that he left England for Italy. With 
out being a democrat (except in his earlier 
years), he heartily attacked the tyranny of 
the Holy Alliance, was an enthusiast for 
liberty, and lost his life in an attempt to 
assist the Greek rebels. In his earlier 
years he was, as we find in his published 
letters, very scornful about Christianity 
and a future life. His feeling moderated 
in later years, but he remained a Deist, 
and to the end rejected the idea of personal 
immortality. " Byron was, to the last, a 
sceptic," says Moore in his authoritative 
biography. In a letter of June 18, 1813, 
he expressly says that he " doubted the 
immortality of man " (quoted in Robert 
son s Short History of Freethought, ii, 444). 
See also an article by Foote in the Free 
thinker (Aug. 2, 1908) amply refuting Cecil 
Chesterton s claim that Byron was a 
Christian. His Cain, for which he was 
refused copyright, is the boldest of his 
poetical expressions of his views. D. Apr. 
19, 1824. 

CABANIS, George Paul Sylvester, Ger 
man poet. B. Dec. 31, 1859. His earlier 
years were devoted to art- colouring, but he 
passed to poetry, and since 1910 he has 
cultivated letters only. He has written a 
humanist Life of Christ and many other 
works. Cabanis is a Monist and a great 
admirer of Haeckel, and has a high repu 
tation in Germany. 

CABANIS, Pierre Jean Georges, French 

medical and philosophical writer. B. 
June 5, 1757. Ed. College de Brives. 
Cabanis passed from letters to medicine, in 
which he graduated in 1783 ; and he wrote 
a series of medical works which had a 
profound influence in France. His philo 
sophy is entirely naturalistic, if not mate 
rialistic ; but the current statement that he 
described the brain as " secreting " thought 
is inaccurate. He wrote : " We must 
regard the brain as a special organ, specially 
destined to produce thought, just as the 
stomach and intestines are destined to 
effect digestion." In later years he 




admitted an intelligent First Cause. 
May 5, 1808. 


CAINE, William Ralph Hall, F.S.P., 
writer, brother of Sir Hall Caine. B. 1869. 
Mr. Caine began his literary career as a 
journalist on the Liverpool Mercury. For 
several years he then represented a depart 
ment of the Manx Legislature in London, 
and he edited the Court Circular, the 
Family Churchman, and Household Words. 
He was for some time manager and direc 
tor of Sir I. Pitman and Sons, and he was 
in 1915-16 President of the Societe Inter 
nationale de Philologie, Sciences, et Beaux 
Arts. His works on the Isle of Man, 
where he has now lived for some years, 
are numerous and authoritative. Mr. 
Caine has contributed to the B. P. A. 
Annual, and his views are not concealed 
in some of his papers on mythology and 
in the preface to his large and important 
directory of Lancashire. 

CALL, Wathen Mark Wilks, M.A., 
poet. B. June 7, 1817. Ed. St. John s 
(Cambridge). He was ordained priest of 
the Church of England in 1844, but he 
seceded from the Church in 1856 and 
eventually became a Positivist. He trans 
lated Comte s Preliminary Discourse on 
the Positive Spirit (1883) and wrote many 
of the hymns used in the Positivist and 
Ethical services. D. Aug. 20, 1890. 

Laureano, D.Sc., Spanish chemist. B. 
1847. Ed. Madrid University. In 1866 
he became professor of chemistry at 
Madrid, and in 1874 professor of pharmacy 
at Santiago. He was deposed on account 
of his Eationalist opinions, but in 1888 he 
recovered his chair at Madrid. He con 
tributed to advanced journals and helped 
the spread of Darwinism in Spain. 

Salvador, Spanish naturalist, brother of 
Laureano. B. 1851. Ed. Madrid Uni 
versity. He was professor of natural 


science at Las Palmas, and was deposed 
by the reactionary authorities. With 
other persecuted professors he established 
the Free Teaching Institution at Madrid. 
For some years he went to Nicaragua, 
where he openly advocated Eationalism. 
In 1887 he obtained the chair of geology 
at Seville University. He contributed to 
the Liberal organs, and wrote about fifty 
works on science. Professor Calderon 
became one of the leading geologists of his 

CALLAWAY, Charles, M.A., D.Sc., 
geologist. B. 1838. He was educated for, 
and entered, the Nonconformist ministry, 
but he seceded on doctrinal grounds and 
became an outspoken Agnostic (see his 
pamphlet, The Evolution of a Doubter* 
1914). He adopted teaching as a profes 
sion, but he devoted himself so zealously 
to geology that he came to be regarded as 
one of the leading Pre-Cambrian geologists 
in England. He received the Murchison 
Medal. Dr. Callaway, a genial and high- 
principled man, warmly supported the 
Cheltenham Ethical Society and was an 
Honorary Associate of the Eationalist 
Press Association. D. Sep. 29, 1915. 

CALYERLEY, Charles Stuart, poet. 
B. Dec. 22, 1831. Ed. privately, and at 
Marlborough, Harrow, Oxford (Balliol), and 
Cambridge (Christ s College). He won the 
Craven Scholarship, the Camden medal, 
and the Browne medal. For a time he 
lectured at Cambridge, then adopted law,, 
and was called to the Bar in 1865. His 
translations of Latin and Greek poetry are 
among the best in English literature, and 
he wrote verse in English, Latin, and 
Greek. In a biographical sketch, prefixed 
to his Complete Works (1901), his friend 
Sir W. J. Sendall says : " To mere dog 
matic teaching he was always and for ever 
impervious." D. Feb. 17, 1884. 

CAMBACERES, Prince Jean Jacques 
Regis de, Duke of Parma, French states- 



man. B. Oct. 15, 1753. A distinguished 
lawyer, he in 1789 embraced the principles j 
of the Eevolution and rendered great legal 
service to the new Government. He sat 
in the States General and the National 
Convention. In 1794 he was President of 
the Convention, and in 1796 one of the 
Council of Five Hundred. He was the 
principal author of Napoleon s Code Civil, 
and was created Prince, Duke of Parma, 
and Arch-Chancellor of the Empire. Louis 
XVIII banished him at the Eestoration. 
D. Mar. 8, 1824. 

CAMPBELL, Thomas, poet. B. July 27, 
1777. Ed. Glasgow Grammar School and 
University. Abandoning the idea of enter 
ing the ministry, he was for a time a tutor, 
and then devoted himself to letters, publish 
ing his first work, Pleasures ofHope,in 1799. 
He migrated to London, where he edited 
the New Monthly Magazine, and was greatly 
esteemed in literary circles. Campbell 
was deeply interested in reform, especially 
the reform of education, and as early as 
1824 he agitated for a London University. 
In 1832 he founded the Polish Association. 
He resented "superstition s rod" (Hal 
lowed Ground), and seems to have wavered 
between Theism and Agnosticism. Mrs. 
de Morgan (Reminiscences, p. 118) shows 
that he rejected the doctrine of personal 
immortality. D. June 15, 1844. 

CANESTRINI, Professor GioYanni, 

Ph.D., Italian naturalist. B. Dec. 26, 
1835. Ed. Goritz, Meran, and Vienna. 
After teaching natural history in Genoa 
for two years, he was in 1861 called to the 
University of Modena, and in 1869 to that 
of Padua. He was President of the Societa 
dei Naturalist! Modern! and of the Societa 
Veneto - Trentino di Scienze Natural!. 
Canestrini was the first and most powerful 
advocate of Darwinism in Italy. He 
translated most of Darwin s works, and 
many of his own works and innumerable 
papers defended them. He contributed 
to the Annuario Filosofico del Libero 


CANNIZZARO, Professor Stanislao, 

Italian chemist. B. July 26, 1826. Ed. 
Palermo and Pisa. In 1848 he joined the 
Garibaldians and was elected to the Sicilian 
Parliament. In 1852 he became professor 
at Alexandria, in 1857 at Genoa, in 1860 
at Palermo, and in 1870 at Eome. He 
was a Senator of the new kingdom and 
a Cavaliere of the Ordine Civile di Savoia ; 
and he had the Gran Cordone. Besides 
important chemical works, he wrote 
L Emancipazione della ragione (1865) and 
other Eationalist volumes. D. May 10, 

CANNIZZARO, Tommaso, Italian poet. 
B. Aug. 17, 1837. Ed. Messina. After 
travelling extensively he settled in his 
native Messina and devoted himself to 
poetry. He translated Omar Khayyam 
and the sonnets of Camoens, and pub 
lished distinguished verse of his own. 
His volume Tramonti contains many 
Eationalist poems, as in the ode on the 
death of Victor Hugo : 

Inexorable enemies of truth, 

Ye priests and kings and brothers of the dark. 

CANTONI, Professor Carlo, Italian 
philosopher. B. Nov. 20, 1840. Ed. Turin 
and Berlin Universities. From the study 
of law he passed to philosophy, which he 
first taught at Turin (1866-78) and then 
at Pavia University. He edited the Bivista 
Italiana di Filosofia, and wrote many 
philosophical works of a Kantian com 
plexion. He was a Senator, Eector of 
Pavia University, and member of the 
Accademia dei Lincei and the Council of 
Public Instruction. D. 1906. 

CAPE, Emily Palmer, American writer. 
B. Oct. 6, 1865. Ed. Columbia College, 

Barnard College, and Wisconsin University. 
Mrs. Cape (nee Palmer) studied sociology 
under Prof. Lester Ward, of whom she 
became an intimate friend and a highly 
valued assistant. She was the first woman 
student at Columbia College (now Univer 
sity). She has written several books 



(Oriental Aphorisms, 1906, Fairy Surprises 
for Little Folks, 1908, etc.), but her chief 
work was to collaborate with Lester Ward 
in compiling and publishing his Glimpses 
of the Cosmos (12 vols., 1913). Like 
Professor Ward, she is an Agnostic and an 
ardent humanitarian. She has founded a 
School of Sociology in New York which 
has an important educational influence. 
Mrs. Cape is also a gifted painter. 

CARDUCCI, Professor Giosue, Italian 
poet. B. July 27, 1836. Ed. Florence 
and Pisa Universities. He became pro 
fessor of Italian literature at Bologna in 
1860, and in 1865 he wrote, under the 
pseudonym " Enotrio Romano," a fiery 
poetical vindication of reason entitled 
Hymn to Satan. In later years, when 
he had won the position of leader of the 
realistic school of poetry in Italy, Carducci 
was less defiant, but he never accepted 
Christianity. " In essential matters," he 
said in 1905, " I know neither truce of 
God nor peace with the Vatican or any 
priests. They are the real and unaltering 
enemies of Italy " (quoted by Prof. Carelle 
in his Naturalismo Italiano). He was a 
Senator and a Cavaliere of the Ordine 
Civile di Savoia, and in 1906 he was 
awarded the Nobel Prize for letters. His 
prose and poetry fill twenty volumes of a 
collected edition. D. Feb. 16, 1907. 

CARLILE, Richard, Deist. B. Dec. 8, 
1790. Ed. Ashburton village school. 
Carlile, who was for some years a tin-plate 
worker at Exeter, migrated to London, and 
in 1816 adopted the views of Paine. When, 
in 1817, the Habeas Corpus Act was sus 
pended, he took up the sale of the advanced 
literature which it was sought to suppress, 
and defied the Government. When the 
struggle began, he went on to print and 
publish the works of Paine and others, and 
he issued the Republican, the Deist, and 
other periodicals. His terms of imprison 
ment amounted in all to nine years and 
four months, but he continued his work 
from the jail, and his wife and assistants 

courageously maintained the sale of pro 
hibited books. He wore out the authorities 
in the greatest fight ever waged for a free 
press and free speech. Before his death 
he bequeathed his body to the school of 
anatomy. D. Feb. 10, 1843. 

CARLTON, Henry, American jurist. 
B. 1785. Ed. Yale University. He served 
in the 1814 campaign, and then adopted 
the profession of law. In 1832 he became 
District Attorney, and later a judge of the 
Supreme Court, in Louisiana. He resigned 
in 1839, and devoted his leisure to the 
study of religion and philosophy. His 
Liberty and Necessity (1857) shows him 
a Deist as well as Determinist. Ueberweg 
calls him the "Anthony Collins of America." 
D. Mar. 28, 1863. 

CARLYLE, John Aitken, M.D., brother 
of Thomas Caiiyle, writer. B. July 7, 
1801. Ed. Annan Academy, Edinburgh 
University, and in Germany. Dr. Carlyle 
did not take up a practice, but he was for 
many years travelling physician to the 
Countess of Clare, and afterwards to the 
Duke of Buccleuch. In 1843 he settled at 
Chelsea and devoted himself to a trans 
lation of Dante, of which only the Inferno 
was completed. In 1878 he gave 1,600 
to Edinburgh University to found bursaries. 
His brother speaks of his " manly character 
and fine talents." D. Sep. 15, 1879. 

CARLYLE, Thomas, historian. B. 
Dec. 4, 1795. Ed. Ecclefechan village 
school, Annan Academy, and Edinburgh 
University. His father, a working man, 
intended Thomas for the Church, and he 
nominally applied himself to divinity, com 
posing a number of sermons in English 
and Latin. The reading of Gibbon shook 
his faith, as he later told the poet 
Allingham, and he rejected the Christian 
doctrines and the belief in personal immor 
tality. He adopted teaching instead of the 
clerical career. In 1818 he returned to 
Edinburgh and, with a severe struggle, 
supported himself by private teaching and 



by writing. For a few years he was the 
tutor of Charles and Arthur Buller. He 
was still religious, though not a Christian, 
and he began to take a deep interest in 
Goethe and German philosophy. In 1822 
his Life of Schiller brought him some 
success in letters, and he ceased to teach. 
In 1826 he married Miss Welsh. He 
settled in London in 1834, and his French 
Eevolution (1836-37) established his genius. 
Sartor Besartus, the finest exposition of his 
vague Pantheistic philosophy, had been 
published in 1834, but for a long time it 
awakened little more than distrust and 
dislike. In 1865 he was elected Kector of 
Edinburgh University, and his fame rose 
so high that in 1874 he was offered, and 
he refused, the Grand Cross of the Order 
of the Bath. Carlyle glorified Voltaire (in 
an essay on him) for giving " the death- 
stab to modern superstition," and his 
Frederick the Great always eulogizes that 
monarch as a pupil of Voltaire. His scorn 
of Christianity also finds expression in his 
Life of Sterling. He said to the poet 
Allingham : " I have for many years strictly 
avoided going to church or having anything 
to do with Mumbo-Jumbo " (Diary, p. 217). 
When Allingham spoke to him about a 
future life, he said : " We know nothing. 
All is, and must be, utterly incomprehen 
sible " (p. 269). There is the same testi 
mony in the Life of Tennyson (ii, 410). In 
spite of his strictures on Darwinism and 
Positivism, Carlyle was one of the greatest 
Rationalist forces of his time, and one of 
the finest moral influences in Rationalism. 
D. Feb. 5, 1881. 

CARNEGIE, Andrew, LL.D., philan 
thropist. B. Nov. 25, 1837. He was taken 
to the United States in 1848, and became 
a weaver s assistant in a cotton factory. 
Three years later he entered the telegraphic 
service at Pittsburg, and he rose to the 
position of superintendent. His prosperity 
began with his interest in the Woodruff 
Sleeping Car Company and certain oil- 
mines ; and after the Civil War, in which 
he rendered great service, he turned to 


iron. He established at Pittsburg the 
Keystone Bridge Works and the Union 
Iron Works. By 1888 he was the chief 
owner of the Homestead Steel Works. In 
1899 his various interests were united in 
the Carnegie Steel Company, which in 
1901 was merged in the United States 
Steel Corporation. The benefactions of 
Mr. Carnegie, which amounted in all to 
about 70,000,000, far surpass every his 
torical record, and have founded and 
munificently endowed a number of institu 
tions of the greatest value to humanity. 
He was Lord Rector of St. Andrew s 
University (1903-7) and Aberdeen Univer 
sity (1912-14), and he received his degree 
from thirteen different universities. Mr. 
Carnegie wrote a few books (especially 
The Gospel of Wealth, 1900, and Life of 
James Watt, 1905), but he was generally 
reticent about religion. A few sceptical 
observations occur in his life of Watt. He 
refers to " the mysterious realm which 
envelops man " (p. 33) and says, apropos 
of philosophic discussion : " We are but 
young in all this mystery business " (p. 54). 
He once said (as the Catholic Citizen wrote 
at the time of his death) that he gave 
money for church organs " in the hope 
that the organ music will distract the con 
gregation s attention from the rest of the 
service." The New York Truthseeker 
(Aug. 23, 1919) quotes a confession of 
faith he made in 1912, rejecting " all 
creeds " and declaring himself " a disciple 
of Confucius and Franklin." To Dr. 
Moncure D. Conway, w ? ith whom he was 
on terms of intimacy, he made it clear that 
he was to all intents and purposes an 
Agnostic. D. Aug. 10, 1919. 

GARNERI, Baron Bartolomaus von, 

Austrian philosophical writer. B. Nov. 3, 
1821. Ed. Vienna University. Carneri 
was a prominent Liberal representative in 
the Austrian Parliament from 1870 to 
1890, and a devoted student of science and 
aesthetics. Adopting the philosophy of 
Feuerbach and the doctrine of evolution, 
he issued a number of Rationalist works on 



ethics and philosophy. His views coincide 
with those of Haeckel (cf. Sittlichkeit und 
Darwinismus, p. 341, etc.), and he was one 
of the founders of the Monistic Association. 
D. May, 1909. 

CARNOT, Lazare Hippolyte, French 
statesman. B. Oct. 6, 1801. Ed. Magde 
burg, where his father, Count Carnot, was 
in exile. On his return to France he 
practised law, edited a Saint-Simonian 
journal, and entered Parliament. At the 
Eevolution of 1848 he became Minister of 
Public Instruction, and he later sat in 
the Legislative Assembly (1851-70), the 
National Assembly of 1871, and the Senate 
(1876). He was a resolute anti-clerical and 
Eepublican all his life. D. Mar. 16, 1888. 

CARNOT, Count Lazare Nicolas 
Marguerite, French statesman, father of 
preceding. B. May 13, 1753. A military 
engineer of distinction, Carnot at once sided 
with the Eevolution when it broke out, and 
in 1791 entered the Legislative Assembly. 
In 1793 he was entrusted with the control 
of the armies, and he became a member of 
the Directorate. Napoleon made him 
Director of War Material, then Minister of 
War. During the Hundred Days he received 
the title of Count, and was Napoleon s 
Minister of the Interior, for which the 
restored monarchy exiled him. Arago tells 
us in his HiograpTriie de Carnot (1850) that 
from a strict Catholic he became a Free 
thinker (p. 7). D. Aug. 3, 1823. 

CARNOT, Marie Francois Sadi, fourth 
President of the French Eepublic, eldest 
son of Lazare H. Carnot. B. Aug. 11, 
1837. Ed. Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole 
des Ponts et Chaussees. At first a civil 
engineer, Carnot became in 1870 Prefect of 
the Department of the Lower Seine, and in 
1871 a member of the National Assembly. 
True to the Eepublican and Eationalist 
tradition of his family, he sat on the Left 
in the Chambre. In 1880 he became 
Minister of Public Works, and in 1885 
Minister of Finance. In 1887 he was, by 

616 out of 827 votes, elected President of 
the Eepublic. He was a progressive and 
strictly constitutional ruler, a firm anti 
clerical, and a man of great probity. In 
the height of his popularity he was assas 
sinated by an Italian anarchist on June 24, 

CARNOT, Sadi Nicolas Leonard, 

French physicist, son of Count L. N. M. 
Carnot. B. June 1, 1796. Ed. Ecole 
Polytechnique, Paris. In 1814 he entered 
the army as an engineer, but the revolu 
tionary and anti-clerical ideas he had 
inherited prevented his advancement. He 
resigned in 1828 and devoted himself to 
scientific studies, the brilliant promise of 
which was cut short by premature death. 
His one work, Reflexions sur la puissance 
motrice du feu (1824), containing what is 
known as " Carnot s Principle," laid the 
foundations of the science of thermo 
dynamics. D. Aug. 24, 1832. 

CARO, Professor Elme, French philo 
sopher. B. Mar. 4, 1826. After teaching 
for some years in Angers, Eouen, and 
Eennes, Caro became professor at the 
Ecole Normale in 1858, and at the Sor- 
bonne in 1874. He was a spiritualist 
eclectic, in the style of Cousin. In his 
Idee de Dieu (1864) he rejects the belief in 
a personal God or personal immortality, 
and in his Materialisme et la Science (1868) 
equally combats Materialism. He was 
elected to the Academy in 1875. It is 
Caro who penned the great phrase : 
" Science has conducted God to its 
frontiers, thanking him for his provisional 
services." D. July 13, 1887. 

CAROLINE, Queen of England. B. 
Mar. 1, 1683, daughter of the Margrave of 
Brandenburg-Ansbach. It was proposed 
to marry her to an Austrian Archduke, and 
a Jesuit was sent to instruct her in the 
Catholic faith, but, coached by Leibnitz, 
she routed the Jesuit. She married the 
Prince of Hanover in 1705, and reached 
England as Princess of Wales in 1714. 




She continued to correspond with Leibnitz 
and to study philosophy, and her house at 
Eichmond was more or less a Deistic 
centre. She ascended the throne in 1727, 
and on several occasions during the King s 
absence, when she acted as Eegent, an Act 
of Parliament was passed excusing her from 
taking the oath. She refused to receive 
the sacrament on her death-bed, though 
pressed to do so by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury (see the memoirs of Lord 
Hervey, her intimate friend, ii, 528). 
Horace Walpole (Reminiscences, p. 66) says 
that she was " at least not orthodox," 
and Chesterfield (Characters, p. 1406) ac 
curately describes her as " a Deist, believ 
ing in a future state." The Earl of Bristol 
(Letter-Books of John Hervey, iii, p. 196) 
represents her heterodoxy as widely known. 
D. Nov. 20, 1737. 

CARPENTER, Edward, author. B. 
Aug. 29, 1844. Ed. Brighton College and 
Cambridge (Trinity Hall). He became a 
priest of the Church of England in 1870 
and a Fellow of Trinity, but in 1874 he 
resigned the Fellowship and quitted the 
Church. The writings of Walt Whitman 
deeply influenced his development, both in 
regard to style and thought. Until 1881 
he lectured for the University Extension 
Movement, but he then retired to a small 
farm near Sheffield, to devote himself hence 
forward to manual and literary work. 
Carpenter emphatically rejects Christianity 
(see, especially, My Days and Dreams, 1916), 
but he leans to a mysticism of a Hindu 
type. His entire ethic, or anti-ethic, is a 
defiance of the current creeds. 

CARPENTER, Professor William 
Benjamin, C.B., M.D., LL.D., F.E.S., 
naturalist. B. Oct. 29, 1813. Ed. in 
his father s school Bristol, Bristol Medical 
School, London University College, and 
Edinburgh Medical School. Carpenter s 
papers on medical subjects early attracted 
attention, and he was invited to lecture on 
medical jurisprudence at Bristol. In 1844 
he became Fullerian Professor of physics at 

the Eoyal Institution, then lecturer on 
physics at the London Hospital, professor 
of forensic medicine at University College, 
and Swiney lecturer on geology at the 
British Museum. He held the medal of 
the Eoyal Society and the Lyell medal of 
the Geological Society, and he was a cor 
responding member of the Institute of 
France. Dr. Carpenter, a man of exception 
ally wide scientific attainments and an 
enthusiast for popular education, was 
Theistic (in a liberal sense), but not even 
Unitarian (see Nature and Man, 1888). At 
his death E. Proctor (Knowledge, Dec. 1, 
1885) wrote that he accepted " the 
advanced lessons of later writers." He 
was President of the London Sunday 
Lecture Society (which gave frequent anti- 
Christian lectures) from 1869 until his 
death, and of the Newcastle Sunday 
Lecture Society. D. Nov. 19, 1885. 

CARR, Herbert Wildon, D.Litt., philo 
sophical writer. B. Jan. 16, 1857. Ed. 
privately and at King s College, London. 
Dr. Carr is a lecturer on psychology at 
King s College, Honorary Fellow of the 
University of London, and President of the 
Aristotelian Society. He was Secretary of 
the Aristotelian Society 1883-1915. He 
is the leading champion of Bergson in 
England, but in his Philosophy of Change 
(1914), after observing that Bergson attri 
butes a high probability to the idea of 
survival, he adds : "I should not myself 
rank the probability so high " (p. 193). In 
regard to Theism he agrees with the 
heterodox views of Bergson. 

CARRA, Jean Louis, French politician. 
B. 1743. He fled to Germany in his boy 
hood, and on his return to France took 
service in a cai dinal s household and then 
in the King s Library, meantime writing a 
number of Deistic, scientific, and historical 
works. He accepted the Eevolution with 
enthusiasm, and was for a time one of the 
chief orators of the Jacobins. He passed 
to the Girondins, and was guillotined on 
Oct. 31, 1793. 




CARREL, Jean Baptists Nicolas 
Armand, French writer. B. May 8, 1800. 
Ed. Eouen College and the military school 
of St. Cyr. He served in the French army, 
and was in 1823 condemned to death for 
taking part in the Spanish Eevolution, but 
he escaped. He then took to letters and 
journalism, was a founder and co-editor of 
Le National, and one of the chief promoters 
of the July Eevolution. " No priest and 
no church," he said when he was dying. 
D. July 24, 1836. 

CARRIERE, Professor Moritz, German 
philosopher. B. Mar. 5, 1817. Ed. 
Giessen, Gottingen, and Berlin Universities. 
In 1849 he was appointed professor of 
philosophy at Giessen, and in 1853 at 
Munich. Professor Carriere follows Hegel 
in his earlier writings, but in his later 
works he professes a Pantheism (which he 
calls Theism) rather after the ideas of 
Fichte. Finite minds are, he says, acts of 
a Pantheistic divine will. D. Jan. 18, 1895. 

CAR US, Professor Julius Yictor, 

German zoologist. B. Aug. 25, 1823. 
Ed. Leipzig. In 1846 he became assistant- 
physician at the Leipzig hospital, and from 
1849 to 1851 he was assistant to Sir Henry 
Acland at the Christ Church Anatomical 
Museum, Oxford. In 1853 he was appointed 
professor of comparative anatomy at Leip 
zig University. Professor Carus, besides 
writing a number of important zoological 
works, translated Lewes s Physiology of 
Common Life (1860), Aristotle (1866), and 
the complete works of Darwin. He lectured 
at Edinburgh University 1873 and 1874. 
D. Apr., 1903. 

CARUS, Professor Karl Gustav, 

German physician. B. Jan. 3, 1789. Ed. 
Leipzig. In 1814 he became professor of 
obstetrics and Director of the Obstetric 
Clinic at Dresden. In 1827 he was 
appointed physician to the King, and in 
1862 President of the Imperial Leopol- 
dinske-Karolinische Academy. He was a 
friend of Goethe, and he generally sub- 

scribed to the Monistic or Pantheistic 
philosophy. His scientific works are 
numerous and important, and his Verglei- 
chende Psychologic (1866) is regarded as 
the foundation of the science of compara 
tive psychology. D. July 28, 1869. 

CARUS, Paul, Ph.D., American philo 
sophical writer. B. (Germany) July 18, 
1852. Ed. Stettin Gymnasium, Strassburg 
University, and Tubingen (where he gradu 
ated). After teaching for some years at 
the Royal Cadet-Corps at Dresden, he in 
1881 migrated to America. A teacher at 
first, he after a few years settled in Chicago, 
and devoted himself to the spread of the 
Monistic philosophy. His work was very 
generously endowed by his American father- 
in-law. His periodical, The Open Court, 
began in 1887, and, besides editing and 
constantly contributing to this and his 
more ambitious journal, The Monist, Dr. 
Carus has written a long series of works on 
philosophy and comparative religion. D. 
Feb. 11, 1919. 

CASANOYA, Giovanni Jacques de 
Seingalt, Italian writer. B. Apr. 2, 1725. 
Ed. Padua. He entered the Church and 
received the minor orders. Abandoning 
the Church, he began the life of adventure 
which is familiar to readers of his Memoirs 
(12 vols., 1828-38). He was at various 
times secretary to a cardinal, an officer in 
the Venetian army, a violinist, librarian, 
secret police-agent, etc. He translated the 
Iliad into Italian. D. June 4, 1798. 

CASIMIR-PERIER, Jean Paul Pierre, 

fifth President of the French Eepublic. 
B. Nov. 8, 1847. He served in the Franco- 
Prussian War, and in 1874 he began his 
political career as Deputy of the Left 
Centre (which he abandoned for the 
Eepublican Left in 1879). He became 
Under- Secretary in the Ministry of Public 
Instruction in 1877, Under-Secretary in 
the Ministry of War in 1883, Vice- 
President of the Chambre in 1890, 
and President of the Charnbre in 1893. 




In 1894 he was elected President of the 
Republic, but he resigned, owing to the 
attacks of more advanced politicians, in 
1895. He gave important evidence in 
favour of Dreyfus. President Casimir- 
Perier incurred the hostility of many on 
account of his moderation, but the above 
dates show that he co-operated with all the 
successive anti-clerical Governments during 
the laicization of France. D. Mar. 11, 1907. 

CASPARI, Professor Otto, Ph.D., Ger 
man philosopher. B. May 24, 1841. Ed. 
Berlin, Greifswald, Munich, and Gottingen 
Universities. In 1869 he became private 
teacher, and in 1877 professor, of philo 
sophy at Heidelberg. He retired in 1895, 
and has since devoted himself entirely to 
writing. His numerous works show an 
attempt to reconcile philosophy with 
modern evolutionary science, and, a Monist 
himself, he has given much valuable sup 
port to Professor Haeckel. 

CASSELS, Walter Richard, merchant 
and writer. E. Sep. 4, 1826. Ed. private 
tutor and abroad. After some years in 
Italy, he engaged in business in Bombay, 
and became a Member of the Syndicate of 
the Bombay University and the Legislative 
Council of Bombay (1863). He retired 
from business in 1865, and published, 
anonymously, his famous Supernatural 
Eeligion in 1874 (2 vols., 3rd vol. in 1876). 
He had previously published two volumes 
of poems, and two theological works fol 
lowed Supernatural Eeligion. Mr. Cassels 
during most of his life accepted the 
existence of an impersonal divine power 
(Sup. Eel., i, 73), but he ended in Agnos 
ticism. D. June 10, 1907. 

CASTELLI, Professor David, Italian 
orientalist. B. Dec. 30, 1836. #d. privately 
and at Pisa University. In 1875 he 
became professor of Hebrew at the Florence 
Institute of Higher Studies. He translated 
and edited the Song of Songs (1892) and 
Job (1897), and his numerous works on 
Hebrew literature are Eationalistic. 

Louis, French writer. B. 1720. He was 
the editor of the Journal de Jurisprudence, 
and contributed to many periodicals. 
Beginning with his Essais sur les erreurs 
et les superstitions anciennes et modernes 
(2 vols., 1765), he wrote a number of 
Deistic works, besides novels and academic 
discourses. D. 1793. 

CATHERINE II, Empress of Russia. 
B. May 2, 1729. Sophia Augusta Friederika, 
as she was originally named, was a daughter 
of the Prince of Anhalt-Serbst. She was 
selected in her fourteenth year to be the 
wife of Peter, heir to the Russian throne, 
and was sent to Moscow to be educated. 
Her name was changed to Catherine at 
her reception into the Russian Church, 
and she was married in 1745. The irregu 
larities of her later years were in part a 
natural reaction upon this early union with 
a drunken and entirely contemptible prince, 
and in part a defiant disregard of the 
mingled piety and licence of the Russia of 
the time. Catherine and her friends 
deposed her husband in 1762, and he was 
strangled in prison. There is no evidence 
connecting Catherine with the crime (see 
J. McCabe s Eomance of the Eomanoffs). 
As Empress, Catherine endeavoured to 
enforce the enlightened humanitarian views 
of the great French Rationalists, with 
whom she was in complete sympathy. 
Her reforms, in regard to education, 
justice, sanitation, industry, etc., were of 
great value. In her later years the French 
Revolution soured her love of France and 
drove her into a profession of conservatism. 
D. Nov. 10, 1796. 

CATTANEO, Professor Carlo, Italian 
philosophical writer. B. June 15, 1801. 
Ed. Milan. From 1825 to 1835 he taught 
rhetoric at Milan, and founded II Politec- 
nico, but he flung himself into the revolu 
tionary movement and was compelled to 
fly to Switzerland. The Swiss appointed 
him professor at Lugano. A pupil of 
Romagnosi, he was an enthusiast for 



positive science, and has been called the 
"Auguste Comte of Italy." After the 
defeat of the Austrians he was several 
times elected to Parliament, but, being a 
Eepublican as well as a nationalist, he 
refused to enter the Camera. D. Feb. 9, 

CATTANEO, Professor Giacomo, 

Italian anatomist. B. Sep. 23, 1857. Ed. 
Milan, and Padua University. Cattaneo 
devoted himself to biology, and in 1884 he 
became professor of anatomy and com 
parative physiology at Pavia University, 
from which he passed to Genoa University. 
He was one of the early Darwinians of 
Italy, and many of his numerous and 
important works on anatomy and physio 
logy enforce the evolutionary theory. 

CATTELL, Charles, Secularist. B. 
1830. In 1852 Mr. Cattell founded at 
Birmingham an " Eclectic Institute " which 
led to a friendship with G. J. Holyoake. 
He adopted Secularism, and he was for 
many years, and at great personal sacrifice, 
a zealous champion of its principles in 
the Midlands. Under the pen-name of 
" Christopher Charles " he frequently con 
tributed to the National Reformer and the 
Secular Review, and he published several 
Kationalist works. He worked also in the 
Co-operative and Labour movements and 
the Sunday League. D. 3910. 

CAYAIGNAC, Eleonore Louis Gode- 
froy, French journalist. B. 1801. Ed. 
Paris. Cavaignac deserted the law-court 
for politics and journalism, and sustained 
a courageous struggle against the reactionary 
monarchy. He was one of the founders of 
the Societ6 des Amis du Peuple and the 
Societe des Droits de 1 Homme. He was 
imprisoned and exiled, but returned to 
France in 1841. J. S. Mill calls him "the 
intensest of Atheists " (Letters, i, 79). D. 
May 5, 1845. 

CAYALLOTTI, Felice Carlo Em- 

manuele, Italian poet and dramatist. B. 


Nov. 6, 1842. In his early youth Cavallotti 
opened a fiery campaign, by poems and 
journalism, against the Austrians and 
clericals, and he remained until the end 
very aggressive. His dramas had a great 
success in Italy. He fought under Gari 
baldi, and sat as a Republican and Atheist 
in the Italian Parliament. His works were 
published in ten volumes in 1895. D. 
Mar. 6, 1898. 

CAVENDISH, The Honourable Henry, 

F.E.S., natural philosopher. B. Oct. 10, 
1731. Ed. Hackney Seminary and Cam 
bridge (Peterhouse). He adopted chemistry 
as his chief interest in life, and began in 
1766 to write for the Royal Society. 
Cavendish discovered the composition of 
water, and made other very important 
contributions to chemistry and physics. 
He was eccentric in habit, but a man of 
the highest character and an outstanding 
figure in the history of science. In his 
Life of the Hon. H. Cavendish (published 
by the Cavendish Society, 1851) Dr. G. 
Wilson quotes the witness of a contem 
porary Fellow of the Royal Society : "As 
to Cavendish s religion, he was nothing at 
all" (p. 180). He never went to church, 
and seems to have been an Agnostic. D. 
Mar. 10, 1810. 

CAYLA, Jean Mamert, French writer. 
B. 1812. Ed. College de Cahors. Cayla 
was a journalist, first at Toulouse and later 
at Paris, and author of various historical 
works. After the French expedition to 
Italy in defence of the Pope (1859) he 
began a violent polemic against the Church 
and the Empire, and from 1860 to 1876 
issued a series of fiery anti - clerical 
pamphlets. D. Mar. 2, 1877. 

GAZELLES, Emile Honore, M.D., 

French politician. B. Oct. 18, 1831. Ed. 
Paris. After graduating in medicine, 
Gazelles retired to engage in letters and 
the study of philosophy. He translated 
Moleschott s famous work (1866), Grote 
and Bentham s Natural Religion, and 



various works of J. S. Mill, Spencer, and 
Bain. After 1870 he entered politics, as 
Republican and anti-clerical, and became 
Prefect of several Departments, Director of 
the Penitentiary Service (1879), Director 
of the Public Surety (1880), and member 
of the Council of State (1887). He was 
also an Officer of Public Instruction and a 
Commander of the Legion of Honour. 

CERUTTI, Joseph Antoine Joachim, 

Italian writer. B. June 13, 1738. Ed. 
Jesuit College, Turin. Cerutti joined the 
Jesuit Society, and taught with great dis 
tinction in one of the Jesuit colleges. At 
the dissolution of the Society he took to 
letters and embraced the Deistic opinions 
of the philosophers. His Breviaire Philo- 
sophique (to which he put the name of 
Frederic the Great) and his poem Les 
jardins de Betz (1792) are wholly sceptical. 
He accepted the Revolution, delivered a 
splendid funeral oration in memory of 
Mirabeau, and was elected to the Legis 
lative Assembly. D. Feb. 3, 1792. 

CESAREO, Professor Giovanni Alfredo, 

Italian poet and critic. B. Jan. 24, 1861. 
After teaching privately for some time in 
connection with the Roman University, 
Cesareo was appointed professor of Italian 
literature at the University of Palermo. 
Since 1881 he has written a series of 
brilliant and important literary works, a 
volume of verse, and a drama (Francesco, 
da Rimini), His Rationalism is seen in a 
very sympathetic article on Renan in the 
Nuova Antologia (Nov. 1, 1892, vol. xlii). 


French statesman. B. May 19, 1827. Ed. 
College St. Louis and the Ecole Norm ale, 
Paris. After some years as professor of 
philosophy at Pau, then at Limoges, he 
was expelled from France for taking part 
in the plot of 1851, and he became pro 
fessor of French literature at Zurich. He 
returned to France in 1859 and joined the 
anti-clerical politicians, especially Gam- 
betta. In 1870 he was Prefect of the 

Department of the Rhone, in 1871 member 
of the Chambre, and in 1876 Senator. 
From 1880 to 1882 he was French Ambas 
sador at London, and was warmly attacked 
by the Irish Catholics. He became Minister 
of Foreign Affairs in 1883, Vice-President 
of the Chambre in 1890, and President of 
the Senate in 1893. His Pensees d un 
Pessimiste is very Rationalistic. D. Oct. 26, 

CHALONER, Thomas, politician. B. 
1595, son of Sir T. Chaloner. Ed. Oxford 
(Exeter College). During his continental 
tour Chaloner embraced Republican and 
Deistic views, and he continued throughout 
life to hold what Wood calls "the natural 
religion." He was one of the judges of 
King Charles in 1648, a Councillor of State 
and Master of the Mint in 1651, and a 
member of the Rump Parliament in 1658. 
At the Restoration he fled to Holland. 
D. 1661. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Professor Basil Hall, 

writer on Japan. B. Oct. 18, 1850. Ed. 
at a French Lycee and by an English 
tutor. Professor Chamberlain, who is (like 
Houston Stewart Chamberlain, his younger 
brother) a son of Vice-Admiral Chamber 
lain, has been for many years Professor of 
Japanese and Philology at the Tokyo 
Imperial University, and has written 
various works on Japan. He is an 
Honorary Associate of the Rationalist 
Press Association. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Daniel Henry, 

American Governor. B. June 23, 1835. 
Ed. Harvard Law School. After graduating, 
Chamberlain began the practice of law, but 
the outbreak of the Civil War drew him 
into the army for a year. He resumed his 
profession and became the foremost lawyer 
of South Carolina. From 1868 to 1872 he 
was Attorney-General for that State, and 
from 1874 to 1877 Governor of the State. 
Few suspected that the powerful and high- 
minded Governor was a Rationalist, but 
he left behind him a profession of his faith 




(published in the North American Review, 
and reprinted in the Freethinker, Nov. 15, 
1908) in the course of which he describes 
himself as " a Freethinker," and says : 
" I reject the whole Christian religion." 
He just as emphatically rejects " a pre 
siding or controlling Deity," and is sceptical 
about a future life. D. Apr., 1907. 

CHAMBERLAIN, Houston Stewart, 

writer. B. (Portsmouth) Sep. 9, 1855. 
Ed. Versailles, Cheltenham College, Geneva, 
and Vienna. He left England in 1870, 
and lived chiefly in Vienna until 1908. 
Since then he has mostly lived at 
Bayreuth. He is an enthusiastic Wag- 
nerian, an assiduous student of science 
and philosophy, a Rationalist with some 
leaning to Hindu mysticism. Since 1888 
he has written in German a number of 
extremely popular works, chiefly Die 
Grundlagen des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts 
(1899) and Immanuel Kant (1905). 

CHAMBERS, Ephraim, F.R.S., natu 
ralist. B. about 1680. Ed. Kendal Gram 
mar School. Being apprenticed to a map- 
maker, Chambers conceived at an early 
age, and began to write, his famous Cyclo- 
pcedia. It appeared, in two volumes, in 
1728 and passed through many editions. 
A French translation of it led to the 
compiling of the French Dictionnaire 
Encyclopedique. Although he " was an 
avowed Freethinker " (Diet. Nat. Biog.), 
he was admitted to the Royal Society, and 
was buried in the cloisters of Westminster 
Abbey. D. May 15, 1740. 

CHAMBERS, Robert, LL.D., writer. 
B. July 10, 1802. Ed. Peebles Grammar 
School. He was destined for the Church, 
but became a clerk, and then a bookseller, 
at Edinburgh. With his brother he 
founded the firm of W. and R. Chambers, 
and in 1832 he established Chambers s 
Journal. As the author of various literary 
and historical works, he was in 1840 
admitted to the Edinburgh Royal Society, 
and in 1843 he published anonymously his 

famous Vestiges of the Natural History of 
Creation, the authorship of which was kept 
secret until 1884. The book was attributed 
to, among others, Sir C. Lyell and Prince 
Albert. Chambers belonged to no sect, 
and seems to have been a Theist. D. 
Mar. 17, 1871. 

CHAMFORT, Sebastian Roch Nicolas, 

French writer. B. 1741. Ed. College des 
Grassins. He was a natural son, taking 
his mother s name (Nicolas) until he 
quitted college, when he called himself 
M. de Chamfort. At first a lawyer s 
clerk, then private secretary, he gradually 
developed his literary power and won 
various prizes from the Academy and 
other learned bodies. The widow of Hel- 
vetius assisted him, and he became very 
popular. He embraced the Revolution, 
but shrank from and caustically censured 
its excesses. His chief and most hetero 
dox work (published in 1803) is Pensees, 
Maximes, et Anecdotes. D. Apr. 13, 1794. 

CHAMISSO, Adelbert von, French 
poet and naturalist. B. Jan. 30, 1781. 
His family was driven from France to 
Prussia by the Revolution, and he served 
for a time in the Prussian Army. He 
returned to France under Napoleon, but 
was back in Berlin in 1812, when he wrote 
his chief work, Peter Schlemihl. In 1815 
he sailed round the world in the Burik, 
and on his return became Custodian of the 
Berlin Botanical Institute. Like Goethe, 
he was equally, devoted to science and 
poetry, and he is regarded as Germany s 
finest lyrist. There has been some contro 
versy about Chamisso s religious opinions, 
though many of his poems are bitterly 
anti-clerical ; but a letter which he wrote 
to De la Foye on June 9, 1838, just before 
his death, plainly tells his scepticism (A. 
von Chamisso s WerJce, vi, 179), and his 
friend and biographer Hitzig agrees. He 
also translated into German the very 
Rationalistic songs of Beranger. Du Bois- 
Reymond has written a volume on his 
command of science. D. Aug. 21, 1838. 



CHAMPOLLION, Jean Francois, 

French Egyptologist. B. Dec. 23, 1790. 
Ed. Grenoble. Champollion learned Arabic, 
Persian, and Sanscrit, and in 1808 he 
began to seek the key of the Egyptian 
hieroglyphics. In 1809 he became pro 
fessor of history at Grenoble, and in 1814 
published his first great work, L Egypte 
soils les Pharaons. In 1822 he announced 
his ability to read the hieroglyphics and 
entered the front rank of Egyptologists. 
He was received into the Academy of 
Inscriptions, and was appointed professor 
at the College de France. His biographer, 
Hartleben, reproduces a very Eationalistic 
manuscript which he wrote about 1810, 
and says that "it is undeniable that a 
change had taken place in Champollion s 
religious views" (Champollion, i, 144). 
His letters (edited by Hartleben) prove 
this, but his public expressions were dis 
creet, in the interest of the new science. 
D. Mar. 4, 1832. 

CHANTREY, Sir Francis Legatt, 

M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., sculptor. B. Apr. 7, 
1781. Ed. Norton village school. The 
son of a carpenter, Chantrey was appren 
ticed to a carver at Sheffield, and he 
studied painting and sculpture. After 1804 
he devoted himself entirely to sculpture, 
and became one of the most distinguished 
of English sculptors. He entered the 
Royal Academy in 1818, was knighted in 
1835, and received several honorary degrees. 
Chantrey was a warm friend of Home 
Tooke, and under his influence he, his 
biographer Holland says, abandoned all 
"Christian and religious feeling" (Memorials 
of Sir F. Chantrey, pp. 349-52); but his 
letters contain Theistic phrases. He was 
a man of high character and ideals, and at 
his death he left the reversionary interest 
on his large fortune to the Royal Academy, 
thus founding the Chantrey Bequest. D. 
Nov. 25, 1841. 

CHAPMAN, John, M.D., publisher. 
B. 1822. Chapman emigrated to Australia, 
where he set up in business, then returned 

to Europe (1844) and studied medicine at 
Paris and London. From medicine he 
passed to publishing, and soon came into 
intimate association with the brilliant 
mid-Victorian Rationalists. In 1851 he 
became proprietor and editor, with George 
Eliot as sub-editor, of the Westminster 
Review, which rendered immense service 
to Rationalism. Chapman edited it until 
his death. He graduated in medicine at 
Edinburgh in 1857 and practised for a 
time. In 1874 he retired to live in Paris. 
D. Nov. 25, 1894. 

CHAPTAL, Jean Antoine Claude, 
Count de Chanteloup, French chemist 
and statesman. B. June 4, 1756. Self- 
educated in medicine, he became a physician 
and then a teacher of chemistry at Mont- 
pellier. During the Revolution he was 
charged with the provision of powder, and 
rendered great service. In 1798 he was 
admitted to the Institut, in 1799 to the 
State Council, and in 1800 he became 
Minister of the Interior. His services, as 
Minister, to education, industry, science, 
agriculture, etc., were inestimable. In 
1805 he entered the Senate; in 1811 
he received his title. He retired with 
Napoleon, but Louis XVIII recalled him 
to the House of Peers. His great-grand 
son, the Viscount A. Chaptal, edited his 
Souvenirs sur Napoleon (1893), and says 
that he " had no religion " (p. 124), though 
he believed in " a sort of Providence." D. 
July 30, 1832. 

CHARBONNEL, Victor, L.esL., writer. 
Ed. (for the Catholic priesthood) at the 
Seminary of Saint Sulpice. Charbonnel 
left the priesthood and the Church in 1897, 
and has since been one of the outstanding 
leaders and propagandists of Rationalism 
in France. He founded La Baison in 1901, 
and became co-editor of L Action in 1902. 

CHARMA, Antoine, French philo 
sophical writer. B. Jan. 15, 1801. Ed. 
Ecole Normale, Paris. He was expelled 
from the university for the expression of 


advanced ideas. In 1830 Cousin got him 
appointed professor at Caen, in spite of 
violent clerical hostility. He became Dean 
of the Faculty of Letters. His numerous 
works include an Essai sur les bases et 
les developpements de la moralitc humaine 
(1834) and Condorcet (1862). D. Aug. 5, 

CHARRON, Pierre, philosopher. B. 
Paris, 1541. Ed. Orleans and Bourges. 
Originally a lawyer at Bourges, Charron 
entered the clergy, and became a famous 
preacher. At Bordeaux he was an 
intimate friend of Montaigne, whose in 
fluence may be traced in his Traite de la 
Sagesse (1595). It was violently assailed, 
and is a treatise of natural virtue, with 
sceptical reflections on such doctrines as 
immortality. D. Nov. 16, 1603. 

CHASTELLUX, Francois Jean, Mar 
quis de, French writer. B. May 5, 1734. 
He won rapid promotion in the French army, 
and served as Major- General in the Ameri 
can campaign in 1780. Meantime he 
cultivated a wide range of studies, wrote 
comedies and verse, and in 1772 published 
his philosophical De la Felicite publique 
(2 vols.). It has some severe strictures on 
Christianity, and makes progress depend 
on the development of reason and science. 
Voltaire put it higher than Montesquieu s 
Esprit des Lois. He was admitted to the 
Academy in 1775. Chastellux contributed 
to the Supplement of the Dictionnaire 
Encyclopedique, and one of his articles was 
suppressed because it did not mention God. 
D. Oct. 22, 1788. 

CHATELET, Gabrielle Emilie, Mar 
quise du, French writer. B. Dec. 17, 
1706, daughter of the Baron de Breteuil. 
She learned Latin, English, and Italian at 
an early age, and in her sixteenth year 
translated Vergil. In 1738 the Marquise 
nearly won the Academy s prize for a 
dissertation on the nature of heat. She 
was a woman of remarkable ability and 
accomplishments. Her chief Deistic work, 


Doutes sur les religions r&veUes (published 
posthumously in 1792), is dedicated to 
Voltaire, with whom she lived for thirteen 
years. D. Sep. 10, 1749. 

CHATTERTON, Thomas, poet. B. 
(Bristol) Nov. 20, 1752. Ed. private 
school and Bristol Bluecoat School. In 
his thirteenth year Chatterton began to 
fabricate pseudo-ancient poems with such 
skill that even distinguished literary men 
were deceived. He was then an attorney s 
clerk, writing verse in his leisure. In 1770 
he removed to London, but the struggle 
for maintenance and recognition was so 
severe that he committed suicide. Keats 
and Coleridge and nearly every poet of the 
time regarded him as a genius. " I am no 
Christian," he says in one of his published 
letters to his family shortly before his end. 
D. Aug. 25, 1770. 

CHAUMETTE, Pierre Gaspard, French 
politician. B. May 24, 1763. Chaumette 
was a clerk at Paris at the outbreak of the 
Revolution, and he flung himself ardently 
into it. He was one of the most aggressive 
of the Atheistical section, claiming that 
the People was the only God. Robespierre 
attacked him, and he \vas condemned to 
death and executed for conspiracy on Apr. 
13, 1794. 

CHAUSSARD, Pierre Jean Baptiste, 

French writer. B. Oct. 8, 1766. Ed. 
College de Saint Jean de Beauvais. He 
practised at the Paris bar, and in 1789 he 
dedicated to the National Assembly a work 
on penal reform. He was Republican 
Ambassador in Belgium, and later General 
Secretary of Public Instruction. Chaus- 
sard was one of the founders of Theophilan- 
thropy. In 1803 he became professor of 
literature at Nimes, but he was deposed at 
the Restoration. His numerous works on 
education, history, and religion are strongly 
Rationalistic. D. Jan. 9, 1823. 

CHENIER, Andre Marie de, French 
poet. B. Oct. 29, 1762. Ed. College de 



Navarre. After serving some years in the 
army, Chenier settled at Paris in 1786 and 
devoted himself to writing. His Elegies 
proved his high poetic talent, and his long 
poem Hermes was an imitation of Lucretius 
ia terms of modern science. A contem 
porary describes him as "an Atheist of 
great joy." His family compelled him to 
turn to diplomacy, and he was secretary 
at the London Embassy (1787-90). A 
man of the highest character, Chenier 
boldly assailed the excesses of the more 
violent Eevolutionaries, and was condemned 
to the guillotine July 25, 1794. 

CHENIER, Marie Joseph, French 
dramatist (brother of the preceding). B. 
Apr. 28, 1764. Ed. College de Navarre. 
He developed his literary talent during his 
service in the army, and in 1789 he 
attracted much attention by his play a 
depictment of "fanaticism in action" 
Charles IX. He was a Deist of high 
character, and he worked for moderation 
in the midst of the Eevolution. As 
Inspector-General of Public Instruction 
(1803-6) he did much for education and 
culture. His very numerous poems, 
dramas, etc., are collected in eight volumes 
(1823-26). D. Jan. 10, 1811. 

CHERBULIEZ, Charles Victor, French 
novelist. B. July 19, 1829. Ed. Geneva, 
Paris, Bonn, and Berlin Universities. He 
taught for a time at Geneva, and then, 
though he had received a thorough educa 
tion in history and philosophy, became a 
very esteemed and popular novelist. Many 
of his stories are translated into English, 
German, and Italian. He was admitted 
to the Academy in 1881, and became an 
Officer of the Legion of Honour in 1892. 
His novels (e.g., Noirs ct Bouges, 1881) 
are entirely Eationalistic. D. July 1, 1899. 

CHERUBINI, Maria Luigi Carlo 
Zenobio Salvadore, Italian composer. 
B. Sep. 14, 1760. He began at the age of 
six to study music under his father, started 
composing in his tenth year, and wrote a 

mass at thirteen. His first opera was 
published in 1780. In 1784 he settled at 
London, and was Composer to the King. 
In 1788 he passed to France. In 1795 he 
became inspector of studies at the Conser 
vatoire, and composed a number of hymns 
and anthems for the Eevolutionary feasts, 
including a fine piece on the death of 
Mirabeau. He composed also an opera, 
Epicurus. In 1816 Cherubini was ap 
pointed Superintendent of the King s 
Chapel, and after that date he composed 
the bulk of his sacred music. Cherubini, 
however, remained a Eationalist all his 
life. Ambros says of his Eequiem : "it 
was not created by faith in and love of 
what he composed." His English Catholic 
biographer, Bellasis, makes a very lame 
effort to claim him, but admits (p. 284) 
that there is no trace of his receiving the 
sacrament at death (which he did not), and 
quotes the evidence of his daughter that 
he was " not mystical, but broad-minded in 
religion." D. Mar. 15, 1842. 

CHIEZ Y GOMEZ, Ramon, Spanish 
writer. B. Oct. 13, 1845. Ed. Madrid 
University. He adopted journalism and 
took an active part in the Eevolution of 
1865. At the declaration of the Eepublic 
(1873) he was appointed Civil Governor 
of Valencia. In 1881 he founded El Voto 
National, and in 1883 became editor of 
the Eationalist organ Las Dominicales del 
Libre Pensamiento. He was during many 
years the leading Eationalist lecturer and 
journalist of Spain. 

CHILD, Lydia Maria Francis, Ameri 
can reformer. B. Feb. 11, 1802. She 
studied with her brother, a Unitarian 
minister. Her first novel, Hobomok, drew 
attention to her ability in 1824, and it 
was followed by others of equal success. 
But she fell under the influence of Garrison, 
and flung herself into the Anti- Slavery 
campaign. Mrs. Child published the first 
Anti- Slavery book written by an American 
(1833), and in 1840 she began to edit The 
National Anti-Slavery Standard. She was 




a leading champion also of the cause of 
women, and is very severe on Christianity 
in her History of the Condition of Women 
in All Ages (1845). Generally, as in her 
Letters (1883) and her Progress of Religious 
Ideas Through Successive Ages (3 vols., 
1855), she is tender to Christianity and 
very religious, but a non-Christian Theist. 
D. Oct. 20, 1880. 

CHILTON, William, Owenite. B. 1815. 
In his early life he was a bricklayer, but 
he studied and took a very active part in 
the early Eationalist movement in England. 
In 1841 he took over, as editor and printer, 
The Oracle of Reason from Southwell. He 
wrote also in The Movement and The 
Reasoner, and he contributed to the Library 
of Reason some remarkable early Darwin- 
istic articles on " The Theory of Develop 
ment " (1842). D. May 28, 1855. 

CHUBB, Percival, American educator. 
B. (England) June 17, 1860. Ed. Sta 
tioners School, London. For ten years he 
was in the service of the Local Govern 
ment Board, and he then emigrated to 
America. He became lecturer to the 
Brooklyn Institute, then instructor on 
pedagogy to the Pratt Institute, and later 
principal of the High School Department 
of the Ethical Culture Society. He was 
appointed lecturer on English to the 
University of New York School of Paeda- 
gogy, and since 1911 he has been leader of 
the St. Louis Ethical Society. He has 
edited Emerson, Montaigne, Lincoln, 
Browning, etc., and published many works. 
Mr. Chubb is one of the leading Ethical 
Eationalists of America. 

CHUBB, Thomas, Deist. B. Sep. 29, 
1679. Chubb was a self-educated tallow- 
chandler who obtained some repute in 
London by a series of Unitarian tracts. 
Pope calls him "a wonderful phenomenon"; 
his work is unscholarly and inelegant, but 
clear and strong. He developed into 
Deism, and published a Discourse concern 
ing Reason (1731), in which he rejects all 

revelation and inspiration. D. Feb. 8, 

CLARETIE, Jules Arsene Arnaud, 

French writer. B. Dec. 3, 1840. Ed. 
Lycee Bonaparte, Paris. He won great 
distinction as a journalist and dramatic 
critic, and in 1863 published his first novel. 
In 1868 the Minister of Public Instruction 
refused him permission to lecture, and he 
published an eloquent and thoroughly 
Eationalist defence of free speech (La 
Libre Parole). In 1885 he became Director 
of the Theatre Frangais. Claretie is one of 
the most prolific and brilliant of recent 
French writers. He is a Commander of 
the Legion of Honour and a member of the 

CLARKE, Marcus Andrew Hislop, 

Australian writer. B. Apr. 24, 1846. He 
went to Australia in 1863 and joined the 
staff of the Argus (1867), after a few years 
on a station. In 1876 he became assistant 
librarian at the Public Library, Melbourne. 
His chief work, out of numerous poems, 
dramas, and novels, is the powerful story 
His Natural Life (1874). In 1879 he pub 
lished a Eationalist essay, " Civilization 
without Delusion," in the Victoria Review. 
He rejected Christianity, and admitted only 
an unknown and unknowable God. D. 
Aug. 2, 1881. 

CLEMENCEAU, Georges Eugene 
Benjamin, M.D., French statesman. B. 
Sep. 28, 1841. Ed. Nantes and Paris. 
His father was a Vendean medical man and 
Materialist, and in his doctorate-thesis 
(1865) Clemenceau showed that he had 
early embraced the same philosophy. 
After completing his medical studies he 
went to the United States, returning to 
France in 1869. He was Mayor of Mont- 
martre during the Siege, and was in 1871 
returned to the National Assembly. After 
a few years on the Paris Municipal Council 
he was elected to the Chambre in 1876, 
and from that year until 1893 (when the 
Clericals and Boulangists defeated him) he 



was so relentless a parliamentary critic 
that he was called " the Tiger." His motto 
throughout life has been "No Compromise." 
He is rather an Agnostic than a dogmatic 
Materialist, and the best exposition of his 
creed is in the prefaces to his La MeUe 
Sociale (1895) and La Grand Pan (1896), 
his finest work. All his work is sternly 
anti-clerical and humanitarian. He 
returned to the Chambre in 1902, became 
Minister of the Interior in 1906, and Prime 
Minister in 1917. Clemenceau has ren 
dered almost as much service to Eation- 
alism as to French civilization. All his 
works drastically reject, not only Chris 
tianity, but every shade of Theism ; and as 
most of the chapters appeared originally in 
the press, his readers are very numerous. 
In the last two decades of the nineteenth 
century he was one of the most powerful 
and prolific journalists in France. In con 
junction with Zola he took up, against the 
Church, the defence of Dreyfus, and it might 
almost be said that the revision of the 
sentence was due to his tireless campaign 
during six years. His articles on the case 
number more than a thousand. An 
Agnostic of the most uncompromising 
order, a statesman of inflexible principles, 
Clemenceau astonished the world by the 
energy with which he saved France during 
his Premiership (1917-20), at the close of 
his eighth decade of life. See Hyndman s 
Clemenceau, the Man and His Time (1919), 
*md McCabe s Georges Clemenceau (1919). 

CLEMENS, Samuel Langhorne 

("Mark Twain"), American humorist. 
B. Nov. 30, 1835. Ed. Florida (Mo.) 
elementary school. He was in early life a 
compositor, then (1851) a pilot on the 
Mississippi. .The phrase " Mark Twain " 
was used in making soundings on the river, 
-and had previously been used as a pen- 
name. In successive years he became a 
reporter, a miner, and a humorous writer 
and lecturer. His first notable book was 
The Jumping Frog (1867), followed by The 
Innocents Abroad in 1869. From 1884 to 
.1894 he was interested in an enterprise 

which failed, and he redeemed his debt by 
a world lecturing tour. His thorough 
Rationalism finds expression in his 
Christian Science (1903), Eve s Diary 
(1906), What is Man? (1906), and The 
Mysterious Stranger (1918). He rejected 
every form of religion and Theism. His 
disdainful sentiments towards Christianity 
are, naturally, most freely expressed in his 
Letters (2 vols., 1917). It is enough to 
quote one of Aug. 28, 1908 (eighteen months 
before he died), in reply to a man who 
asked if he would include Jesus among the 
hundred greatest men. He replies Yes, and 
Satan also, and more emphatically. He 
thinks that " these two gentlemen " have 
had more influence on a fifth of the race 
for 1,500 years than all other powers com 
bined ; and ninety-nine per cent, of the 
influence was Satan s, who " was worth 
very nearly a hundred times as much to 
the business as was the influence of all the 
rest of the Holy Family put together " 
(ii, 817). D, Apr. 21, 1910. 

CLIFFORD, Martin, Master of the 
Charterhouse. B. early in the 17th cent. 
Ed. Westminster and Cambridge (Trinity 
College). Clifford led an idle and adventur 
ous life in London until 1671, when he was 
appointed Master of the Charterhouse. In 
1674 he published anonymously A Treatise 
of Humane Reason, in which he recognizes 
reason as the only guide in religious 
matters. Although he calls himself a 
Christian, he has some shrewd criticisms of 
Christianity. He seems to have been a 
Deist. D. Dec. 10, 1677. 

CLIFFORD, Professor William 
Kingdon, F.R.S., mathematician. B. 
May 4, 1845. Ed. Exeter, King s College, 
London, and Cambridge (Trinity College). 
He was second in the mathematical tripos. 
Clifford was at first a devout Anglican, but 
at Cambridge he read Darwin and Spencer, 
and in 1868 began to modify his creed. 
He became a Fellow of Trinity in 1868, 
professor of applied mathematics at Uni 
versity College (London) in 1871, and Fellow 




of the Eoyal Society in 1874. From 1872 
to 1875 he lectured occasionally for the 
London Sunday Lecture Society, and the 
printed lectures show that he rejected all 
religion and regarded matter and ether as 
the only realities. To these he added 
" mind-stuff," from the atoms of which 
mind is composed. Eeligion he regarded 
as a harmful superstition. The selection 
of his papers published by the E. P. A. 
(Lectures and Essays, 1918), and edited by 
Sir Leslie Stephen and Sir Frederick 
Pollock, gives an excellent idea of his fine 
personality and his hostility to all religion. 
" Keep your children away from the 
priest," he says, in italics, " or he will 
make them the enemies of mankind " 
(p. 121). A good biographical sketch is 
prefixed to the selection. Clifford was 
one of the most brilliant mathematicians 
and most promising students of his time. 
Of tireless industry, of noble and unselfish 
character, he wore himself out prema 
turely, though he had already attained 
a remarkable distinction. D. Mar. 3, 1879. 

CLIFFORD, Mrs. William Kingdon, 

writer. A daughter of Mr. John Lane, she 
began to write at an early age for the 
magazines. She married Clifford in 1875, 
and his premature death caused her to 
resume her pen. Her first publication was 
a volume of stories in 1882, and her Mrs. 
Keith s Grime (1885) laid the foundation of 
her popularity. She has since written a 
large number of essays, novels, and plays 
of high literary value. Mrs. Clifford shared, 
and retains, the Eationalism of her brilliant 
husband, and has written in the B.P.A. 

CLINE, Henry, surgeon. B. 1750. 
Ed. Merchant Taylors School (London). 
He graduated in surgery in 1774, and 
became surgeon to St. Thomas s Hospital. 
In 1810 he was appointed Examiner to, 
and in 1815 Master of, the College of 
Surgeons. It is said that his private 
practice brought him 10,000 a year. 
Cline w T as a great admirer of Home Tooke, 


and shared his scepticism. He " thought 
there was a cause superior to man, but 
believed that nothing was known of the 
future " (Dict.Nat. Biog.}. D. Jan. 2, 1827. 

GLODD, Edward, writer. B. July 1, 
1840. His father, the captain of a brig, 
belonged to Aldeburgh, and Clodd was 
educated there. Evading the wish of his. 
parents that he should enter the Baptist, 
ministry, he became a clerk in London, 
and in 1862 he entered the service of the- 
London Joint Stock Bank. In 1872 he 
was appointed secretary, and he held the 
post until he retired in 1915. From the 
Baptist creed he passed in early manhood,, 
especially under the influence of Huxley 
and Tylor, to Theism, and at this stage^ 
wrote his Childhood of the World (1872), 
He presently won the friendship of Grant 
Allen, Clifford, Spencer, Eomanes, York. 
Powell, etc., and shed all religious beliefs 
(see his Memories, 1916). He was the 
second Chairman of the Eationalist Press. 
Association, and by his active interest in it. 
and his numerous writings has contributed 
heavily to the spread of enlightenment in 
England. His Story of Creation is one of 
the best popular manuals of evolution that, 
has appeared, and has passed through many 
editions ; and he has written a large 
number of works which are little less 
popular. In 1910 he delivered the Conway 
Memorial Lecture on " Gibbon and Chris 
tianity." His most recent work, The 
Question, "If a man die, shall he live 
again ?" (1917), is a drastic and disdainful 
rejection of the claims of Spiritualism. 
Mr. Clodd is almost the last survivor of the 
great Victorian Eationalists. His genial 
and generous personality and varied culture 
have endeared him to hosts of distinguished 
men. His rejection of religion, in all 
forms, is peremptory and disdainful. He 
is an Agnostic, and he thinks that " the. 
mysteries, on belief in which theology 
would hang the destinies of mankind, are 
cunningly devised fables whose origin and 
growth are traceable to the age of Ignorance,, 
the mother of credulity." 



CLOOTZ, Baron Jean Baptiste de, 

German reformer. B. June 24, 1755. Ed. 
Paris. Settling in Paris, and greeting the 
new ideas with enthusiasm, Clootz relin 
quished his title and adopted the classic 
name of " Anacharsis." He used his 
wealth for the propagation of humani- 
tarianism, travelling extensively over 
Europe in order to spread the light. At 
the Eevolution he was one of the " depu 
ties from all parts of the globe " who 
saluted the Assembly. France was to him 
the Vatican of Eeason," and he had 
an important part in establishing the 
Festivals of Eeason. Eobespierre hated 
his Atheism (or Pantheism he sometimes 
spoke of God in humanity), and drew odious 
attention to his wealth and nobility. In 
the end he mounted the guillotine with 
perfect serenity, young and high-minded as 
he was. Clootz was not the rabid enthu 
siast he is often described, but a highly 
cultivated man of lofty ideals, and much 
esteemed by the philosophers. D. Mar. 23, 

C LOUGH, Arthur Hugh, poet. B. 
Jan. 1, 1819. Ed. Chester, Eugby, and 
Oxford (Balliol). In 1842 Clough became 
a Fellow of Oriel, and in 1843 tutor, but he 
courageously faced his doubts, partly under 
the influence of Emerson, and resigned his 
position in 1848. " Of joining any sect I 
have not the most distant intention," he 
wrote at the time (Prose Remains of A. H. 
Clough, 1888, p. 39). From 1849 to 1852 
he was head of University Hall, London, 
and, after a year in America, he was 
appointed examiner under the Education 
Department. His poetic production had 
opened in 1847 with his Ambarvalia, and 
the few volumes which followed raised him 
high in the esteem of his cultivated con 
temporaries. Carlyle spoke of him as " the 
most high-principled man he had ever 
known"; and Jowett, who quotes this, adds 
that he had " a kind of faith in knowing 
nothing " (Letters, p. 177). His letters 
contain Theistic expressions, but a memo 
randum on his religious views, written near 


the close of his life and added to his Prose 
Remains, shows that he rejected Unitarian- 
ism (p. 419) and all Christian doctrines, 
and was little removed from Agnosticism. 
D. Nov. 13, 1861. 

CLOUSTON, Sir Thomas, M.D., LL.D., 
F.E.S.E., physician. B. Apr., 1841. Ed. 
Edinburgh University. Clouston was 
Physician Superintendent of the Eoyal 
Edinburgh Asylum from 1873 to 1915, and 
Lecturer on Mental Diseases at Edinburgh 
University. He was President of the 
Edinburgh Eoyal College of Physicians in 
1902-3, and was for some years editor of 
the Journal of Mental Science. He was 
knighted in 1911. In addition to many 
works on mental disease he published a 
small book, Morals and Brain (1911), in 
which he belittles the influence of Chris 
tianity (though the book forms part of the 
semi-religious New Tracts for the Times). 
In a larger work, Unsoundness of Mind 
(1911), he plainly avows that mind cannot 
exist apart from brain (p. 44), and has 
many strictures on what he calls " reli 
gionists." D. Apr. 18, 1915. 

COHEN, Chapman, third President of 
the National Secular Society. B. Sep. 1, 
1868. Mr. Cohen began to give Free- 
thought lectures in 1890, and he was 
recognized in a few years as the chief 
colleague and probable successor of Mr. 
Foote. When Mr. Foote died, in 1915, he 
was unanimously elected President of the 
National Secular Society and became 
editor of the Freethinker. He has done 
valuable work for Eationalism in exposing 
the follies of foreign missions and in vindi 
cating the right of bequest [see BOWMAN] , 
and has written on freewill and other 
Eationalist topics. 

COHEN, Professor Hermann, Ph.D., 

Jewish philosopher. B. July 4, 1842. Ed. 
Dessau Gymnasium, Breslau Jewish 
Seminary, and Breslau, Halle, and Berlin 
Universities. In 1873 he became teacher, 
and in 1875 professor, of philosophy at 




Marburg. Professor Cohen is head of 
the Neo-Kantian Bationalist school in 
Germany, and has written many works on 
philosophy and Jewish literature. He 
professes a kind of idealistic Theism. 

COIT, Stanton, Ph.D., Ethicist. B. 
(United States) Aug. 11, 1857. Ed. 
Amherst College, Columbia College, and 
Berlin University. In 1886 he founded 
the New York University settlement. 
Migrating to London, he established a 
number of Ethical Societies in England, 
and was their principal lecturer. He also 
founded the Moral Instruction League, and 
has expounded his ideas in National 
Idealism (1908) and other works. Dr. 
Coit speaks of "God," but means only 
" the good" (in man and his ideals) ; and 
he rejects the idea of personal immortality 
and all Christian doctrines. 

COKE, the Honourable Henry John, 

writer. B. Jan 3, 1827, third son of the 
first Earl of Leicester. Ed. East Sheen, in 
France, and at Cambridge (Trinity). He 
served in the Navy during the first China 
War, and was afterwards private secretary 
to Mr. Horsman, the Irish Secretary. He 
has published, besides a few novels, several 
volumes on religion, notably Creeds of the 
Day (2 vols., 1883), The Domain of Belief 
(1910), and Our Schools and the Bible(l91<i). 
In these, and especially in his autobiogra 
phical Tracks of a Boiling Stone (1905), he 
professes Agnosticism. D. Nov. 12, 1916. 

COLERIDGE, Sir John Duke, first 
Baron Coleridge, F.E.S., D.C.L., M.A., 
Lord Chief Justice of England. B. Dec. 3, 
1820. Ed. Eton and Oxford (Balliol). In 
1843 he became a Fellow of Exeter College, 
and he was admitted to the Middle Temple 
in the same year and called to the Bar 
in 1846. In 1855 he was appointed 
Eecorder of Portsmouth, in 1861 he became 
Queen s Counsel, in 1868 solicitor-general, 
in 1871 attorney-general, and in 1873 
Chief Justice of the court of common pleas. 
He was made a Baron in 1874 and Chief 

Justice of the Queen s Bench in 1880. As 
Liberal M.P. for Exeter (1865-73) 
Coleridge supported the abolition of reli 
gious tests in the universities and the dis 
establishment of the Irish Church. His 
creed is candidly expressed in a letter to 
his intimate friend, Lord Bramwell (Some 
Account of G. W. Wilshere, by C. Fairfield, 
1898, p. 105). "Of ecclesiastical Chris 
tianity," he writes, " I believe probably as 
little as you do," and he thinks it will last 
"longer than is good for the world." He 
was a Theist, but rejected Christian 
doctrines. D. June 14, 1894. 

COLINS, Baron Jean Guillaume Cesar 
Alexandre Hippolyte de, Belgian econo 
mist. B. Dec. 24, 1783. Baron de Colins 
was one of the most powerful progressive 
workers in Belgium in the first half of the 
nineteenth century. He wrote nineteen 
volumes on social science, and founded what 
he called "rational socialism." In the 
works in which he discusses religion he is 
Agnostic as to God, but believes in a future 
life. D. Nov. 12, 1859. 

COLLIER, the Honourable John, 

painter. B. Jan 27, 1850, second son of 
Lord Monkswell, an amateur painter of 
repute. Ed. Eton, the Slade School, Paris 
(under J. P. Laurens), and Munich. As 
early as 1881 Mr. Collier s fine picture, 
" The Last Voyage of Henry Hudson," was 
purchased by the Chantrey Fund, and his 
paintings are still one of the features of the 
annual exhibition. Mr. Collier married a 
daughter of Professor Huxley, and when 
she died he slighted ecclesiastical tradi 
tions, and greatly helped the campaign for 
the reform of British law, by marrying her 
sister Ethel (1889). Both are Agnostics, 
and are familiar and greatly esteemed 
figures at Eationalist functions in London. 
Mr. Collier has written A Manual of Oil 
Painting (1886), The Art of Portrait 
Painting (1905), and a few other works. 
During the War he served as a temporary 
clerk in the Foreign Office. He is a 
member of the E. P. A. 



COLLIN, Professor Christen Christian 
Dreyer, Norwegian writer. B. Nov. 21, 
1857. Ed. Tromso, and in England and 
France. In 1895 he was appointed pro 
fessor of European literature at Christiania, 
and he is a member of the historical-philo 
sophical faculty of that university. He 
has written a large number of works of 
literary criticism (chiefly B. Bjornson, 
2 vols., 1907), and has co-operated in the 
Ethical Movement. 

COLLINS, Anthony, Deist. B June 2 1 , 
1676. Ed. Eton and Cambridge (King s 
College). He became a friend of Locke 
and developed Locke s principles into 
Deism. In his Essay Concerning the Use 
of Reason (1707), Discourse of Freethinking 
(1713), and Discourse on the Grounds and 
Beasons of the Christian Religion (1724), 
he gradually deploys a stringent criticism 
of Christianity. Collins was a country 
gentleman of high character and a great 
force in early Eationalism. D. Dec. 13, 1729. 

COLLINS, Professor John Churton, 

LL.D., literary critic. B. Mar. 26, 1848. 
Ed. Chester, Birmingham (King Edward s 
School), and Oxford (Balliol). He rejected 
the orthodox creed in his youth, and was, 
mainly because he refused to enter the 
Church, disinherited by his uncle. He 
turned to teaching and journalism, and in 
1874 opened a brilliant literary career with 
a work on Sir Joshua Eeynolds. Among 
his works are sympathetic studies of 
Bolingbroke and Voltaire. In 1904 he was 
appointed professor of English literature at 
Birmingham University. In the memoir 
by his son, which is prefixed to The Life 
and Memoirs of J. C. Collins (1912, p. x ; 
see also p. 230), it is stated that he was a 
non-Christian Theist and sceptical about a 
future life, as one would gather from his 
genial treatment of the great English and 
French Deists. D. Sep. 12, 1908. 

COLMAN, Lucy, American reformer. 
B. July 26, 1817. Mrs. Colman, a teacher, 
was one of the brave band of American 

women, mostly Eationalists, who fought 
for woman s right to take public part in the 
campaign against slavery and public life 
generally. She was an outspoken Eation- 
alist, contributing to the Boston Investi 
gator and the New York Truthseeker. See 
her Life of a Reformer of Fifty Years. She 
had been for some years a Spiritualist, but 
she outgrew this and became an Agnostic. 

COMAZZI, Count Giovanni Battista, 

Italian writer. The details of Comazzi s 
life seem to be unknown, but, besides a few 
other works (written about the year 1680), 
he published The Morals of Princes (Eng. 
trans. 1729), a commentary on the lives of 
the Eoman Emperors, with heterodox 

COMBE, Andrew, physiologist. B. 
Oct. 27, 1797. Ed. Edinburgh High School 
and University. He completed his studies 
of medicine and Surgery at Paris and in 
Switzerland, and adopted phrenology, joining 
his brother George in editing The Phreno 
logical Journal. Combe had a very success 
ful practice at Edinburgh, and in 1836 he 
was appointed physician to the King of 
Belgium. His Physiology Applied to 
Health and Education (1834) had a wide 
circulation. He was, like his brother, a 
Theist. D. Aug. 9, 1847. 

COMBE, George, phrenologist. B. 
Oct. 21, 1788. Ed. Edinburgh High School 
and University. He became a writer s 
clerk, and in 1812 a writer. In 1815 
Spurzheim lectured on phrenology at Edin 
burgh, and Combe became its chief British 
exponent. He founded the Phrenological 
Society in 1820 and the Phrenological 
Journal in 1821. His Essay on the Con 
stitution of Man (1828) had a remarkable 
circulation, and was heatedly assailed by 
the clergy. Phrenology seemed to him of 
great social and educational importance. 
He was a Theist, but rejected the idea of 
personal immortality (see his Relations 
between Science and Religion, 1857). D. 
Aug. 14, 1858. 



COMBES, Justin Louis Emile, M.D., 
D. es L., Prime Minister of France. B. 
Sep. 6, 1835. He studied for the priest 
hood, but he abandoned the Church before 
ordination. He graduated in letters in 
1860, and in medicine in 1867. From the 
practice of medicine he turned to politics, 
and in 1885 he entered the Senate. He 
was Vice-President of the Senate 1893-94, 
Minister of Public Instruction 1895-96, 
Minister of the Interior and President of 
the Council 1902-1905. It was during the 
Premiership of Combes, who is by no 
means a violent Eationalist, that the 
separation of Church and State was com 
pleted in France. He is an Agnostic, but 
his mildness and consideration for the 
Church greatly angered many French 
Eationalists, while Catholics all over the 
world represented him as a rabid icono 

COMMON, Thomas, writer. In 1896 
Common began the publication of Nietzsche s 
works in English, and became one of the 
leading English authorities on the German 
philosopher. He published Nietzsche as 
Critic in 1901, and has edited (and partly 
translated) the Complete Works of F. 
Nietzsche, 1909. In his Scientific Chris 
tianity (1904) he rejects all religion. 

COMPARETTI, Professor Domenico, 

D.C.L. (Oxon), Sc.D., Italian philologist. 
B. 1835. Ed. Eome. He entered his 
father s business, but devoted himself to a 
serious study of classical Iliterature, and in 
1859 became professor of Greek at Pisa 
University. He migrated to Florence, and 
later to Eome University. Professor 
Comparetti is a Senator of the Kingdom of 
Italy ; a Member of the Higher Council of 
Public Instruction and the Eoyal Academy 
of the Lincei; corresponding member of 
the Institutes of Milan and Venice, the 
Academy of Sciences of Naples, Turin, 
Florence, and Munich, the Eoyal Society 
of Texts, and the French Academy of 
Inscriptions. He is a corresponding Fellow 
of the British Academy. He has written 


many literary and philological works, and 
is co-editor of La Eivista di Filologia. 

COMPAYRE, Jules Gabriel, French 
educationist. B. Jan. 2, 1843. Ed. Lycee 
de Toulouse, Lycee Louis le Grand, and 
Ecole Normale Superieure. He taught 
philosophy, in succession, at Pau, Poitiers, 
and Toulouse, and in 1881 became pro 
fessor of the history of education at Fon- 
tenay. From 1881 to 1889 he sat in the 
Chambre, and in 1886 was admitted to the 
Higher Council of Public Instruction. He 
became Eector of Poitiers Academy in 
1890, of Lyons Academy in 1895, and 
Inspector-General of Public Instruction in 
1905. Professor Compayre, a Commander 
of the Legion of Honour and member of 
the Institut, was one of the leading French 
educationists and a thorough Eationalist. 
" We rely no longer," he says, on the 
religious sentiment, on belief in the super 
natural. We appeal solely to reason and 
nature" (L education intellectuelle et 
morale, 1908, p. 431). D. Mar. 23, 1913. 

COMTE, Frangois Charles Louis, 

French writer, brother of Auguste Comte. 
B. Aug. 25, 1782. He went to Paris in 
1806 and adopted the legal profession. In 
1814 he founded Le Censeur, and incurred 
fines and imprisonment for his attacks on 
reaction. He retired to Switzerland in 
1821, and occupied the chair of natural 
law at Lausanne. Eeturning to France 
after 1830, he was appointed Eoyal Pro 
curator, but he was deposed soon after 
wards for his independence. He entered 
the Chambre, and the Academy, in 1831, 
and proved a strong opponent of the 
Clericals. His chief work, Traite de legis 
lation (4 vols., 1827-35), obtained the 
Academy s Monthyon Prize. D. Apr. 13, 

COMTE, Isidore Marie Auguste Fran 
cois Xavier, the founder of Positivism. 
B. Jan. 19, 1798. Ed. Montpellier Poly 
technic. He went to Paris in 1816, and 
adopted Saint- Simonian ideas. Abandon- 



ing these, he worked on the staff of the 
Organisateur (1820), then of the Produc- 
teur (1822). In 1822 he published the 
first sketch of his ideas, Plan des travaux 
scientifiques necessaires pour reorganiser la 
societe, and he began in 1826 to lecture on 
his system. In 1832 he was appointed 
teacher at tho Polytechnic, and in 1837 
Examiner. When he lost his position in 
1843, Mill and Grote and other English 
admirers raised a fund to support him. 
Comte rejected theology and metaphysics, 
or any attempt to explain the universe by 
causes outside it, but strongly opposed 
Atheism and deprecated active Eationalism. 
His chief work was a reorganization of the 
sciences and an insistence on the positive 
spirit (regard for realities) in science and 
human affairs. D. Sep. 5, 1857. 

CONDILLAC, Etienne Bonnot de 
Mably de, French philosopher. B. Sep. 
30, 1715. He entered the clergy, and was 
conspicuous for virtue in a deeply corrupt 
body. At one time he was tutor to the 
Infanta of Parma. The study of Locke s 
ideas destroyed his belief, and he further 
developed them into a system which is 
known as Sensualism. His chief work is 
the Traiii des sensations (1754). Instead 
of being a " Materialist," as is often said, 
Condillac was a Theist, and believed in 
personal immortality. D. Aug. 3, 1780. 

CONDORCET, Marie Jean Antoine 
Nicolas de Caritat, Marquis de, French 
mathematician. B. Sep. 17, 1743. Ed. 
Jesuit College Eheims and College de 
Navarre. At the age of sixteen he wrote 
a brilliant mathematical paper, and at 
twenty-one he presented to the Academy 
a paper on the Integral Calculus. He was 
admitted to the Academy in 1769, and 
became its perpetual secretary in 1777. 
One of the first scholars of France, he 
eagerly joined the Encyclopaedists, and in 
1774 published Lettres d un theologien, 
which was so caustic that it was attributed 
to Voltaire. Condorcet was, like Con 
dillac and Diderot, a very earnest and high- 

minded scholar, an opponent of black 
slavery, and an apostle of reform. He 
accepted the Eevolution, and in 1792 was 
President of the Legislative Assembly ; 
but he was arrested by the more violent 
authorities, and he ended his own life 
Apr. 7, 1794. 

CONDORCET, Marie Louise Sophie de 
Grouchy de, Marquise de, sister of Mar 
shal Grouchy and wife of preceding. B. 
1764. Her father had her and her sisters 
admitted into a convent of canonesses, 
though she took no vows. She married 
Condorcet in 1787, and kept one of the 
most brilliant salons at Paris during the 
early Eevolution. She shared her hus 
band s ideas, and at his death supported 
herself by painting and writing. She 
translated Adam Smith s Theory of Moral 
Sentiments, published Lettres sur la sympa- 
thie, and assisted Cabanis to edit her 
husband s works. The Marquise was a 
woman of great beauty, ability, and high 
character; and a thorough Eationalist. 
D. Sep. 8, 1822. 

CONGREYE, Richard, M.A., Positivist. 
B. Sep. 4, 1818. Ed. Eugby and Oxford 
(Wadham). A pupil of Arnold and a 
grave-minded student, he met Comte at 
Paris in 1848 and adopted his views. He 
resigned his fellowship (Wadham), and 
founded the Positivist community in Lon 
don, supporting himself by the practice of 
medicine. In 1878 he started a separate 
Positivist Church and acted as its priest. 
Congreve translated Aristotle s Politics 
(1855), and wrote a Catechism of the Posi 
tivist Religion (1858) and other works. 
D. July 5, 1899. 

CONRAD, Joseph (properly Teodor 
Jozef Konrad Korzeniowski), novelist. 
B. (Poland) Dec. 6, 1857. Ed. Cracow. 
He spent his early years in Poland, but 
went to Marseilles in 1874 and took to 
sea. In 1878 he entered the English 
merchant service and became a captain. 
He left the sea in 1894, and in the follow- 



ing year he published his first story, 
Almayer s Folly. In Some Reminiscences 
(1912) Conrad professes a mild Theism, 
yet says : " The ethical view of the universe 
involves us at last in so many cruel and 

absurd contradictions that I have come 

to suspect that the aim of creation cannot 
be ethical at all" (p. 163). 


Benjamin, French statesman. B. Oct. 25, 
1767. Ed. Lausanne, Oxford, Erlangen, 
and Edinburgh Universities. He settled 
in France in 1795, and won repute by his 
political writings. He was exiled by Bona 
parte, and travelled with Mme. de Stiiel 
(embodying his experience in his novel 
Adolphe, 1816). After the Eestoration he 
was one of the leaders of the Liberal 
opposition in Parliament. Constant was 
a nominal Protestant and opposed the 
Voltaireans, but his work, De la religion 
consider ee dans sa source, ses formes, et ses 
developpements (5 vols., 1824-31), rejects 
all sacerdotalism and is Theistic. D. Dec. 
8, 1830. 

CONTA, Professor Basil, LL.D., Euma- 
nian philosopher. B. Nov. 27, 1845. Ed. 
Jassy and Brussels Universities. Conta 
was of poor parentage, and won his educa 
tion by his own great efforts and sacrifices. 
He practised law in the Court of Appeal 
at Jassy, and in 1873 became professor of 
civil law at Jassy. He endorses Mate 
rialism in his Theorie du fatalisme, Essai 
de philosophic matcrialiste, etc. See Leben 
und Philosophic Conta s, by J. A.Eadulescu- 
Pogoneanu (1902). D. 1882. 

" CONWAY, Hugh." See FARGUS, F. J. 

CONWAY, Moncure Daniel, D.D., 

author. B. (Virginia) Mar. 17, 1832. Ed. 
Fredericksburg Academy and Dickinson 
College. He entered the Methodist minis 
try in 1850, but he quickly outgrew the 
creed. He then graduated at Harvard 
Divinity School and became a Unitarian 
minister. He was compelled to leave 

Virginia for befriending a fugitive slave, 
and he then took a church at Washington, 
which, in turn, he was obliged to exchange 
for one in Cincinnati. He was now con 
spicuous in the anti-slavery struggle, and 
was in 1863 invited to lecture in England. 
There he succeeded W. J. Fox at the 
South Place Chapel and completed the 
humanitarian development of that cradle 
of the Ethical Movement in London. He 
became a complete Agnostic, and his 
eloquent and learned discourses had a great 
and beneficent influence. He resigned and 
returned to America in 1897. Dr. Con- 
way s numerous writings include Demono- 
logy and Devil Lore (2 vols., 1879), an 
edition of Paine s works (4 vols., 1894-96), 
a Life of Paine (2 vols., 1892), Autobio 
graphy (2 vols., 1904), etc. D. Nov. 14, 

CONWAY, Sir William Martin, M.A., 
F.S.A., F.E.G.S., writer and traveller. 
B. 1856. Ed. Eepton and Cambridge 
(Trinity College). He was a University 
Extension Lecturer 1882-85, professor of 
art at the Liverpool University College 
1885-88, Honorary Secretary of the Art 
Congress 1888-90, Slade Professor of Fine 
Arts at Cambridge 1901-1904, and Pre 
sident of the Alpine Club 1902-1904. Sir 
Martin has climbed the Himalaya, the 
Alps, and the Andes, and has travelled in 
Spitzbergen and Tierra del Fuego. In his 
work, The Crowd in Peace and War (1915), 
he defines religion as " man s description 
of his ideas about the great unknown, his 
projection on the darkness of what he 
conceives that darkness to contain " 
(p. 214), and he rejects the Christian 
dogmas and revelation. He writes with 
equal charm and authority on painting, 
climbing, and the geography of little-known 

CONYBEARE, Frederick Cornwall, 

M.A., D.D., LL.D., orientalist. B. 1856. 
Ed. Tonbridge School and Oxford (Univer 
sity College). He became a Fellow and 
Praelector in 1881, and a Fellow of the 



British Academy in 1903. Dr. Conybeare 
is also an Officer of the French Academy 
and a member of the Armenian Academy 
of Venice. He has written a large number 
of works on oriental (especially Armenian), 
religious, and biblical questions, and was 
for years a member of the Rationalist 
Press Association. For his Eationalist 
views see his Myth, Magic, and Morals 
(1909, a valuable discussion of Christian 
origins) and The Historical Christ (1914). 

COOK, Keningale Robert, M.A., LL.D., 
writer. B. Sep. 26, 1845. Ed. Eugby and 
Trinity College, Dublin. He was intended 
for the Church, but he refused to subscribe 
to the creeds, and entered the Civil Service, 
afterwards becoming a stockbroker. He 
founded and edited the Dublin University 
Magazine in 1877, which became in 1878 
the University Magazine, a well-known 
organ of the most advanced opinions. He 
published various dramas and volumes of 
verse, and The Fathers of Jesus, a Study of 
the Lineage of the Christian Doctrine and 
Traditions (2vols.,1886). D. June 24,1886. 

COOPER, Anthony Ashley, first Earl 
of Shaftesbury. B. July 22, 1621. Ed. 
Oxford (Exeter College). He entered 
Parliament in 1640, and served in the 
Puritan army in 1644-45. In 1647 he 
was High Sheriff of Wiltshire, and in 
1653 a member of the Privy Council ; and 
in 1661 he was made a Peer. During the 
earlier years he, on political grounds, pro 
fessed Presbyterianism, but he opposed all 
oppressive measures and wrote on tolera 
tion. In 1672 he was created Earl of 
Shaftesbury and Lord Chancellor. He was 
one of the most enlightened British states 
men of the time, and his private life was 
one " of rare purity for the age " (Diet. 
Nat. Biog.). He quarrelled with the King, 
and was relieved of office and charged with 
high treason (1681), but he evaded prosecu 
tion by flying to Holland. His public 
character is much disputed, but the general 
feeling now is that he was " ever uncor- 
rupt." Shaftesbury was an intimate friend 

of Locke, and was " indifferent in matters 
of religion " (Life, ii, 95). When asked his 
religion, he gave the classic reply (which 
was later plagiarized by Disraeli) : " Wise 
men are of but one religion." Pressed to 
define this religion, he added : " Madam, 
wise men never tell." D. Jan. 21, 1683. 

COOPER, Anthony Ashley, third Earl 
of Shaftesbury. B. Feb. 26, 1671. Ed. 
privately under Locke s supervision, and at 
Winchester. He entered Parliament, but 
his health compelled him to quit political 
life and he went to Holland, where he made 
the acquaintance of Bayle. He became 
Earl on the death of his father in 1699. 
Still deterred by ill-health from politics, 
to which he brought a high idealism, he 
turned to letters, and in 1711 published his 
famous Characteristicks. He attended 
church and took the Sacrament, but his 
work plainly shows that he held a Deistic 
view of the Bible. He gave a yearly 
pension to the Deist Toland, though he was 
not rich. In philosophy he deserted Locke 
for Platonism, and held an intuitionist 
ethic. He was, says the Dictionary of 
National Biography, " a man of lofty and 
ardent character." D. Feb. 15, 1713. 

COOPER, John Gilbert, poet. B. 1723. 
Ed. Westminster School and Cambridge 
(Trinity College). He was, says Kippis 
(Biog. Brit.), " a most zealous admirer and 
imitator of Shaftesbury." His Deism is 
apparent in his poem, The Power of Har 
mony (1745), and his Life of Socrates (1749). 
D. Apr. 14, 1769. 

COOPER, Robert, Secularist lecturer. 
B. Dec. 29, 1819. At the age of fourteen 
Cooper began to teach in the Owenite 
School at Salford, and three years later 
became an Owenite lecturer. In 1832 he 
published The Holy Scriptures Analysed, 
which was denounced in the House of 
Lords. He became one of Owen s mission 
aries in 1841, and in 1852 he founded and 
edited The London Investigator. D. May 3, 




COOPER, Professor Thomas, M.D., 
natural philosopher. B. Oct. 22, 1759. Ed. 
Oxford (University College). He was called 
to the Bar in 1787, but turned to anatomy 
and medicine. He and James Watt were 
sent to Paris as representatives of the 
democratic clubs of England during the 
Eevolution. Emigrating to America, he 
became professor of chemistry, and in 1816 
professor of mineralogy and chemistry, in 
the Pennsylvania University. In 1820 he 
was appointed President of the South 
Carolina College, but he was compelled to 
resign on account of his advanced Ration 
alism. He was a very versatile and learned 
writer, and rejected all religion. D. May 11, 

COPE, Professor Edward Drinker, 

M.A., Ph.D., American palaeontologist. B. 
July 28, 1840. Ed. Westtown Academy 
and Pennsylvania University, completing 
his study of comparative anatomy in the 
Smithsonian Institution and in Europe. 
Cope was professor of the natural sciences 
in Haverford College in 1864-07, then 
palaeontologist to the U. S. Geological 
Survey ; and he was for many years 
Curator of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Pennsylvania. In 1879 he 
received the Bigsby Gold Medal of the 
Royal Geological Society. He published 
more than 350 papers, and many volumes, 
on his science ; and he was one of the chief 
defenders of evolution in America. He 
was a Theist, but uncertain about personal 
immortality (see his Theology of Evolution, 
1887). -D. Apr. 12, 1897. 

CORNETTE, Professor Henri Arthur 
Marie, Belgian educationist. B. Mar. 27, 
1852. Cornette was professor of Flemish 
literature at the Ecole Normale, Antwerp, 
and a Provincial Councillor. He was a 
powerful advocate of Rationalism, writing 
and lecturing in French and Flemish. He 
wrote in the advanced organs of Holland, 
Belgium, and France, and published various 
pamphlets and several w r orks in the Dutch 
Pcsdagogische Bibliothek. 

Bernhard von, German writer. B. 
Oct. 12, 1812. Ed. Cadet Colleges of Pots 
dam and Berlin. He held a commission 
in the Prussian army until 1835, when he 
devoted himself to letters and the propaga 
tion of advanced opinions. He was im 
prisoned for six years after the failure of 
the 1848 Revolution and went to England, 
where he became war correspondent of the 
Times. His chief Rationalist works are 
Historische DenJcmale des christlichen 
Fanatismus (2 vols., 1845) and Pfaffen- 
spiegel (1891) : two ruthlessly anti- 
Christian productions. D. Mar. 3, 1886. 

COTTON, Sir Henry John Stedman, 

Positivist and Indian Reformer. B. Sep., 
1845. Ed. Oxford and King s College, 
London. He entered the Indian Civil 
Service in 1867 and won rapid promotion, 
becoming chief Secretary to the Bengal 
Government in 1892, Home Secretary to 
the Indian Government in 1896, and Chief 
Commissioner of Assam in 1898. On his 
retirement in 1902 he was made KG. S.I. 
As M.P. for Nottingham (1906-10) he 
rendered great service to India. Sir 
Henry published a number of his Posi 
tivist addresses (see especially The Reli 
gion of Humanity, 1887), and wrote a 
number of works on India. He also 
lectured frequently for the English Ethical 
Societies. He was one of the few men who 
brought a high idealism into English 
politics, and his austere sense of right and 
deep humanitarian feeling commanded the 
respect of all who knew him. D. Oct. 23, 


French Hellenist. B. Jan 4, 1772. Ed. 
College de France (Paris) and Artillery 
School, Chalons. He served in the Repub 
lican and the Napoleonic armies, and in 
1809 retired to Switzerland. After the 
Restoration he returned to France and 
courageously attacked the royalist-clerical 
reaction. He was imprisoned for some of 
his outspoken pamphlets. Courier de Mere 


was a distinguished scholar, and wrote 
many works on Greek literature. D. 
Apr. 10, 1825. 

COURTNEY, Leonard Henry, Baron 
Courtney of Penwith, statesman. B. 1832. 
Ed. Cambridge (St. John s College). He 
was second wrangler and bracketed first 
Smith s prizeman. He was called to the 
Bar (Lincoln s Inn) in 1858, professor of 
political economy at University College 
1872-75, and examiner in constitutional 
history at University College 1873-75. 
He then entered politics and was Under 
secretary of State to the Home Depart 
ment 1880-81, to the Colonial Office 
1881-82, Financial Secretary to the 
Treasury 1882-84, and Chairman of Com 
mittees and Deputy Speaker 1880-92. 
Lord Courtney s Diary of a Church-Goer 
is very valuable as an indication of the 
complete Eationalism of many distin 
guished nominal Christians. It was pub 
lished anonymously, but republished under 
his name in 1918. He admits that his 
proper place is "in the outermost court of 
the Gentiles " (p. 225). He rejected all 
Christian doctrines, including (apparently) 
even personal immortality, and was merely 
a Theist. D. May 11, 1918. 

COURTNEY, William Leonard, M.A., 

LL.B., writer. B. Jan 5, 1850. Ed. 
Somersetshire College (Bath) and Oxford 
(University College). He became Fellow 
of Merton in 1872 and headmaster of 
Somersetshire College in 1873. In 1894 
he began to edit the Fortnightly Review, 
and he has been for many years on the 
editorial staff of the Daily Telegraph. 
Mr. Courtney follows a modified Kantian 
philosophy. He defines God as " the sum 
of individual consciousnesses " (Construc 
tive Ethics, 1886). In an introduction to 
Do We Believe ? (1905) he observes that 
" a hard, definite, logical, and systematic 
religious faith is almost an impossibility in 
the England we know," but he finds " a 
certain virtue about Christian maxims of 
action " (p. 7). 


COUSIN, Victor, French philosopher. 
B. Nov. 28, 1792. Ed. Paris. In 1815 
he became professor of philosophy at the 
Lycee Bonaparte ; and in 1817 he inter 
rupted his course to study philosophy in 
Germany. In 1828 he resumed his lectures 
at Paris, and in 1830 became General 
Inspector of the University. He was 
admitted to the Academy, joined the State 
Council (1831), and became Minister of 
Public Instruction (1840). Cousin founded 
the Eclectic School in French philosophy 
a liberal Pantheistic system combining 
Scottish and German elements with Greek 
and French. He translated and edited the 
works of Plato, Descartes, Aboard, and 
Proclus (27 vols.). Of his own eighteen 
volumes the chief is Le Vrai, Le Beau, Le 
Bien. D. Jan. 12, 1867. 

COVENTRY, Henry, M.A., Deist. B. 
about 1710. Ed. Cambridge (Magdalen). 
He published a discreetly Deistic work, 
Philemon to Hydaspes, relating a conversa 
tion with Hortensius upon the subject of 
false religion (1736). Walpole refers to it 
(Letters, i, 17) as a " pretty account of 
superstition." Coventry was one of the 
contributors to the Athenian Letters. D. 
Dec. 29, 1752. 

COWARD, William, M.A., M.D., 
physician. B. about 1650. Ed. Hart Hall 
and Oxford (Wadham). In 1680 he became 
a fellow of Merton. He graduated in 
medicine in 1687, and practised first in 
Northampton and afterwards in London. 
In 1702 he published Estibius Psychalethes, 
in which he denied the spirituality and 
immortality of the mind. In 1704 he was 
called to the Bar of the House of Commons 
for his opinions, and his book was burned. 
He retracted, but republished the book. 
D. 1725. 

COWEN, Joseph, politician. B. July 9, 
1831. Ed. private school and Edinburgh 
University. While a student Cowen 
adopted advanced ideas, and was enthusi 
astic for Mazzini. Joining his father s 



business, he smuggled the pamphlets of 
Kossuth, Mazzini, and Louis Blanc into 
their respective countries in the firm s 
goods, and used his wealth freely in pro 
gressive causes. He became M.P. for 
Newcastle in 1873 ; and in 1878, apropos of 
a Bill to increase the number of bishoprics, 
protested that the country wanted no more 
" sleek and oily parsons." He was equally 
zealous in supporting Bradlaugh in 1881. 
" The ghosts of obsolete opinions and worn- 
out ceremonials ought not to frighten us," 
he said (Life and Speeches of J. Goiven, 
1885, p. 494). Cowen was a man of rigid 
principles and the widest human sym 
pathies. His unpopularity in the political 
world was due almost entirely to his 
integrity. D. Feb. 18, 1900. 

CRAMER, Johan Nikolai, Ph.D., 

Swedish philologist. B. Feb. 18, 1812. 
Ed. Upsala University. He was ordained 
priest in 1842, but resigned his orders in 
1858. He then taught in a school at Visby 
and wrote a number of works on philology 
and religion, zealously propagating the ideas 
of Strauss and Benan. 

CRANCH, Christopher Pearse, 

American artist. B. Mar. 8, 1813. Ed. 
Cambridge Divinity School. He joined the 
Unitarian ministry, but seceded from it in 
1842 and devoted himself to art. He 
studied in Italy 1846-48, and in Italy and 
France 1853-63. In 1864 he was elected 
to the New York National Academy ; and, 
in addition to his paintings, he published 
various volumes in prose and verse, and 
Satan : A Libretto (1874). D. 1892. 

CRANE, Walter, E.W.S., artist. B. 
Aug. 15, 1845. Ed. private school, Torquay. 
He was apprenticed at sixteen to W. J. 
Linton [SEE] and remained with him three 
years. He then took to the illustration of 
books, especially children s books, in which 
he set a new standard. At the same time 
he exhibited in all galleries, and he was 
the founder and president of the Arts and 
Crafts Exhibition (1888) and an Associate 


of the Society of Painters in Water Colours 
(1888). In 1892 he was appointed Director 
of Designs in the Manchester Municipal 
School of Art. In 1903 he received the 
Grand Cross of the Crown of Italy, and in 
1904 the Albert Gold Medal. He was also 
associated with Morris, whose Socialism he 
shared, in improving wall-papers. In An 
Artist s Reminiscences (1907) he relates that 
in his early years J. E. Wise [SEE] helped 
to clear his mind of " superstitious shadows 
and theological bogies " (p. 78). Morris, 
Mill, and the Positivist literature com 
pleted his education, and he " decided 
for Free Thought" (p. 80). D. Mar. 14, 

CREMER, Sir William Randal, 

reformer. B. Mar. 18, 1838. Of a poor 
family, Cremer went to work in a shipyard 
at the age of twelve. He settled in London 
in 1852, and engaged in politics. In 1865 
he was appointed secretary of the British 
Section of the International Working Men s 
Association, and in 1871 secretary of the 
Workmen s Peace Association. He entered 
Parliament in 1885, and in 1889 became 
secretary of the Inter-Parliamentary Union. 
His splendid work on behalf of peace 
brought him the Nobel Prize (the greater 
part of which he gave to the International 
Arbitration League) in 1903, the Cross of 
the Legion of Honour in 1890, the Norwegian 
Order of St. Olaf in 1904, and knighthood in 
1907. Howard Evans says in his Sir B. 
Cremer (1909) that he abandoned Chris 
tianity, though he remained religious. D. 
July 22, 1908. 

CRESCINI, Professor Yincenzo, Italian 
philologist. B. Aug. 10, 1857. Ed. Padua 
University. He was appointed professor 
of the Neo-Latin languages at Genoa 
University, and is now professor of the 
comparative history of the Neo-Latin 
languages and literatures at Padua Univer 
sity. Professor Crescini, who is a Cavalliere 
of the Crown of Italy, has written a large 
number of philological and literary works. 
He is a Positivist of the Ardig6 school. 



CROCE, Benedetto, Italian philosopher. 
B. Feb. 26, 1866. Ed. Naples. He first 
devoted himself to letters and history, 
translated Erasmus, and wrote a number 
of historical monographs. In later years 
he has been chiefly occupied with philo 
sophy, in which he has felt the influence 
of Hegel. He is secretary of the Neapolitan 
Historical Society, and founder and editor 
of La Critica. Mr. H. Wildon Carr says in 
his Philosophy of Benedetto Croce : " The 

religious activity has no place in it 

Eeligion is mythology" (p. 172). Croce is 
one of Italy s most distinguished writers 
on philosophy. 

CROLY, David Goodman, American 
journalist. B. Nov. 3, 1829. Ed. New 
York University. Mr. Croly owned and 
edited the Eockford Daily Neivs 1858-59, 
and was then city editor, later managing 
editor, of the New York World (1860-72). 
From 1871 to 1873 he edited The Modern 
Thinker. He was a Positivist, and has 
written A Primer of Positivism (1876) and 
other works. D. Apr. 29, 1889. 

CROMPTON, Henry, B.A., lawyer. B. 
Aug. 27, 1836. Ed. University College 
School, London, private school, Bonn, and 
Cambridge (Trinity College). He studied 
medicine, and was appointed clerk of assize 
on the Chester and North Wales circuit, 
a position he occupied for forty-three years. 
Crompton was an active Positivist after 
1859, succeeding Congreve in London in 
1899. He rendered such aid to the Trade 
Union Movement that he was in 1868 
admitted to the Amalgamated Society of 
Carpenters and Joiners. His chief work is 
Letters on Social and Political Subjects 
(1870). D. Mar. 15, 1904. 

CROSS, Mary Ann or Marian (" George 
Eliot "), novelist. B. Nov. 22, 1819. Ed. 
boarding schools Attleborough, Nuneaton, 
and Coventry. Miss Evans, as she was 
until she married Cross late in life, had a 
brilliant and promising youth. She learned 
Greek, Latin, Italian, and German after she 

had left school. In 1840 she published a 
deeply religious poem, but her acquaintance 
with the Brays [see BRAY, CHARLES] at 
Coventry initiated her Eationalistic develop 
ment soon afterwards. She translated 
Strauss s Life of Jesus (1844-46), and in 
1851 joined the staff of the Westminster 
Beviciv ; and she became a prominent and 
highly-esteemed figure among the great 
Eationalists of her generation. It was in 
1854 that she joined G. H. Lewes, wisely 
disdaining a priest-made law which would 
bind a man for life to an impossible wife. 
At Lewes s instigation she wrote her first 
story, Amos Barton (1856). In the follow 
ing year her Adam Bede placed her in the 
front rank of British novelists. Lewes 
died in 1878, and she then married J. W. 
Cross, a banker. Against the ignorant 
libels of clerical writers we may put the 
spontaneous tribute of Jowett, who knew 
her well. She was, he said, " the gentlest, 
kindest, and best of women " (Life and 
Letters, ii, 144). She was an Agnostic, 
like Lewes, with a leaning to Positivism. 
D. Dec. 22, 1880. 

CROZIER, John Beattie, M.D., LL.D., 
historian. B. (Canada) 1849. Ed. Gait 
Grammar School and Toronto University. 
He was University medallist and State 
medallist in medicine. He settled in 
medical practice in London in 1873, and 
published his first work, The Eeligion of 
the Future, in 1880. Grower s chief work, 
The History of Intellectual Development 
(3 vols.), was published 1897-1901. Toronto 
University gave him the honorary degree 
of LL.D. He is a Theist, but he speaks in 
his Last Words on Great Issues (1917) of 
" this pale and somewhat watery Theism 
of mine," which is merely a belief in "an 
Unchangeable Something " (p. 224). 

CUMONT, Franz Yalery Marie, L., 
Belgian archaeologist. B. Jan. 3, 1868. 
Ed. Brussels Athenaeum, and Ghent, Bonn, 
Berlin, Paris, and other universities. 
Cumont was professor at Ghent 1892-1910, 
and he is one of the most distinguished 




scholars of Belgium and the highest living 
authority on Mithraism. He is a member 
of the Academie Eoyale de Belgique, the 
French Institut, and the Academies of 
Gottingen, Munich, Berlin, and Copen 
hagen ; and a Corresponding Fellow of the 
British Academy (1916). His chief works, 
which are entirely Eationalistic, are The 
Mysteries of Mithra (Eng. trans., 1903) 
and Les religions orientates dans le 
paganisme romain (1906). 

CZOLBE, Heinrich, German philo 
sophical writer. B. Dec. 30, 1819. Ed. 
Dantzig Gymnasium and Berlin University. 
He became a military surgeon, and chief 
staff-surgeon at Konigsberg, but he devoted 
much attention to philosophy. His Neue 
Darstellung des Sensualismus, a Mate 
rialistic work, was published in 1855. In 
later years he became a Spinozist or 
Monist, and believed in the existence of 
a world-soul, but not of a spiritual nature. 
See Vaikinger, " Die drei Phasen der 
Czolbschen Naturalismus," in the Philos. 
Monatshefte, Bd. 12, 1876. D. Feb. 19, 

DAMILAYILLE, Etienne Noel, French 
writer. B. Nov. 21, 1723. After a period 
of service in the army, he entered the civil 
service, and was able to oblige Voltaire 
and his friends by passing their letters. 
Although a man of poor education, he 
became intimate with the Encyclopaedists, 
and wrote several Deistic works (Le Chris- 
tianisme DevoiU, 1756 ; L Honnetete Theo- 
logique, 1767). It is believed by many 
that the abler Encyclopaedists wrote these 
works and borrowed his name. D. Dec. 15, 

DAMIRON, Jean Philibert, French 
philosopher. B. Jan. 10, 1794. Ed. Ville- 
franche College, Lycee Charlemagne, and 
Ecole Normale. He was a pupil of Cousin 
[SEE] and adopted his eclectic system. 
He became professor of the history of 
philosophy at the Ecole Normale, chevalier 
of the Legion of Honour (1833), and mem- 


her of the Institut (1836). Damiron wrote 
harshly of the Materialists, but he professed 
a philosophic Theism, and relegated Chris 
tianity to " children and weaklings." D. 
Jan. 11, 1862. 

DANDOLO, Count Yincenzo, Italian 
chemist. B. Oct. 26, 1758. Ed. Padua 
University. He opened a pharmacy at 
Venice and earned distinction in his science. 
When the Austrians took Venice, he went 
to Milan and became a member of the 
Grand Council. Napoleon appointed him 
Governor of Dalmatia, and his rule was 
very enlightened and progressive. In 1809 
he was created Count and Senator. He 
wrote his Deistic and idealistic work, Les 
hommes nouveaux, in Paris in 1799. D. 
Dec. 13, 1819. 

DARMESTETER, Agnes Mary Francis. 


DARMESTETER, James, French orien 
talist. B. Mar. 28, 1849. Ed. Lyc6e 
Bonaparte, Paris. Darmesteter, who was 
of Jewish origin, devoted himself to 
oriental languages, and in 1877 became 
assistant professor of Zend at the Ecole 
des Hautes Etudes. In 1885 he passed 
to the chair of Iranian languages at the 
College de France, and in the following 
year he went to study the religions of 
India. He translated the Zend Avesta for 
"The Sacred Books of the East" (1880-83), 
and published many important works on 
India, Persia, and Judaea (Les prophetes 
d Israel, 1892, etc.). Gaston Paris has 
a fine appreciation of this distinguished 
scholar in his Penseurs et Poetes (1896). 
He rejected the Jewish faith in his youth, 
and "he never, in the heaven of his thought, 
replaced the Jewish God on his overturned 
throne" (p. 41). He taught a vague 
Theism, rejecting the idea of a future life. 
D. Oct. 19, 1894. 

DARUSMONT, Frances, pioneer of 
woman movement. B. Sep. 6, 1795. 
Frances Wright her maiden name lost 


her father, a wealthy and cultivated Ration- 
alist of Dundee, in her infancy, but she 
studied diligently and adopted his views. 
At. the age of eighteen she wrote a vindica 
tion of the Epicurean philosophy (A Few 
Days in Athens, 1822). She went to 
America in 1818, lived in France 1821-24, 
then settled in the United States, where 
she became a brilliant and eloquent lecturer 
on reform questions and Rationalism. She 
married Darusmont in 1838. She held 
that " kind feeling and kind action are the 
only religion," and " few have made greater 
sacrifices for conviction s sake or exhibited 
a more courageous independence " (Diet. 
Nat. Biog.}. D. Dec. 2, 1852. 

DARWIN, Charles Robert, discoverer 
of Natural Selection. B. (Shrewsbury) 
Feb. 12, 1809, grandson of Erasmus Dar 
win. Ed. Shrewsbury school and Edin 
burgh University. He disliked the medical 
career, for which he was prepared, and 
went to Cambridge (Christ s Church) in 
1829 to study for the Church. His chief 
interest, however, was in natural history, 
and in 1831 he was appointed naturalist to 
the Beagle. It was in South America that 
he began to collect his evidence of evolution. 
He returned to England in 1836, married 
Emma Wedgwood in 1839, and in 1842 
went to live at Down, where he began to 
work out his theory. From 1844 to 1858 
he slowly prepared a large book on the 
subject, when, in the latter year, he 
received a letter from Wallace, and they 
issued a joint statement. One may doubt 
if Wallace s sudden glimpse of the subject 
would have been heeded had it not been 
for Darwin s twenty years of labour. The 
Origin of Species was published in 1859, 
the Descent of Man in 1871. Darwin was 
a man of simple life and very refined 
character. Although he lost his taste for 
poetry and paintings, his love of music and 
scenery remained to the end. He disliked 
discussing religion, but Sir Francis Darwin 
clearly traces his Eationalist development, 
which is indicated by his father in his 
autobiography. He was quite orthodox on 


the Beagle, a Theist when he published the 
first edition of the Origin ; but from 1860 
onward he passed into Agnosticism. Chap 
ter viii of the first volume of Sir F. Darwin s 
Life and Letters of Charles Darwin (3 vols., 
1887) is devoted to his religious develop 
ment. In 1871 he told Dr. Abbott, the 
editor of the American Index, that he " did 
not feel that he had thought deeply 
enough " on the subject to write an article 
for him. He, in fact, says in the auto 
biographical manuscript which he left for 
his children that he paid little serious 
attention to the question of a personal 
God until late in life. He was, however, 
Agnostic by 1873, when he said that " the 
whole subject is beyond the scope of man s 
intellect " (i, 307). In 1876 he wrote (in 
the above autobiographical paper) : " Dis 
belief crept over me at a very slow rate, 
but was at last complete. The rate was 
so slow that I felt no distress " (i, 309). 
He then still talked of a " First Cause," 
and said : " I deserve to be called a Theist." 
His gentle nature was, however, prevented 
by the suffering he saw in nature from 
embracing any accepted form of Theism. 
In 1879 he wrote to one correspondent 
that every man must decide for himself 
between " conflicting vague probabilities " 
as to a future life (i, 307), and to another 
he said : " I think that generally (and 
more and more as I grow older), but not 
always, an Agnostic would be the more 
correct description of my state of mind " 
(i, 304). With this Agnostic profession 
it is his last word he was buried in 
Westminster Abbey. D. Apr. 19, 1882. 

DARWIN, Erasmus, B.A., M.B., 
physician. B. Dec. 12, 1731. Ed. 
Chesterfield School, Cambridge (St. 
John s), and Edinburgh University. He 
prospered in medical practice at Lichfield, 
and formed there a circle of liberal thinkers. 
In 1880 he removed to Derby, where he 
founded a Philosophical Society, and later 
to Breadsall Priory. Darwin had been 
accustomed to write verse from his youth. 
His Zoonomia, or the Laws of Organic Life 
194 i 



(1794-96) is a Deistic view of evolution of 
very advanced and original character for 
the time. D. Apr. 18, 1802. 

DARWIN, Sir Francis, D.Sc., M.B., 
F.E.S., botanist, third son of Charles 
Darwin. B. Aug. 16, 1848. Ed. Cam 
bridge (Trinity College) and St. George s 
Hospital (London). He never practised 
medicine, but assisted his father. After 
the death of his father he removed to 
Cambridge, becoming University Lecturer 
in Botany in 1884 and University Eeader 
in Botany in 1888. He was President of 
the British Association in 1908, and was 
knighted in 1913. Besides the biography 
of his father, he has written a number of 
works and papers on botany. He sent a 
cordial greeting to the Eationalist Press 
dinner in 1919. 

DARWIN, Sir George Howard, F.E.S., 
astronomer, second son of Charles Darwin. 
B. 1846. Ed. private school Clapham 
and Cambridge (University College). He 
was second wrangler and Smith s prizeman 
in 1868. In 1883 he was appointed 
Plumian Professor of Astronomy at Cam 
bridge, and he held the chair until his 
death. In 1892 he received the Gold 
Medal of the Eoyal Astronomical Society. 
Sir George Darwin was the author of the 
accepted theory of the moon s origin, and 
has done other valuable work in astronomy. 
D. Dec. 7, 1912. 

DARWIN, Major Leonard, Sc.D., 
engineer, youngest son of Charles Darwin. 
B. Jan. 15, 1850. Ed. Woolwich Eoyal 
Military Academy. He entered the Engi 
neers in 1871, became a Major in 1889, and 
retired in 1890. From 1885 to 1890 Major 
Darwin was in the Staff Intelligence 
Department at the War Office, and he 
served on several scientific expeditions, 
such as those which went to observe the 
transit of Venus in 1874 and 1882. He 
was M.P. for Lichfield 1892-95, and 
President of the Eoyal Geographical 
Society 1908-1911 ; and he has been 

President of the Eugenics Education 
Society since 1911 and Chairman of the 
Bedford College for Women since 1913. 
He is also Treasurer of the National Com 
mittee for Combating Venereal Diseases. 

DAUDET, Alphonse, French novelist. 
B. May 13, 1840. He went to Paris, from 
Ntmes, in 1857, and in the following year 
published his first work, a volume of poems. 
In 1862 he wrote his first play, La derniere 
idole. He served in the Franco-Prussian 
War, and afterwards joined the staff of the 
Journal Officiel. The Aventures de Tartarin 
de Tarascon (1872) laid the foundation of 
his high repute as a novelist. In 1886 
he was made an Officer of the Legion of 
Honour. D. Dec. 16, 1897. 

DAUNOU, Pierre Claude Francois, 

French historian. B. Aug. 13, 1761. He 
was a priest and professor of philosophy of 
the Oratory until the suppression of the 
religious orders, but in 1792 he rejected 
the priesthood and Christianity and entered 
the National Convention. Paine was his 
colleague. He was conspicuous for modera 
tion and reform, and was in 1795 first 
president of the Council of Five Hundred. 
In 1807 he became Archivist of the Empire, 
and in 1810 published a learned and anti 
clerical Essai historique sur la puissance 
temporelle des Papes. After the Eestoration 
he occupied the chair of history and morals 
at the College de France, and he sat in the 
Chambre from 1818 to 1834. His works 
are numerous and weighty. D. June 20, 

DAYID, Jacques Louis, French painter. 
B. Aug. 31, 1748. Ed. College des Quatre 
Nations (Paris). In 1775 he won the Grand 
Prix de Eome, and studied in Italy. On 
his return to France his genius was at once 
recognized, and in 1790 he was commissioned 
by the Government to paint revolutionary 
pictures. He sat in the National Conven 
tion, and organized the national festivals. 
David was entirely pagan in spirit, and an 
enthusiast for Greece and Eome. Napoleon 



adopted him as his chief artist, but the 
Bourbons banished him, and he went to 
Brussels. D. Dec. 29, 1825. 

DAVIDS, Caroline Augusta Rhys, 

orientalist. Daughter of the Kev. J. Foley, 
Vicar of Wadhurst, she married Professor 
Ehys Davids in 1894, and she worthily 
shares his distinction as a scholar and his 
Eationalist views. Mrs. Ehys Davids is 
herself a Pali scholar of world- wide repute, 
and has translated Pali poetry into beautiful 
English verse. She is a high authority on 
the philosophic aspect of Buddhism, and 
lectured on it at Manchester University. 
Her Buddhist Psychological Ethics (1900), 
Psalms of the Early Buddhists (1909-13), 
Compendium of Philosophy (1910), Budd 
hism (1912), etc., show her preference for 
the Asiatic humanitarian creed. 

DAVIDS, Professor Thomas William 
Rhys, LL.D., Sc.D., Ph.D., orientalist. 
B. May 12, 1843. Ed. Brighton School 
and Breslau University. He entered the 
Ceylon Civil Service in 1866, but later 
studied law and was called to the Bar in 
1877. He was Hibbert Lecturer 1881, 
professor of comparative religion at Man 
chester 1904-5, professor of Pali and 
Buddhist literature at London University 
1882-1912. Professor Davids is a member 
of the British Academy ; president of the 
Pali Texts Society, the India Society, and 
the Manchester Oriental Society ; secretary 
of the Eoyal Asiatic Society. In a lecture 
to the London Sunday Lecture Society 
{published 1879), entitled 7s Life Worth 
Living ? he dissents from Christianity and 
rejects the belief in personal immortality. 
His many valuable works have done much 
to enforce the superiority of Buddhism. 

DAVIDSON, John, poet. B. Apr. 11, 
1857. Ed. Greenock Academy. At the 
age of thirteen he began to work in a 
chemical laboratory, and in 1871 he was 
appointed assistant to the town analyst. 
He taught in a school 1872-76, and then 
-spent a year at Edinburgh University. 

After twelve^ years as a schoolmaster he 
went to London and devoted himself to 
letters and journalism. Davidson despised 
academic philosophy, but he wrote a number 
of philosophical works (especially The Testa 
ment of John Davidson, 1908) in which he 
expounds a Eationalist, and partly Nietz- 
schean, creed. In his God and Mammon 
(1907) he says : " I would have all men 
come out of Christendom into the universe." 
D. Mar. 23, 1909. 

DAVIDSON, Thomas, M.A., philo 
sophical writer. B. 1840. Ed. Deer School 
and Aberdeen University. In 1866 he 
emigrated to America. He was a close 
student of Catholic philosophy, and was 
invited by the Pope to co-operate in pub 
lishing the works of Thomas Aquinas. He 
was, however, " agnostic as to the ultimate 
principle of things" (Memorials of Th. 
Davidson, 1907, p. 3) and rejected all 
creeds. He worked with the American 
Ethical Societies, and among the bodies 
which he founded was a New Fellowship 
at London out of which the Fabian Society 
evolved. He wrote much on art, education, 
and philosophy, and had great influence on 
philosophy. D. Sep. 14, 1900. 

DAYIES, Charles Maurice, M.A., D.D., 
writer. B. 1828. Ed. Durham University. 
He was ordained priest of the Church of 
England in 1852. Originally a supporter 
of the Tractarian movement, he passed to 
the Broad Church, and attacked ritualism 
in a series of novels. He then joined the 
staff of the Daily Telegraph (1870-75), 
and published a series of articles on the 
religious life of London. In 1875 he 
accepted a mission under Colenso in Natal, 
but in 1882 he left the Church. Cecil 
Ehodes employed him to investigate the 
sources of Gibbon s Decline. D. Sep. 6, 

DEBIDOUR, Professor Elie Louis 

Marie Marc Antoine, D. es L., French 

historian. B. Jan. 31, 1847. Ed. Lycee 

Charlemagne and Ecole Normale Supe- 




rieure. He taught history at, in succession, 
Perigueux, Saint-Omer, Mont-de-Marsan, 
Angers, and Nancy. He was dean of the 
faculty of letters, Nancy, 1886-90, then 
Inspector - General of Education. Since 
1906 he has held a chair of literature at 
Paris, and he is an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour and member of the Academy. 
His L Eglise Catholique et I Etat sous la 
troisieme Eepubliquc (2 vols., 1906) is a 
valuable Eationalist chronicle of the recent 
relations of Church and State. 

DAY, Helen Hamilton Gardener, 

American writer. B. June 21, 1858. Ed. 
Cincinnati High and Normal Schools. 
Daughter of a clergyman, she did post 
graduate work in medicine and biology, 
and developed a thorough Eationalism ; see 
her Men, Women, and Gods, and Facts and 
Fictions of Life (1895). As Miss Gardener 
she was well known among the social and 
ethical workers of New York. She has 
travelled in thirty countries, lectured much 
for the University Extension, and been 
Sociological Lecturer to the Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences. She 
married Col. Day in 1901. 

DE BOSIS, Adolfo, Italian poet. He 
was educated in law and practised, then 
became Director of a large commercial 
enterprise, but is one of the leading poets 
and literary men of modern Italy. His 
first volume of verse was published in 
1881. He co-operated with D Annunzio 
in founding II Convito, and is a Cavalliere 
of the Crown of Italy. His Agnosticism 
and ardent humanitarianism are especially 
expressed in his Amori ac Silentio (1914). 
He scouts the Christian message, and urges 
us to turn away from " the double mystery 
of the where and whence " (in poem " Ai 
Convalescent! ") Signer De Bosis intensely 
admires Shelley (" Percy 1 arcangelo "), and 
shares his passion for humanity. 

DEBUSSY, Claude Achille, French 

composer. B. Aug. 22, 1862. He entered 

the Paris Conservatoire at the age of eleven. 


Among other prizes he secured the Prix de- 
Eome (1884), and went to Italy to complete 
his studies. His work was recognized as 
of great distinction, and in 1902 his 
symphonic poems L apres-midi d un faune 
and Pelleas et Melisande were discussed 
throughout the whole musical world. He 
was now regarded as " one of the greatest 
musicians of his generation " and leader 
of the native French school, as distinct 
from German influence. His themes so 
frequently taken from Mallarrne, Verlaine, 
Baudelaire, etc. sufficiently indicated his. 
entire rejection of creeds, and he had a 
secular funeral. D. Mar. 26, 1918. 

DE COSTER, Charles, Belgian writer. 
B. Aug. 20, 1827. Ed. Brussels. De Coster 
was the son of a high official of the Papal 
Embassy at Brussels. He was educated 
in law, and became a distinguished lawyer, 
but he deserted the bar for letters. For 
some years he was professor of literature 
at Ixelles Military Academy. His Legende 
de Thyl Ulenspiegcl (1868) is a masterly 
description, in the form of a story, of 
Flemish life in the days of the Inquisition. 
It is one of the finest pieces of Belgian 
literature. A monument was erected to 
De Coster at Ixelles in 1894. D. May 7, 

DE DOMINICIS, Professor Saverio, 

Italian educationist. B. Sep. 22, 1845. 
Ed. Higher Normal School, Pisa. He 
was one of the first Italians to adopt 
Darwinism, which he vigorously defended 
against the clergy (see, especially, La 
pedagogia e il Danuinismo, 1877, and La 
dottrina dell evoluzione, 1878). Professor 
De Dominicis he is professor of paedagogy 
at Pavia University is especially interested 
in education, and has written a large 
number of works on teaching, as well as a 
series of manuals of moral instruction for 
the use of Italian schools. He is a Posi- 

DEFFAND, Marie Anne de Yichy- 
Chamrond, Marquise du. B. 1697. Ed.. 



La Madeleine Convent, Paris. Marie began 
to question the truth of religion while she 
was at the convent-school, and the cele 
brated preacher Massillon was brought to 
convince her. She routed the preacher. 
She was a beautiful and very gifted woman, 
and, after her marriage with the Marquis 
du Deffand, her salon was the chief meet 
ing-place of the famous French nationalists 
of the time. She was a great friend of 
Horace Walpole as well as of Voltaire. 
After 1753 she lived in a convent at Paris, 
but she continued to receive the philo 
sophers there and share their views. To 
the Marquise du Deffand we owe the witty 
expression : " II n-y-a que le premier 
pas qui coute." A cardinal was impressing 
on her the extraordinary distance which 
St. Denis was supposed to have carried 
his head after he had been beheaded. 
" The first step is the real difficulty," she 
said. D. Sep. 23, 1780. 

DE GUBERNATIS, Count Angelo, 

D. es L., Italian orientalist. B. Apr. 7, 
1840. Ed. Turin and Berlin Universities. 
He was professor of Sanscrit at Florence 
from 1863 to 1890, delegate of the Indian 
Government at the International Congress 
of Orientalists in 1876, and special lecturer 
at Oxford University in 1878. He founded 
the Indian Museum and the Asiatic Society 
of Italy. In addition to the title of Count 
(1881) he received the Eed Cross of the 
Order of Frederick of Wiirtemburg, the 
Order of the Rose of Brazil, and the Gold 
Medal of the Order of Benemerenti of 
Rumania. De Gubernatis was a foreign 
member of the Royal Society of the Dutch 
Indies, the Royal Asiatic Society of 
Bombay, the American Philosophical 
Society, and many others. His literary 
output (including a Storia Universale della 
letteratura in 18 vols.) is prodigious and of 
the highest scholarship ; and he founded 
thirteen reviews in French and Italian. 
In the preface to his valuable Dictionnaire 
International des Ecrivains du Monde Latin 
(2 vols., 1891, sec. ed. 1905) he says : " Our 
ideal temple is far vaster than that enclosed 

by any Church and it does more for 

the luminous peace and happiness of the 
world." D. Feb. 26, 1913. 

DEKKER, Edward Dowes (" Multa- 
tuli"), Dutch writer. B. Mar. 2, 1820. 
From 1840 to 1857 Dekker was in the 
Civil Service in the Dutch East Indies. 
In the end he became Assistant Resident 
at Lebak, but he lost his position by 
criticism of the Government, and returned 
to Holland. In 1860 he, under the name 
" Multatuli," published a critical novel, 
Max Havelaar, which stirred Holland, and 
a long series of works followed. They 
were published in a collected edition, in 
ten volumes (1892), by his widow. His 
Ideen (7 vols., 1862-79) is full of pungent 
Rationalism. There are biographies of 
him by Huet, Vosmaer, Abrahamsz, etc. 
D. Feb. 19, 1887. 

DELACROIX, Ferdinand Victor 

Eugene, French painter. B. Apr. 26, 1798. 
He studied art under Guerin and joined 
the Romantic School. His first picture 
was exhibited in 1822. Delacroix warmly 
welcomed the Revolution of 1830, and 
painted a great picture of " Liberty leading 
the People to the Barricades." He was 
one of the greatest French artists of his 
day. E. Moreau-Nelaton, his chief biogra 
pher, records that he was an assiduous 
reader of Voltaire and Diderot, and shared 
their ideas. His funeral was purely secular. 
D. Aug. 13, 1863. 

DEL AGE, Professor Marie Yves, 

D. es Sc., M.D., French zoologist. B. 
May 13, 1854. Ed. Paris. He began to 
teach zoology in 1874, became Director of 
the Zoological Station at Luc-sur-Mer in 
1883, professor of zoology at Caen in 1884, 
and professor of comparative zoology, 
anatomy, and physiology at the faculty of 
sciences, Paris, in 1885. Professor Delage, 
who is one of the most eminent zoologists 
of Europe, is an Officer of the Academy and 
of Public Instruction, Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour, Laureate of the Institut, 



President of the Zoological Society of 
France (1900), and corresponding member 
of many learned bodies. In 1916 he was 
awarded the Darwin Medal. He edits the 
Annie Biologique, and has written many 
valuable works. Delage is an enemy of 
all obscurantism. In L Heredite (1903, 
p. 432), after enumerating the theories of 
the soul of spiritual philosophers like Plato 
and Augustine, he drily adds : " We find 
an analogous idea among many savages." 

DELAMBRE, Jean Baptiste Joseph, 

French astronomer. B. Sep. 19, 1749. Ed. 
College d Amiens and College du Plessis, 
Paris. From 1771 he devoted himself to 
letters and astronomy, earning a slender 
living as a tutor. He was the first to draw 
up the tables of Uranus (1781), and won 
the prize of the Academy of Sciences. In 
1795 he became a member of the Bureau of 
Longitude, and he conducted the cele 
brated measurements for the settlement of 
the metre. He was secretary of the 
Institut, professor of astronomy at the 
College de France (1807), and Treasurer of 
the University. He was the friend and 
pupil of Lalande, whose Eationalism he 
shared, and one of the most eminent astro 
nomers of the time. D. Aug. 19, 1822. 

DELAYIGNE, Jean Francois Casimir, 

French poet. B. Apr. 4, 1793. Ed. Lycee 
Napoleon, Paris. He displayed poetical 
talent while still at school, and in 1815 he 
won the Academy prize. In 1818 he pub 
lished his Messeniennes, and in 1819 his 
drama Les Vepres Siciliennes, both of 
which were directed against the royalist- 
clerical reaction. He exulted in the 1830 
Eevolution, and composed a hymn, La 
Parisienne, which for a time rivalled the 
Marseillaise. Delavigne was one of the 
first lyric poets of France in his time, and 
he shared with Beranger the inspiration of 
the people against clericalism. D. Dec. 11, 

DELB(EUF, Professor Joseph Remi, 

D. es L., D. es Sc., Ph.D., Belgian philo- 

sopher. B. Sep. 30, 1831. Ed. Liege and 
Bonn. In 1860 he became a teacher at 
Liege, in 1863 professor at Ghent Uni 
versity, and in 1866 professor of classical 
philology at the Liege University. His 
many works on psychology and philosophy 
are of the psycho-physiological school. 
Baldwin classes him as a Positivist. D, 
Aug. 13, 1896. 

DELBOS, Professor Etienne Marie 
Justin Victor, D. es L., French philo 
sopher. B. Sep. 26, 1862. Ed. College de 
Figeac, Lycee Louis le Grand, and Ecole 
Norm ale Superieure, Paris. He was pro 
fessor of philosophy successively at 
Limoges, Toulouse, and Paris. Delbos was 
a Eationalist of the spiritual school, and a. 
great admirer of Spinoza (Le Spinozisme, 
1916). D. June 16, 1916. 

DELBOS, Leon, French writer. B. 
Sep. 20, 1849. Ed. Lycee Charlemagne, 
Paris. He served in the Franco-German 
war, and afterwards devoted himself to 
letters and the propagation of Eationalism. 
In 1879 he published L Athce, a Eation 
alist novel, and in 1885 he wrote, in 
English, The Faith in Jesus not a New 
Faith. He is a fine linguist and a member 
of the Academy. Delbos was an early 
contributor to the Agnostic Annual. 

DELCASSE, Theophile, French states 
man. B. Mar. 1, 1852. He adopted 
political journalism, especially in the field 
of foreign affairs, and quickly earned dis 
tinction when he was returned to the 
Chambre in 1889. He was Under-Secre- 
tary for the Colonies in 1893, Minister for 
the Colonies in 1894-95, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs 1898-1905, and Minister of 
Marine 1905-13 and 1914-15. During 
1913-14 he was Ambassador at Petrograd. 
Delcasse is a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour, and he holds the highest Orders of 
Eussia, Denmark, Belgium, Japan, China, 
etc. He is a strong Eationalist, and stoutly 
supported the Government s action against 
the Church. It would be difficult to name- 



an abler Foreign Minister in Europe. 
He has written a few works on foreign 

DELEYRE, Alexandra, Encyclopedist. 
B. Jan. 6, 1720. Ed. Jesuit College. He 
intended to become a Jesuit, and for a time 
wore their habit, but he withdrew from the 
Society and joined the Encyclopaedists at 
Paris. In 1793 he was a member of the 
National Convention, and in 1795 of the 
Council of Ancients. He was also a 
member of the Institut, and he wrote on 
Bacon and Montesquieu. Deleyre pro 
fessed Atheism. D. Mar. 27, 1797. 

DE MORGAN, Professor Augustus, 

mathematician. B. June, 1806. Ed. 
private school and Cambridge (Trinity 
College). At Cambridge, where he refused 
to graduate on account of the theological 
tests, he abandoned orthodoxy and called 
himself an "unattached Christian." He 
remained throughout life a Theist, and 
declined to join the Unitarians. From 
1828 to 1866 he was professor of mathe 
matics at London University. From 1843 
to 1846 he was on the committee of the 
Society for the Diffusion of Useful Know 
ledge. His writings on mathematics and 
logic are very numerous and important, 
and Jevons says (article " De Morgan " in 
Enc. Brit.) that he was even greater as a 
reformer of logic than as a mathematician. 
De Morgan is often quoted as a Spiritualist, 
but wrongly (see his preface to his wife s 
book). He merely took a sympathetic 
interest in it. D. Mar. 18, 1871. 

DENHAM, Sir James Steuart, political 
economist. B. Oct. 21, 1712. Ed. North 
Berwick and Edinburgh University. He 
was a son of Sir J. Steuart, but in later 
life he took the name of Denham with 
certain estates which he inherited. In 
1735 he was admitted to the Faculty of 
Advocates, but he espoused the cause of 
the Pretender and was proscribed in 1745. 
In 1763 he was permitted to return to 
Scotland, and, having spent his exile in the 

study of political economy, he published 
what is regarded as the first systematic 
work on that science in the English 
language (Inquiry into the Principles of 
Political Economy, 2 vols., 1767). Lady 
Mary W. Montagu, who knew him well, 
speaks of him in one of her letters (p. 510) 
as an Atheist," and the most outspoken 
of her letters are addressed to him. 
Denham seems, however, to have been a 
Deist. In his " Observations on Dr. 
Beattie s Essay " (Works, 1805, vol. vi) he 
accepts the bare existence of God, but is 
Agnostic beyond that point. In his 
" Critical Remarks on Holbach s System of 
Nature" he declines to "personify" the 
First Cause and rejects revelation. D. 
Nov. 26, 1780. 

DENIKER, Joseph, D. es So., French 
anthropologist. B. May 6, 1852. Ed. 
Astrakan and Petrograd. Deniker became 
an engineer, travelling all over Europe 
and Asia, and speaking ten languages. In 
1886 he settled at Paris and graduated in 
science. He was for many years Librarian 
of the Museum d Histoire Naturelle, and 
wrote numerous works on botany, geo 
graphy, and (especially) anthropology. 
His chief work, Les Races et les Peuples de 
la Terre (1900), contains candid expressions 
of his Rationalism (ch. vii). 

DENIS, Professor Hector, Belgian 
sociologist. B. Apr. 29, 1842. Ed. 
Brussels. Professor Denis, who taught at 
the Brussels University, worked with the 
Positivists in his earlier years, collaborating 
with Littre in his Philosophic Positive. In 
later years he was an aggressive Agnostic 
and Socialist. He took an active part in 
the Rome Congress of 1904, and in his 
eloquent speech said : " Positive science 
arrays itself against religion, destroying 
the myths and fables which confine 
humanity in ignorance and delusion " 
(Wilson s Trip to Rome, p. 151). He was 
a Socialist Member of the Brussels Muni 
cipal Council, and his work in practical 
reforms is hardly less distinguished than 



his writings on political economy and 
sociology. D. May 12, 1913. 

DENTON, William F., American writer. 
B. (England) Jan. 8, 1823. He emigrated 
to America in 1848 and became a popular 
lecturer and writer on Eationalism, tem 
perance, and science. His chief works are 
Poems for Reformers (1856), Radical 
Discourses on Religious Subjects (1872), 
and Radical Rhymes (1879). D. Aug. 26, 

DE PAEPE, Cesar, M.D., Belgian 
sociologist. B. July 12, 1842. Ed. Brussels. 
While still at the university he began to 
contribute democratic and nationalist arti 
cles to the Tribune du Peuple. He took 
to printing, then qualified in and practised 
medicine. Dr. De Paepe was one of the 
founders of the Internationale and of the 
International Freethought Federation, and 
a leader of the Belgian Socialists and Free 
thinkers. A biographical sketch is prefixed 
to his chief work, Les services publics 
(2 vols., 1895). D. 1890. 

DE POTTER, Agathon Louis, Belgian 
sociologist, son of the following. B. Nov. 
11, 1827. He worked with Baron Colins 
[SEE] in advocating "rational Socialism," 
and in 1875 founded La Philosophic de 
I Avenir for its propagation. He wrote 
Economic Sociale (2 vols., 1874) and other 
works, and contributed to the Belgian, 
French, and Spanish Eationalist periodicals. 

DE POTTER, Louis Joseph Antoine, 

Belgian politician. B. Apr. 26, 1786. Ed. 
Bruges and Brussels. He began to write 
anti-clerical works in 1816, and in 1830 he 
was a member of the Provisional Govern 
ment of Belgium. He was a Deist, of 
noble family, and one of the most powerful 
of the early Liberals. In later years he 
adopted "rational Socialism," and his zeal 
for social work has left "an imperishable 
name" in the annals of Belgium (Biog. 
Nationale de Belgique). His chief Deistic 
work is Histoire pliilosophique, politique, et 

critique du Christianisme (8 vols., 1836-37). 
D. July 2, 1859. 

DERAISMES, Maria, French writer. 
B. Aug. 15, 1835. Ed. Paris. She started 
her literary career in 1861 with a collection 
of dramatic sketches. In 1866 she began 
to take an active part in feminist contro 
versy, and is regarded as one of the founders 
of the movement in France. She opened 
the first French Women s Congress (1878), 
and was President of the Society for the 
Improvement of the Condition of Women. 
Mile. Deraismes was an active Rationalist. 
She was the first w y oman Freemason of 
France (Pesq Lodge of Freethinkers), and 
president of various Freethought societies. 
She presided, with V. Schoelcher, at the 
Anti-Clerical Congress at Paris in 1881. 
D. Feb. 6, 1894. 

D ERCOLE, Professor Pasquale, Italian 
philosopher. B. Dec. 28, 1831. Ed. 
Venosa, Molpetta, Naples, and Berlin. In 
1863 he was appointed professor of philo 
sophy at Pavia, and later at Turin Univer 
sity. Professor D Ercole, who has written 
much on philosophy and religion, called 
himself a " Philosophic Christian Theist." 
He was rather an Hegelian Pantheist, with 
no belief in Christian doctrines or personal 

DE SANCTIS, Professor Francesco, 

Italian literary critic. B. 1818. Ed. 
privately and at Naples Military Academy. 
He opened a school at Naples, and was 
in 1848 appointed by the Revolutionaries 
General Secretary of Public Instruction. 
At the restoration he suffered three years 
imprisonment. He was appointed professor 
of aesthetics and Italian literature at Zurich 
in 1856, Minister of Public Instruction in 
the new kingdom of Italy in 1860, professor 
at Naples University in 1871, and again 
Minister of Public Instruction in 1879. 
De Sanctis, who became the leading literary 
critic of Italy, seems to have been as 
strongly disliked by the Positivists as by 
the Clericals. B. Croce, who warmly 



defends him, gives a bibliography of a 
hundred books for and against him. He 
was a philosophic Theist or Pantheist, 
influenced by Hegel, and far removed from 
Christian orthodoxy (see, for instance, his 
Storia della Letteratura Italiana, 1870). 
D. Dec. 28, 1883. 

DESCHAMPS, Leger Marie, French 
philosopher. B. Jan. 10, 1716. He was 
a monk of the Benedictine Order, and he 
remained in it in spite of his radical 
heterodoxy and his cordial relations with 
the Encyclopaedists. In his Voix de la 
Eaison (1770) and La Verite (1771) he 
expounds a Pantheism akin to that of 
Spinoza, and with affinities to the later 
system of Hegel. The Grande Encyclopedic 
says that he looked to the establishment 
of an " enlightened Atheism." D. Apr. 19, 

DESCHANEL, Professor Emile 
Augustin Etienne Martin, French writer. 
B. Nov. 14, 1819. Ed. College Louis le 
Grand and Ecole Normale. After teaching 
rhetoric at Bourges, he was appointed 
lecturer at the Ecole Normale Superieure. 
He was suspended and expelled from 
France in 1851 for writing advanced 
articles. He returned in 1859, was elected 
to the Chambre (as Anti-Clerical) in 1876, 
and was made Senateur Inamovible and 
professor of modern French literature at 
the College de France in 1881. His literary 
works are of great value. A. Brissot, in 
his Portraits Intimes (ii, 116), describes 
Deschanel as " a Freethinker " and strong 
anti-clerical. D. 1904. 

DESCHANEL, Paul Eugene Louis, 

L. es L., L. en D., President of the French 
Republic, son of the preceding. B. Feb. 13, 
1856. Ed. Lycee Condorcet, Paris. He 
began his career as secretary of the Minister 
of the Interior (1876-77), and was then 
appointed Sub-Prefect of Breux, later of 
Brest (1881). Elected to the Chambre in 
1885, he earned distinction by his eloquent 
speeches on colonial questions. He was 

Vice-President of the Chambre in 1896, 
and President from 1898 to 1902. In 
1899 he was admitted to the Academy, in 
virtue of his numerous works on politics 
and letters. He was President of the 
Commission on Foreign and Colonial Affairs 
1905-1909. His published speeches and 
dates given will sufficiently indicate that 
he follows the ideas of his father and fully 
supports the anti-clerical measures. He 
succeeded M. Poincare as President in 

DESHUMBERT, Marius, French 
Ethicist. B. 1856. M. Deshumbert settled 
in England in 1879, and was professor of 
French at the Eoyal Military College, 
Sandhurst, and the Staff College, Camber- 
ley. He is the founder and secretary of 
the Comite International Pour la Pratique 
de la Morale fondee sur les lois de la 
Nature, general secretary of the Societe 
Londonienne de Morale, and President of 
the Croydon Alliance Franaise. He has 
written works on French grammar and on 
his naturalist theory of morals (Notre 
Ideal, etc.). 

DESLANDES, Andre Frangois 
Boureau, French writer. B. 1690. In 
his early years he was a pious follower of 
Malebranche, who tried to induce him to 
enter the Oratory. He joined the Navy, 
becoming Commissioner General of Marine 
at Eochefort and Brest, and adopted 
Deism. His ideas are discreetly given in 
his Histoire critique de la Philosophic 
(3 vols., 1737) and De la certitude des 
connaissances humaines (1741) and other 
works. D. Apr. 11, 1757. 

DESMAISEAUX, Pierre, F.E.S., bio 
grapher. B. 1673. Ed. Berne and Geneva. 
He was the son of a refugee French Pro 
testant minister. In 1699 Lord Shaftes- 
bury brought him to England, and he was 
familiar with A. Collins and Bayle. He 
translated into English Bayle s Dictionary 
(1734), prefixing to it a life of Bayle and 
a dedicatory letter to Sir E. Walpole, in 


which he rails at " the blind zeal and 
stupidity cleaving to superstition." Des- 
maiseaux wrote numerous biographies and 
was admitted to the Eoyal Society (1720). 
D. July 11, 1745. 

DESMOULINS, Benoit Camille, French 
politician. B. Mar. 2, 1760. Ed. College 
Louis le Grand, Paris. He studied law 
and practised at the Paris Bar. Before 
the Revolution he wrote a number of 
advanced pamphlets, and a speech of his 
in 1789 is regarded as the spark which lit 
the Eevolution. He represented Paris in 
the Convention and edited the Vieux 
Cordelier. Desmoulins worked for con 
ciliation as quarrels developed, and he was 
condemned to the guillotine. When the 
tribunal asked his age he said : " Same as 
that of the sans-culotte Jesus." D. Apr. 5, 

Brisoys, French writer. B. June 20, 1817. 
Ed. Bayeux. He adopted a literary career 
at Paris and established the monthly 
Province et Paris. He wrote novels of 
distinction, studies of Balzac and Gliick, 
and valuable works on eighteenth-century 
writers. His Voltaire et la Societe Fran- 
gaise au XVIII siecle (8 vols., 1867-75) 
was crowned by the Academy. D. Jan. 11, 

DESSAIX, Count Joseph Marie, 

French general. B. Sep. 24, 1764. Ed. 
Turin. He graduated in medicine and 
practised at Paris, but he returned to his 
native Savoy to spread revolutionary 
principles and formed " The Propaganda 
Society of the Alps." He advanced rapidly 
in the service of the Eepublic, and Napo 
leon made him a general. In 1803 he 
was made Commander of the Legion of 
Honour, and in 1809 Count. Dessaix was 
known as " the Intrepid " and " the Bayard 
of Savoy." He was imprisoned at the 
restoration, and was never reconciled with 
the royalist clericals. He commanded the 
National Guard in 1830. D. Oct. 26, 1834. 


DESTRIYEAUX, Professor Pierre 
Joseph, Belgian jurist. B. Mar. 13, 1780. 
Ed. Paris. He won distinction at the 
Liege Bar, and after 1816 was active 
among the Belgian Liberals. In 1833 he 
was appointed professor of criminal law. 
The Catholic ministry deposed him in 
1835, but in 1841 he was called to the 
chair of modern political history, and in 
1847 elected to the Chambre. He wrote 
on law, and was conspicuous for reform in 
the civic life of Liege. D. Feb. 3, 1853. 

DESTUTT DE TRACY, Count Antoine 
Louis Claude, French philosophical writer. 
B. July 20, 1754. Ed. Strassburg Univer 
sity. A deputy to the States General, he 
adopted the moderate principles of the 
Eevolution and opposed excess. Napoleon 
made him a Senator (1801), and the Bour 
bons raised him to the peerage. He was 
a member of the Institut and the Academy. 
De Tracy was a friend of Condillac and 
Cabanis, whose ideas he partially embodies 
in his " ideology," denying the spirituality 
of the mind. His chief work is Elements 
d ideologie (5 vols., 1801-1815). His 
favourite recreation in his last years was 
to have Voltaire read to him. D. Mar. 10, 

DETROSIER, Rowland, reformer. B. 
1796. He was the illegitimate son of 
a Frenchwoman named Detrosier and 
a Manchester man, and he laboriously 
acquired his education while he worked in 
a mill. He founded the first Mechanics 
Institutes (Manchester and Salford) and 
the Banksian Society of Manchester. 
Detrosier, who presided over a Theistic 
chapel at Stockport, was a man of lofty 
ideals and a power among the progressive 
forces of the north. D. Nov. 23, 1834. 

DEUBLER, Konrad, German peasant- 
philosopher. B. Nov. 25, 1814. He 
studied science and philosophy while 
working as a shepherd, and attained a 
remarkable repute. He corresponded with 
Feuerbach and Strauss, and was visited by 




distinguished scholars. In 1854 he was 
imprisoned for two years for blasphemy. 
His diary and letters, with biography, 
were published by Dodel-Port. D. Mar. 31, 


DEURHOFF, Willem, Dutch philo 
sophical writer. B. 1650. Deurhoff was 
a basket maker who studied philosophy 
and created, and lectured on, a system of 
his own. It borrowed ideas both from 
Descartes and Spinoza, and as a follower 
of Spinoza he was driven from Holland. 
He called himself a liberal Christian, but 
his system was Pantheistic. D. Oct. 10, 

DEUTSCH, Emmanuel Oscar Mena- 
hem, German-Jewish orientalist. B. 
Oct. 28, 1829. Ed. Neiss, Mislowitz (by 
an uncle, a rabbi), and Berlin University. 
Soon after the completion of his academic 
course Deutsch migrated to London, and 
in 1855 he was appointed assistant librarian 
at the British Museum. He was one of 
the first European scholars of his time in 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin, and his fine 
essays on the Talmud (1867) and on Islam 
(1869) in the Quarterly Eevieio brought 
him a very high reputation. He was an 
Agnostic (see Literary Remains, 1874, p. xii, 
etc.), and he wrote a series of scathing 
articles in the Times on the Vatican 
Council (1869). D. May 12, 1873. 

DEWEY, Professor John, Ph.D., 
LL.D., American philosopher. B. Oct. 20, 
1859. Ed. Vermont and John Hopkin s 
"Universities. He was instructor in philo 
sophy at Michigan University 1884-88, 
professor of philosophy at Minnesota 
University 1888-89, at Michigan 1889-94, 
and at Chicago 1902-1904. Since 1904 
he has been professor at Columbia Univer 
sity. Dewey is regarded as the leading 
American Pragmatist, but he dislikes the 
title, as it identifies him with the Spiritualist 
ideas of Professor James (Slosson s Six 
Major Prophets, 1917, ch. v). In his 
Influence of Darwinism on Philosophy 

(1910, p. 15) he says that he is not 
interested in " an intelligence that shaped 
things once for all, but the intelligence 
which things are even now shaping." 

DE WORMS, Henry, F.R.S., first 
Baron Pirbright, politician. B. Oct. 20, 
1840. Ed. King s College, London. En 
tering the Inner Temple in 1860, he was 
called to the Bar in 1863, but quitted it 
for business. He was elected M.P. for 
Greenwich in 1880, and was Parliamentary 
Secretary to the Board of Trade 1885-88 
and Under- Secretary for the Colonies 
1888-92. De Worms was the first Jew 
to be admitted to the Privy Council, and 
he was raised to the peerage in 1895. He 
severed his connection with Judaism in 
1886, marrying against the laws of the 
Synagogue. He wrote The Earth and its 
Mechanism (1862) and a few other works. 
D. Jan. 9, 1903. 

DIAZ, Porflrio, President of the Repub 
lic of Mexico. B. Sep. 15, 1830. Ed. in 
a Catholic Mexican seminary. Diaz, a 
successful lawyer, early became a leader 
of the anti-clerical liberals. He fought in 
the revolutionary army, and was one of 
its best generals. From 1877 to 1880 he 
was President, and his rule, though des 
potic, was so much to the advantage of the 
country that the law forbidding a second 
term was amended, and he was again 
President (1884-1910). "DonPorfirio" was 
a thorough Rationalist, and he drastically 
checked the corrupt Church in Mexico. 
D. July 2, 1915. 

DICKINSON, Goldsworthy Lowes, 

economist. Ed. Charterhouse and Cam 
bridge (King s College). He is a fellow and 
lecturer at King s College, and lecturer at 
the London School of Economics and 
Social Science. In addition to w r orks on 
Greece, political economy, etc., Mr. 
Dickinson has w r ritten much about reli 
gion. In the Hibbert Journal (Apr., 1908, 
p. 515) he writes : " I do not think that a 
religion which ought properly to be called 



Christian can adequately represent the 
attitude of an intelligent and candid 
modern man." He holds a shadowy 
Theism, but is sceptical about personal 
immortality (Religion and Immortality, 

DIDE, Auguste, French writer and 
politician. B. Apr. 4, 1839. Ed. Nimes 
and Ecole de Droit, Paris. Expelled from 
France for his advanced views, he went to 
Strassburg to prepare for the Protestant 
ministry, and graduated in theology. His 
thesis was much criticized, and, after 
editing the Protestant Liberal for six years, 
he joined the Independent Church and 
ended as a pure humanist. " Wo must 
believe," he said, " not in metaphysical 
divinities, but in ourselves " (last paragraph 
of his Jean- Jacques Bousseau, 1910). He 
was a Senator, a member of the Legion of 
Honour, and one of the founders of the 
Societe d Histoire de la Kevolution. 

DIDEROT, Denis, philosopher. B. 
Oct. 5, 1713. Ed. Jesuit College, Langres, 
and College d Harcourt, Paris. His father, 
a smith, transferred him to Paris because 
the Jesuits wished to capture their brilliant 
pupil. He lived in great poverty after 
leaving the college, teaching and writing, 
but reading voraciously. His first work, 
Essai sur le merite et la vertu (1745), was 
orthodox, but the influence of Bayle is 
seen in his Pensees philosophiques (1746) 
and Promenades d un sceptique (1747). 
The Pensees was burned, and he got a year 
in prison for the alleged Atheism of his 
Lettres sur les aveugles (1749). In that 
year he began the famous Dictionnaire 
Encyclopedique. It was at first intended 
to be a translation of Chambers s Encyclo 
pedia, but all the Eationalist writers of 
France rallied to him and he worked at it 
for thirty years, in spite of clerical threats. 
He declined an invitation of Catherine the 
Great to seek refuge in Eussia. In 1766 
Catherine bought his library, leaving it to 
him for life, and in 1773 he visited her. 
He was a generous and high-minded man, 


a passionate lover of truth, a scholar of 
marvellous range and power. His complete 
works were published by Naigeon (15 vols., 
1798). D. July 30, 1784. 

DIERCKS, Gustav, D.Philol., German 
author. B. Jan. 13, 1852. Ed. Berlin, 
Cairo, Naples, and Paris. He completed 
his education by travel in Spain, Portugal, 
North Africa, and the East, and is the 
leading German authority on these, and on 
the medieval Arabs. He is editor of the 
Bundesblatt and President of the Inter 
national Literary and Artistic Association. 
In Die Jesuiten (1903), and especially in 
his Entivickehtngsgescliichte des Geistes der 
Menschheit (1881), he expresses his rejec 
tion of creeds and rejoices in the coming of 
" a religion of pure humanity " (p. 438). 

DIETZGEN, Joseph, German philo 
sophical writer. Dietzgen was a working 
man who studied philosophy, and is 
generally accepted in the Socialist world 
as the best exponent of Materialism, 
especially in its application to Marxism. 
He advocated what he called a dialectical 
Monism," which is really Materialism. 
The universe is one eternally evolving 
material reality. Thought is a function of 
the brain, and there is no basis for religion 
(Das Wesen der menschlichen Kopfarbeit, 
1869 ; Die Eeligion der Sozial Demokratie, 
1891, etc.). His collected works were pub 
lished in 1911 in three volumes, but none 
have been translated into English. 

DILKE, Ashton Wentworth, journalist, 
brother of Sir C. W. Dilke. B. Aug. 11, 
1850. Ed. Cambridge (Trinity Hall). In 
1873 he bought the Weekly Dispatch, 
which he edited until his death. He trans 
lated Turgeniev s Virgin Soil (1878). From 
1880 to 1883 he represented Newcastle in 
Parliament, where he courageously sup 
ported Mr. Bradlaugh and avowed his own 
heterodoxy (Charles Bradlaugh, ii, 347). 
D. Mar. 12, 1883. 

DILKE, Sir Charles Wentworth, 




L.L.M., second baronet, statesman. B. 
Sep. 4, 1843. Ed. privately and at Cam 
bridge (Trinity Hall). He was called to 
the Bar (Middle Temple) in 1866, but never 
practised. In 1868 he opened his political 
career as Eadical Member for Chelsea, and 
in 1869 he succeeded his father as baronet 
and owner of the Athenceum and Notes and 
Queries. In 1874 he published an anti 
clerical novel, The Fall of Prince Florestan. 
Dilke was a warm friend of Gambetta and 
the French Eationalists, and shared their 
views ; though during the early years of his 
second marriage he had a phase of con 
formity. As leader of the Eadicals in the 
House of Commons he was distinguished 
for acute statesmanship and zeal for better 
ment. From 1882 to 1885 he was Presi 
dent of the Local Government Board. In 
1886 he was compelled to retire from 
Parliament, but he returned in 1892 and 
represented the Forest of Dean until his 
death. D. Jan. 26, 1911. 

DINTER, Gustav Friedrich, German 
educationist. B. Feb. 29, 1760. Ed. 
Grimma and Leipzig University. He was 
a Protestant pastor, and for some years 
(1787-97) head of a Protestant College at 
Dresden. In 1816 he was appointed 
Education Councillor for the province of 
East Prussia and professor of psedagogy at 
Konigsberg. In 1826, however, he began 
a series of works on the Bible and religious 
instruction which drew the wrath of the 
orthodox. His collected works were pub 
lished in forty-three volumes 1840-51. D. 
May 29, 1831. 

DIPPEL, Johann Konrad, German 
chemist. B. Aug. 10, 1673. Ed. Giessen 
University. Expelled from Strassburg for 
heterodox lectures, he went to Darmstadt, 
where he joined the orthodox. He at 
length seceded entirely from Christianity 
and heavily satirized the clergy (especially 
in his Hirt und cine Heerde, 1705). At 
Berlin he took up chemistry and medicine, 
but his repeated attacks on religion com 
pelled him to migrate every few years. 

Dippel wrote seventy books and was a man 
of prodigious learning. D. Apr. 25, 1734. 

DIXIE, Lady Florence Caroline, 

author. B. May 24, 1857, daughter of the 
seventh Marquis of Queensberry. Ed. 
privately. She was a remarkably pre 
cocious child, rejecting theology at an early 
age and writing poetry (Songs of a Child, 
1901) at the age of ten. Bulwer Lytton 
wrote a graceful poem on meeting her. In 
her youth she had a passion for travel and 
sport, from which her Horrors of Sport 
(1891) expresses a humanitarian con 
version. She married Sir A. B. Dixie in 
1875, and in 1879 was correspondent of 
the Morning Post in the Zulu War. Her 
later years and many publications were 
devoted to Eationalism and humane re 
forms, and her fine and generous career 
came to a tragic close on an errand of 
mercy. D. Nov. 7, 1905. 

DOBELL, Bertram, poet and publisher. 
B. 1842. Dobell had little education, 
having to earn his living as a boy. In 
1872 he opened a newsvendor s shop, and 
he went on to the sale, and later the pub 
lication, of books, educating himself mean 
time. He published much of James 
Thomson s prose and verse, and wrote 
his life. Several new authors were intro 
duced by him. His Eationalism finds 
expression in his Rosemary and Pansies 
(1904) and A Century of Sonnets (1910). 
D. Dec. 14, 1914. 

DOBEREINER, Professor Johann 
Wolfgang, German chemist. B. Dec. 15, 
1780. Ed. Miinchberg. He was a chemist 
at Carlsruhe, and later a chemical manu 
facturer, who studied his science and 
became a professor at Jena. His works 
record a number of original discoveries, 
and greatly advanced the science of his 
day. At Jena he taught Goethe (who 
often mentions him in his letters) chemistry 
and shared his philosophy. D. Mar. 27, 




DOBROLJUBOW, Nikolai Alexandro- 
witch, Eussian writer. B. Feb. 5, 1836. 
Ed. clerical seminary, Nijni Novgorod, and 
the Pedagogical Institute, Petrograd. He 
was the son of a poor priest, and was 
intended for the Church, but he rejected 
Christianity and turned to letters and 
journalism. His New Code of Practical 
Wisdom expresses his Eationalism, and he 
earned considerable distinction as a literary 
critic. D. Nov. 29, 1861. 

DODEL-PORT, Professor Arnold, 

F.E.S., botanist. B. Oct. 16, 1843. Ed. 
Kreuzlingen, and Geneva, Zurich, and 
Munich Universities. He began to teach 
botany in 1870 at Zurich. In 1880 he 
became professor, and Director of the 
Botanical Laboratory. He wrote a Life of 
K. Deubler, as well as a number of botanical 
works ; and he was President of the German 
Federation of Freethinkers and Fellow of 
the English Eoyal Society. D. 1908. 

DODWELL, Henry, B.A., Deist. B. 
about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. Ed. Oxford (Magdalen Hall). 
In 1742 he published a pamphlet, Chris 
tianity not Founded on Argument, which 
attacked the creed so discreetly that many 
thought it orthodox. His brother, Arch 
deacon Dodwell, assailed it. Nothing 
further is known of Dodwell except that 
he was a humane and benevolent person. 
D. 1784. 

DONKIN, Sir Horatio Bryan, M.D., 
F.E.C.P., physician. B. Feb. 1, 1845. 
Ed. Blackheath and Oxford (Queen s Coll.). 
He became, in succession, physician and 
lecturer at Westminster Hospital, physician 
to the East London Hospital for Children, 
lecturer at the London School of Medicine 
for Women, examiner at the Eoyal College 
of Surgeons, H.M. Commissioner of Prisons, 
and medical adviser to the Prison Com 
mission. From 1904 to 1908 he sat on 
the Eoyal Commission for the Control of the 
Feeble-Minded. In 1910 he delivered the 
Harveian Oration, on " The Inheritance of 

Mental Characters." He is now member 
of the Prisons Board and Consulting 
Physician to the Westminster Hospital, 
the East London Hospital for Children, 
and King George s Hospital. Sir Bryan 
Donkin is a member of the Eationalist 
Press Association and a keen opponent of 
all obscurantism. 

DOUGLAS, Sir John Sholto, eighth 
Marquis of Queensberry. B. July 20, 1844. 
He served in the army for five years, 
and from 1872 to 1880 he sat as elected 
representative peer for Scotland, having 
succeeded to the marquisate in 1858. 
The Marquis was a strong supporter of 
Bradlaugh and of Secularism, and in 1880 
the Scottish peers refused on account of his 
opinions to re-elect him as one of their repre 
sentatives in the House of Lords. In 1882 
he protested publicly in the theatre against 
what he regarded as a caricature of a Free 
thinker in Tennyson s Promise of May. 
He wrote, in blank verse, The Spirit of the 
Matterhorn (1881). D. Jan. 31, 1900. 

DOUGLAS, Stephen Arnold, American 
statesman. B. Apr. 23, 1813. Ed. Brandon 
village school and Canandaigua Academy. 
After teaching for some years, he qualified 
for the law, and practised at Jacksonville. 
In 1835 he became State Attorney (Illinois), 
and in 1841, having been returned to the 
State Lower House, he became Secretary 
of State for Illinois and Judge of the 
Supreme Court. He next sat in the House 
of Eepresentatives (1843-47), and then in 
the Senate (1847-61). He was chairman 
of the Committee on Territories, and in 
1852 and 1856 unsuccessfully tried for the 
Presidency. Douglas " never identified 
himself with any Church," as the Phila 
delphia Press (June 8, 1861) said at his 
death. He was a Theist and an eloquent 
advocate of religious liberty (A. Johnson s 
S. A. Douglas, 1908, p. 263). D. June 3, 

DOWDEN, Professor Edward, LL.D., 
D.C.L., writer. B. (Cork) May 3, 1843. 



Ed. Queen s College, Cork, and Trinity 
College, Dublin. He ended a brilliant 
scholastic course by winning the senior 
moderatorship in logic and ethics, and in 
1867 he was appointed professor of English 
literature at Dublin. In 1889 he was the 
first Taylorian Lecturer at Oxford, and in 
1893 he was Clark Lecturer at Cambridge. 
He was Commissioner of National Educa 
tion in Ireland, and won the Cunningham 
Gold Medal. His Life of Shelley (2 vols., 
1886) is invaluable, and contains a strong 
appreciation of the social influence of the 
great French Eationalists ; but his own 
nationalism is best seen in his Studies in 
Literature (1878, pp. 116-21). He wants 
a natural rather than a miraculous or 
traditional foundation for morality," rejects 
heaven and hell, is not sure about immor 
tality, and describes God as "an inscrutable 
Power." D. Apr. 4, 1913. 

DRAPARNAUD, Professor Jacques 
Philippe Raymond, M.D., French natu 
ralist. B. June 3, 1772. He studied medi 
cine and natural history, and was appointed 
professor of physics and chemistry at the 
College de Soreze. In 1802 he became 
professor of natural history at the Mont- 
pellier School of Medicine and Conservator 
of the Museum. Eationalism abounds in 
his published lectures. D. Feb. 1, 1805. 

DRAPER, Professor John William, 

M.D., LL.D., American chemist. E. (Liver 
pool) May 5, ]811. Ed. Woodhouse Grove 
School and London University College. In 
1833 he migrated to America, and graduated 
in medicine at Pennsylvania University. 
He was appointed professor of chemistry 
and physiology at Hampton Sidney College 
in 1836, and at New York University in 
1839. Draper was the first to photograph 
the moon and to apply the camera to the 
microscope, and his work in connection 
with light (especially in the field of spectro- 
scopy) and heat was very valuable. He 
obtained the Eumford Medal in 1875. 
He was a Theist, and believed in personal 
immortality ; but his History of the Intel- 

lectual Development of Europe (1862) and 
History of the Conflict between Science and 
Religion are classics of Eationalist litera 
ture. D. Jan. 4, 1882. 

DRESDEN, Edmond, philanthropist. 
Dresden is one of those Eationalists who 
are known only by the terms of their 
wills. He left almost his entire fortune 
of 340,000, apart from a few thousand 
pounds to servants and relatives and 6,000 
to the National Lifeboat Institution, to 
various hospitals. He directed that the 
following inscription should be put on his 
tombstone : " Here lie the remains of 
Edmond Dresden, who believed in no 
religion but that of being charitable to his 
fellow man and woman, both in word and 
deed." D. Dec. 17, 1903. 

DREWS, Professor Arthur, Ph.D., 
German writer. B. Nov. 1, 1865. Ed. 
Altona Gymnasium, and Munich, Berlin, 
Heidelberg, and Halle Universities. He 
began to teach philosophy in 1896, and he 
has since 1898 been professor of philosophy 
at the Karlsruhe Technical High School. 
In his Eeligion als selbstbewusstsein Gottes 
(1908) and Geschichte des Monismus (1912) 
he expounds a Pantheistic Monism, but he 
is best known by his denial of the historicity 
of Christ (Die Christusmythe, 2 vols., 1910 
and 1911, Eng. trans. 1912). He has 
written also a number of works on philo 

DRIESCH, Professor Hans Adolf 
Eduard, Ph.D., LL.D., German philo 
sopher. B. Oct. 28, 1867. Ed. Hamburg, 
and Freiburg, Munich, and Jena Univer 
sities. Driesch spent two years in zoological 
research in the tropics and several at the 
Zoological Station at Naples. Since 1909, 
however, he has been professor of philo 
sophy at Heidelberg University. He was 
Gifford Lecturer at Aberdeen in 1907-1908. 
He is a Neo-Vitalist, but he rejects the 
idea of " soul " and speaks of God as an 
"Absolute Eeality" of unknown features 
(see his Problem of Individuality, 1914 



a series of lectures delivered at London 

DRUMMOND, The Right Honourable 
Sir William, F.E.S., D.C.L., diplomatist. 
B. 1770. Ed. Perth and Oxford (Christ s 
Church). He entered Parliament in 1795, 
and in 1801 was admitted to the Privy 
Council and appointed minister pleni 
potentiary at Naples. In 1803 he went 
as ambassador to Constantinople, returning 
to Naples in 1806. Drummond received 
the Order of the Crescent. He wrote 
several works of a philosophical character, 
including a Deistic study of the Old Testa 
ment, (Edipus Judaicus (1811). Shelley, 
who knew him, describes him as " an 
adversary of Christianity" (Dowden s Life, 
ii, 290). D. Mar. 29, 1828. 

DRUSKOWITZ, Helene von, Ph.D., 

M.D., Austrian writer. B. May 2, 1858. 
Ed. Zurich University and Vienna Conser- 
vatorium. In 1882 she settled at Vienna 
as writer and lecturer, and won high repute. 
She founded the Tolstoi Society, and estab 
lished the Frauen Revue (1904). Fraulein 
Druskowitz is not only one of the chief 
Feminist leaders in Austria, but a literary 
writer of distinction. In religion she is 
mystic, but not a Theist, and she is very 
far from Christianity (see Der Uberwelt 
ohne Gott, 1900). 

DRYSDALE, Charles Robert, M.D., 
M.E.C.P., F.E.C.S., physician. B. 1829. 
Ed. St. Andrew s University. Dr. Drysdale 
was Physician to the North London Con 
sumption Hospital, and later (until he 
died) Consulting Physician of the Metro 
politan Hospital. He had a hearty disdain 
of creeds, but was chiefly devoted to the 
work of the Malthusian League, which he 
founded. D. Dec. 2, 1907. 

DUBOC, Julius, German writer. B. 
Oct. 10, 1829. Ed. Giessen, Leipzig, and 
Berlin Universities. After extensive travel 
he settled at Dresden and devoted himself 
to literature and political journalism. In 

his Leben ohne Gott (1875) and Der Opti- 
mismus als Weltanschauung (1881) he 
follows Feuerbach and combines a high 
idealism with Atheism. He pleaded the 
rights of women and other reforms. D. 
June, 1903. 

DUBOIS, Paul Francois, French edu 
cationist. B. June 2, 1795. Ed. Paris. 
He accepted the philosophy of Cousin, his 
teacher, and taught, successively, at Falaise, 
Limoges, Besa^on, and Paris. In 1824 
he took up Saint-Simonianism, and was 
imprisoned for his bold utterances. The 
Eevolution of 1830 freed him, and he was 
appointed General Inspector of Public 
Instruction. In 1831 he entered the 
Chambre. In 1839 he became a member 
of the Council of Public Instruction, and 
in 1840 he succeeded Cousin as Director 
of the Normal School. D. June 12, 1874. 

DU BOIS-REYMOND, Professor Emil, 

German physiologist. B. Nov. 7, 1818. 
Ed. Neuchatel, and Bonn and Berlin 
Universities. He was educated in theology, 
but, abandoning the creed, he turned to 
science, and in 1841 began a memorable 
series of experiments on animal electricity. 
In 1855 he received the chair of physiology 
at Berlin University, and in 1867 he 
became perpetual secretary to the Academy 
of Sciences. Du Bois-Eeymond was not 
only one of the first physiologists of 
Europe, but one of the great Eationalists 
of Germany. The criticisms which Pro 
fessor Haeckel passes on him are based 
merely on the fact that from the somewhat 
dogmatic attitude of his earlier works 
(Voltaire, 1868 ; La Mettrie, 1875, etc.) he 
passed to a temperate Agnosticism (Uber 
die Grenzen des NaturerJcentniss, 1872 ; and 
Die sieben Weltrathsel, 1880). It is sheer 
ignorance to represent him as either 
Theistic or Christian. D. Dec. 26, 1896. 

DUBUISSON, Paul Ulrich, French 

dramatist. B. 1746. He visited America 

several times, and was well prepared for 

the Eevolution. In 1792 he was a Com- 




missary of the Executive Committee. The 
dramas, comedies, and operas he wrote 
before the Eevolution are not of great 
distinction, but his tragedy, Nadir (1780), 
had some success. He associated with 
Hubert and Clootz, and fell with them. 
D. Mar. 23, 1794. 

DUCLAUX, Agnes Mary Frances, 

writer. B. (Leamington) Feb. 27, 1857. 
Ed. Brussels and Italy. In her maiden 
name of Eobinson she had published 
various volumes of verse and literary 
works when, in 1888, she married J. Dar- 
mesteter [SEE] . She had also translated 
Euripides. At Paris her salon was 
thronged with scholars and literary men. 
She wrote the life of Eenan and other 
works in French. After the death of 
Darmesteter she married the Director of 
the Pasteur Institute, E. Duclaux. 

DUCLOS, Charles Pineau, French 
historian. B. Feb. 12, 1704. Ed. Eennes 
and Paris (College d Harcourt). He won 
repute by light romances and studies of 
morals, and in 1739 he was admitted to 
the Academy of Inscriptions and Letters. 
His Histoire de Louis XI (1745) was sup 
pressed on account of its Eationalism. In 
1747 he was admitted to the Academy, in 
1750 he succeeded Voltaire as historio 
grapher of France, and in 1755 he became 
Perpetual Secretary of the Academy. He 
was very friendly with the Encyclopaedists, 
but was himself a moderate Deist. D. 
Mar. 26, 1772. 

DUCOS, Jean Frangois, French poli 
tician. B. 1765. Ed. Bordeaux. He 
pressed for the separation of Church and 
State during the Eevolution, and sat in the 
Legislative Assembly, then in the National 
Convention. Ducos was involved in the fall 
of the Girondists, and he made a brilliant 
and witty speech at a banquet on the night 
before his execution. D. Oct. 31, 1793. 

DU DEFFAND, the Marquise. See 



DUDGEON, William, philosopher. A 
little known writer who lived in Berwick 
shire in the first half of the eighteenth 
century. Between 1732 and 1744 he 
published three Deistic pamphlets, The 
State />/ the Moral World, Philosophical 
Letters, and A Catechism Founded Upon 
Experience and Reason. They were re- 
published in one volume in 1765. 

DUHRING, Eugen Karl, German 
philosopher. B. Jan. 12, 1833. Ed. 
Berlin University. He was compelled by 
an accident to his eyes to abandon a legal 
practice, and he returned to the university 
to study philosophy. He was appointed 
teacher there, but in 1877 the authorities 
forced him to resign on account of his 
heresies. He had adopted Positivism 
(Das Wert des Lebens, 1865). Later he 
became rather Materialistic, and published 
important philosophical and economic 
works. Eisler defines him as " a Positivist 
akin to Materialism " (and see biographies 
by Doll, Druskowitz, etc.). D. 1904. 

DUJARDIN, Edouard, French writer. 
B. 1861. He founded and edited the 
Revue Wagnerienne (1886) and the Revue 
Independante. Besides various novels and 
volumes of short stories he has published 
three dramas of the Symbolist School 
(1891-93). In 1904 he began a thorough 
study of religious historical questions and 
published La Source du Fleuve Chretien 
(Eng. trans., The Source of the Christian 
Tradition, 1911). George Moore, an inti 
mate friend, writes much of him in Hail 
and Farewell. M. Dujardin is a very 
thorough scholar, a fastidious artist, and 
a Eationalist of the most advanced type. 

DULAURE, Jacques Antoine, French 
writer. B. Dec. 3, 1755. He was a 
Parisian architect who sat in the National 
Convention in 1792. In 1795 he was 
a member of the Committee on Education, 
and in 1797 of the Council of Five Hun 
dred. He was appointed Under- Secretary 
of Finance in 1808, but deposed at the 
226 K 



Restoration. His Histoire civile, physique, 
et morale de Paris (7 vols., 1821-22) and 
Histoire civile, physique, et morale des 
environs de Paris (6 vols., 1825-27) are 
important and very anti-clerical. D. 
Aug. 18, 1835. 

DULAURENS, Henri Joseph, French 
novelist. B. Mar. 27, 1719. Ed. by the 
Trinitarian Canons, whose order he en 
tered. Abandoning the Church, he wrote 
a pungent attack on the Jesuits (1761), and 
was compelled to fly to Holland. His 
anti-Christian publications there (chiefly 
L evangile de la raison) forced him to 
transfer his activity to Germany, where, 
in 1767, he was sentenced to detention in 
a monastery for life. His works were 
published in Brussels in four volumes in 
1823. D. 1797. 

DULK, Alfred Friedrich Benno, Ger 
man writer. B. June 17, 1819. Ed. 
Konigsberg, Berlin, and Leipzig Univer 
sities. He was expelled from Prussia for 
his share in the troubles of 1848, and, after 
much travel, he settled at Stuttgart, where 
he wrote a series of powerful anti-Christian 
dramas and other works. A collected 
edition of his dramas (3 vols.) was pub 
lished in 1893. D. Oct. 30, 1884. 

DUMAS, Alexandre, the younger, 
novelist and dramatist. B. July 28, 1824. 
He was a natural son of the elder Dumas 
(who died a Catholic). Ed. College 
Bourbon, Paris. He published verse at 
the age of seventeen. His first novel 
appeared in 1847, and was followed in the 
next year by La Dame aux Came lias, which 
made his reputation. It was dramatized 
in 1852, and opened an era of realism on 
the French stage. Dumas was a Deist, 
though inclined to mysticism and very 
earnest in moral principle (see P. Bourget s 
Nouveaux Essais de Psychologie contem- 
poraine, 1886, pp. 64-78). His dramas 
and novels were published in seven volumes 
1890-93, with four volumes of essays. D. 
Nov. 27, 1895. 


DU MAURIER, George Louis Palmella 

Busson, artist and novelist. B. (Paris) 
Mar. 6, 1834. Ed. Pension Froussard, 
Paris, and London University College. He 
was educated in chemistry, but turned to 
art, which he studied in Paris. In 1860 
he settled in England as an illustrator of 
books, and in 1864 he joined the staff of 
Punch. Peter Ibbetson (the story of his 
early years) appeared in 1892, and Trilby 
in 1894. Du Maurier was a Theist, but 
beyond that he was " a sceptic " (M. 
Wood s G. Du Maurier, 1913, pp. 144 and 
165). D. Oct 6, 1896. 

DUMONT, Leon, French writer. B. 
1837. He studied law, but settled to the 
cultivation of philosophy on his provincial 
estate. At first he followed the Scottish 
school, but the acceptance of Darwinism 
made him more naturalistic. See his 
Haeckel et la theorie de devolution en Alle- 
magne (1866) and A. Biichner s Un philo- 
sophe amateur (1884). D. Jan. 7, 1877. 

DUMONT, Pierre Etienne Louis, 

Swiss writer. B. July 18, 1759. Ed. 
Geneva University. He entered the Pro 
testant ministry (1781) and was held a 
brilliant preacher, but his faith decayed. 
In 1785 he came to England as tutor to 
Lord Shelburne s children, and he became 
friendly with Fox, Eomilly, and Bentham. 
In 1814 he returned to Switzerland, 
rejected his clerical status, and, as member 
of the Grand Council, worked for prison 
reform on Bentham s principles. He wrote 
several important works on prison reform. 
D. Sep. 29, 1829. 

DUNCAN, Professor David, M.A., 

D.Sc., LL.D., educationist. B. Nov. 5, 
1839. Ed., Aberdeen Grammar School 
and Edinburgh and Berlin Universities. 
From 1867 to 1870 he was Herbert 
Spencer s private secretary, and he com 
piled the four volumes of the Descriptive 
Sociology. In 1870 he was appointed 
professor of logic and moral philosophy at 
the Presidency College, Madras, in 1875 



Eegistrar of Madras University, in 1884 
Principal of Presidency College, in 1892 
Director of Public Instruction, in 1894 
member of the Legislative Council, and 
in 1899 Vice-Chancellor of Madras Uni 
versity. His Life and Letters of Herbert 
Spencer (1908) is of great value, and suf 
ficiently shows his adherence to the great 
Eationalist s philosophy. 

DUNCKER, Maximilian Wolfgang, 

German historian. B. Oct. 15, 1811. Ed. 
Bonn and Berlin Universities. He became 
a teacher at Halle 1839, professor in 1842, 
joint editor of the Allgemeine Litteratur- 
zeitung in 1843, deputy in the National 
Assembly in 1848, professor at Tubingen 
in 1857, Political Councillor to the Crown 
Prince in 1861, Director of the Prussian 
State Archives in 1867, and Historio 
grapher of Brandenburg in 1884. The 
most important of his numerous historical 
works, Geschichte des AUertums (4 vols., 
1852-57, Eng. trans, by E. Abbot), is plainly 
Eationalistic. D. July 21, 1886. 

DUPONT, Jacob Louis, French mathe 
matician. B. Dec. 9, 1755. He was a 
priest, the Abbe de Jumeaux, who quitted 
the Church at the Eevolution, and sat in 
the Legislative Assembly and the National 
Convention. In the debates on Education 
he declared himself an Atheist, and pressed 
for the abolition of Christianity. D. 1813. 

Samuel, French economist. B. Dec. 14, 
1739. He was educated in medicine, but 
he turned to political economy and followed 
the Quesnay school. He attacked abuses 
with great courage, and in 1766 his oppo 
nents got him deprived of the editorship of 
Le Journal de V agriculture. He then 
edited the Ephemerides (1768-72), and in 
1772 he went to Poland as secretary of 
the Council of Public Instruction. He 
returned in 1774, and in 1786 became 
State-Councillor. Dupont de Nemours 
accepted the Eevolution, and in 1795 he 
joined the Council of the Ancients, but the 

excesses of the crowd disgusted him and he 
went to America. His Physiocratie (2 vols., 
1768) gave its name to " the Physiocratie 
School," while his fine and courageous 
Eationalism is best seen in his Philosophie 
de I univers (1796). He was a Deist, and 
was not less elevated in character than 
distinguished in his science. D. Aug. 6, 

DUPUIS, Professor Charles Francois, 

French writer. B. Oct. 26, 1742. Ed. 
College d Harcourt, Paris. He became, 
after a brilliant course of study, a Catholic 
priest and professor of rhetoric, but in 1770 
he quitted the Church and began to study 
astronomy. In his Memoire sur I origine 
des constellations (1781) he attempts to 
trace nearly all religious legends to astro 
nomical facts. In 1787 he became pro 
fessor of Latin oratory at the College de 
France. During the Eevolution he sat in 
the Convention and the Council of Five 
Hundred, and he was for a time President 
of the Legislative Assembly. He further 
developed his theory of religion in his 
Origines de tous les cultes (3 vols., 1794). 
A man of fine character and great 
humanity, he saved many from the fury of 
the extremists. D. Sep. 29, 1809. 

DURKHEIM, Professor Emile, French 
sociologist. B. Apr. 15, 1858. Ed. 
College d Epinal, Lycee Louis le Grand, 
and Ecole Normale Superieure. He taught 
philosophy at, in succession, Sens, Saint 
Quentin, and Troyes. In 1885 he turned 
to sociology. He was appointed professor 
of social science at Bordeaux in 1886, and 
he succeeded Buisson as professor of the 
science of education at Paris in 1902. 
Durkheim has of recent years attracted 
much attention by his theory of the influ 
ence of social forces in the origin of reli 
gions (chiefly in his Formes elementaires de 
la vie religieuse, 1912). He thinks religion 
eternal, though the creeds (which he 
rejects) will die. 

DURUY, Professor Jean Victor, 



French historian. B. Sep. 11, 1811. In 
1833 he was appointed professor of history 
at the College Henri IV; in 1861 Inspector 
of the Paris Academy, General Inspector 
of secondary education, and professor of 
history at the Polytechnic. In 1863 he 
became Minister of Education, and he 
roused the fierce wrath of the clergy by 
his reforms, especially in improving the 
education of girls. He was compelled to 
resign in 1869, and he entered the Senate. 
In 1875 he was admitted to the Institut. 
Duruy was one of tho ablest French 
historians of the century, his chief works 
being his Histoire des Bomains (2 vols., 
1843-44), Histoire des Bomains jusqu d la 
mort de Theodore (7 vols., 1876-85), and 
Histoire des Grecs (2 vols., 1886-88). D. 
Nov. 25, 1894. 

DUYERNET, Theophile Imarigeon, 

French writer. B. about 1730. He was 
tutor to the Comte de Saint- Simon, then 
abbe and head of the College de Clermont. 
Duvernet was sent to the Bastille in 1781 
for his Disputes de M. Guillaume, but it did 
not check his Deistic output. In 1786 he 
published a very eulogistic Vie de Voltaire, 
and other strongly worded Eationalist 
writings followed. D. 1796. 

EATON, Daniel Isaac, bookseller. B. 
about 1752. Ed. Jesuit College at St. 
Omer. In 1793 he was indicted for selling 
the second part of Paine s Bights of Man 
and Letter Addressed to the Addressers, 
and in 1794 he published Politics for the 
People. For a time he migrated to 
America, but he incurred imprisonment on 
his return, and again in 1812. He called 
his shop " The Eatiocinatory," and he 
translated the Eationalist works of Freret 
and Helvetius. D. Aug. 22, 1814. 

EBERHARD, Professor Johann 
August, Ph.D., German philosopher. B. 
Aug. 31, 1739. Ed. Halle University. He 
joined the Lutheran ministry, but his 
Neue Apologie des Socrates (2 vols., 1772) 
caused an outcry by its defence of reason 


and its criticism of Christianity. Frederick 
the Great made him professor of philosophy 
at Halle (1778), and he quitted the Church. 
In 1786 he was admitted to the Berlin 
Academy. The theory he expounds in his- 
score of volumes on philosophy is a 
moderate Eationalism, akin to the system 
of Leibnitz. D. Jan 6, 1809. 

ECHTERMEYER, Ernst Theodor, 

German writer. B. 1805. Ed. Halle and 
Berlin Universities. After teaching for 
four years he settled at Dresden as a 
literary man. He founded the Hallesche 
Jahrbiicher and the Deutsche Musen- 
almanach, which contained many Eation 
alist articles. His chief work is a masterly 
study of the sources of Shakespeare (Quellen 
des Shakspeare, 3 vols., 1831). D. May 6, 

ECKERMANN, Johann Peter, German 
writer. B. Sep. 21, 1792. He had little 
early education, and was employed in 
manual labour until he became Korner s 
secretary. He then studied poetry and 
aesthetics at Gottingen ; and Goethe,, 
attracted in 1823 by a study of his poetry,, 
engaged him as assistant. His Gesprdche- 
mit Goethe (2 vols.) appeared in 1837. In 
1838 he was appointed Councillor and 
Librarian to the Grand Duke of Weimar. 
D. Dec. 3, 1854. 

EDELMANN, Johann Christian, 
German writer. B. July 9, 1698. Ed. 
Jena University. A tutor and writer of the 
pietist school, he took part in the German 
translation of the Bible in 1736 ; but the 
general hypocrisy modified his views, and 
he became " the first outspoken opponent 
of positive Christianity in Germany " 
(Meyer). His Moses mit aufgedeckten 
Angesicht (1740) and Die Gottlichkeit der 
Vernunft (1742) are Deistic, with leanings 
to Spinoza, and their drastic criticism of 
Christianity brought him much persecution.. 
D. Feb. 15, 1767. 

EDISON, Thomas Ahra, D.Sc., LL.D., 
Ph.D., inventor. B. Feb. 11, 1847.. 



Edison had little schooling, but he had 
read Gibbon s Decline and Hume s History 
of England before he was ten years old, 
and at the age of twelve he proposed to 
read the whole contents of the Detroit 
Public Library (so V. B. Denslow says in 
his biography of Edison). The "fifteen 
feet " of books he actually read included 
Newton s Principia and Burton s Anatomy. 
He took to newsvending, but he applied 
himself to chemistry and mathematics, 
and became a telegraph operator. In 1864 
he began to make discoveries in connection 
with telegraphy, and in 1876 he set up 
a business of his own. The honours 
which his innumerable inventions have 
brought upon him must be read elsewhere. 
Edison has been all his life an uncompro 
mising Agnostic. 

EDWARDS, Chilperic. See PILCHER, 
E. J. 

EDWARDS, John Passmore, philan 
thropist. B. Mar. 24, 1823. Ed. Black- 
water village school. He was put to 
gardening in his youth, but he educated 
himself in the evenings and became a clerk 
{1843). In 1845 he took to journalism 
and reform-lecturing (especially on tem 
perance and peace). In 1850 he founded 
The Public Good, in 1862 purchased The 
Building News, and in 1876 he established 
the Echo, which he edited until 1896. It 
set the highest standard of public educa 
tion. He sat in Parliament 1880-85, but 
he always refused knighthood. No less 
than seventy public institutions bear his 
name and testify to his remarkable liber 
ality ; and innumerable other charitable 
establishments had his support. He says 
that he " owed more to Emerson than to 
any other writer or teacher " (A Few 
Footprints, 1906, p. 18), and he accepted 
Spencer s philosophy of an unknown 
" Infinite and Eternal Energy " (p. 67). 
Mr. Edwards, one of the highest-minded 
men of his day, took a warm interest 
in the work of the Rationalist Press 
Association. D. Apr. 22, 1911. 


EFFEN, Justus van, Dutch writer. 
B. Feb. 21, 1684. Ed. Utrecht and Leiden 
Universities. While secretary of the Dutch 
Embassy at London, Effen conceived the 
idea of a weekly like the Spectator, and he 
founded Le Misanthrope, later Le Journal 
Litteraire, and finally (1731-35) De Hol- 
landsche Spectator. In 1722 he translated 
into Dutch Mandeville s Deistic Free 
Thoughts on Religion. D. Sep. 18, 1735. 

EICHHORN, Johann Gottfried, Ger 
man Biblical critic. B. Oct. 16, 1752. Ed. 
Gottingen University. In 1775 he became 
professor of Oriental languages at Jena, and 
in 1778 at Gottingen. In 1813 he was 
appointed Co-Director of the Royal Society 
of Sciences, and in 1819 he was made a 
Privy Councillor. The chief of his seventy 
volumes of critical and historical studies 
are his Einleitung in das Alte Testament 
(3 vols., 1780-83) and Einleitung in das 
Neue Testament (3 vols., 1804-14), which 
opened the great period of Biblical criticism 
in Germany and shattered the supernatural 
view. D. June 25, 1827. 

EISLER, Rudolf, Ph.D., Austrian 
philosopher. B. Jan. 7, 1873. Ed. Paris, 
Prague, Vienna, and Leipzig Universities. 
In 1894 Eisler was appointed secretary of 
the Vienna Sociological Society and editor 
of the Philosophico-sociological Biicherei. 
He is a Monist, and rejects personal 
immortality (Lieb und Seele, 1906 ; Grund- 
lagen der Philosophic des Geistesleben, 
1908, etc.). His dictionary of philosophers 
is of great value, and he has written a 
score of other philosophical works. 

ELIOT, Professor Charles William, 

A.M., M.D., LL.D., Ph.D., American edu 
cator. B. Mar. 20, 1834. Ed. Boston 
Latin School and Harvard. He was 
tutor of mathematics at Harvard 1854-58, 
assistant professor of mathematics and 
chemistry 1858-63, professor of analytical 
chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology 1865-69, and President of 
Harvard University 1869-1909. President 



Eliot, one of the first of American scholars, 
has the Order of the Eising Sun and the 
Eoyal Prussian Order of the Crown ; he is 
an Officer of the Legion of Honour and of 
the Crown of Italy ; and he is a corre 
sponding member of the Institut de France 
and the British Academy, and member of 
the American Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, the Massachusetts Historical 
Society, and the Amherst Philosophical 
Society. He grew up in Boston Uni- 
tarianism, but he exchanged this for 
Emerson s " all-sustaining soul of the 
universe " (Four American Leaders, 1907, 
p. 123). He thinks religion necessary, but 
he regards orthodoxy as no longer possible 
(The Happy Life, 1896). 

"ELIOT, George." See CROSS. 

ELLERO, Professor Pietro, Italian 
jurist. B. Oct. 8, 1833. Ed. Padua Uni 
versity. He was professor of the philo 
sophy of law at Milan in 1860, then pro 
fessor of penal law at Bologna from 1861 
to 1914. In 1866-67 he sat in the Italian 
Parliament. He was Councillor of the 
Eoman Court of Cassation from 1880 
onward, and Senator since 1889. Ellero 
was one of the most eminent of modern 
Italian jurists, an ardent humanitarian, 
and so outspoken a Eationalist that several 
of his works are on the Index. D. 1914. 

ELLIOT, Hugh Samuel Roger, scientific 
writer. B. Apr. 3, 1881. Ed. Eton and 
Cambridge (Trinity College). After serving 
in the South African War he studied 
science for some years at the Chelsea 
Polytechnic, the Eoyal College of Science, 
and University College. He has been 
departmental editor of the Edinburgh 
Review, and is editor of the Annual Register 
and publishers reader. He has translated 
Lamarck s Philosophic Zoologique (1914), 
edited the Letters of J. S. Mill (1910), and 
written Modern Science and the Illusions of 
Professor Bergson (1912) and other works. 
Mr. Elliot rejects even Agnosticism as 
inadequate, and urges the adoption of 

" Scientific Materialism." In his latest 
work he combines this with Idealism 
(Modern Science and Materialism, 1919). 

ELLIOTSON, John, M.D., F.E.S., 
physician. B. Oct. 29, 1791. Ed. Edin 
burgh, Cambridge (Jesus College), and St. 
Thomas s and Guy s Hospitals. He was 
assistant at Guy s 1816-21, Lumdean 
lecturer in 1829, and professor of the 
practice of medicine at London University 
College in 1831. He founded the Phreno 
logical Society, was President of the Eoyal 
Medical and Chirurgical Societies, and was 
chiefly instrumental in establishing the 
University College Hospital. He opened 
a mesmeric hospital in 1849, and founded 
the Zooist. Dr. Elliotson, who was in his 
day one of the most eminent physicians- 
and teachers of medicine in London- 
Thackeray dedicates Pendennis to him 
was a Materialist (see Introduction to 
Engledue s Cerebral Physiology}. D. 
July 29, 1868. 

ELLIS, Alfred Burdon, writer. B. 
Jan. 10, 1852. Ed. Eoyal Naval School. 
He entered the army and served in the 
Ashanti and Zulu wars. In 1878 he was 
District Commissioner at Quettah, in 1879 
captain, in 1884 major, and in 1892 
colonel. Colonel Ellis used his long stay 
in West Africa to make a thorough study 
of native life and languages, and his works 
on the religions of the Gold and Slave 
Coasts are very valuable. D. Mar. 5, 1894. 

ELLIS, Henry Havelock, L.S.A., 
sociologist. B. Feb. 2, 1859. Ed. private 
schools and St. Thomas s Hospital. He 
was a teacher in Australia from 1875 to 
1879. On his return to England he 
qualified in medicine, but after a short 
period of practice he turned to science and 
letters. His first works were The New 
Spirit (1890) and The Criminal (1890). 
His writings on the psychology of sex and 
on penal reform are of especial value. 
His heterodoxy is stated in Affirmations 




ELLIS, William, philanthropist. B. 
Jan. 1800. Ed. Bromley (London) ele 
mentary school. Entering Lloyds as a 
clerk at the age of fourteen, he became in 
1824 assistant-underwriter, and in 1827 
chief manager of the Indemnity Marine 
Insurance Company. Devoting his leisure 
to economics, he adopted the philosophy 
of J. S. Mill and used his means to embody 
it in practice. He founded nine Birkbeck 
schools at his own expense and wrote 
various text-books for them. At one time 
he gave lectures to the royal children at 
Buckingham Palace, and he was greatly 
esteemed in London. Of high ideals and 
great generosity, Ellis, a friend of Mill and 
Holyoake, contributed materially to the 
work of reform. D. Feb. 18, 1881. 

ELPHINSTONE, The Honourable 
Mountstuart, statesman. B. Oct. 6, 1779. 
Ed. Edinburgh High School and private 
school, Kensington. In 1796 he entered 
the Indian Civil Service, and won rapid 
promotion. In 1803 he was appointed 
Eesident at Nagpur, in 1808 ambassador 
to the Afghan Court, in 1810 Eesident at 
Poona, and from 1819 to 1827 he was 
Governor of Bombay. Elphinstone was 
one of the most enlightened and con 
scientious of our Indian administrators, 
and the Diet. Nat. Biog. quaintly observes : 
" It is remarkable that a man so sceptical, 
retiring, unselfish, and modest should be 
one of the chief founders of the Anglo- 
Indian Empire." At his retirement he 
refused all honours and devoted himself to 
writing his well-known History of the 
Hindu and Muhamadan Periods. Sir 
C. Colebrooke gives in his Life of M. 
Elphinstone (1884, p. 410) his only known 
reference to religion, a eulogy of Pope s 
" Universal Prayer," from which it is clear 
that he was a Deist. D. Nov. 20, 1859. 

EMERSON, Ralph Waldo, LL.D., 
American moralist. B. May 25, 1803. 
Ed. Harvard. After graduation he taught 
for some time in a Boston Girls School, 
but he disliked the work and in 1825 

entered the Cambridge Divinity School. 
In 1826 he became a Unitarian minister. 
Six years later he severed his connection 
with the Unitarian Church, and, after 
travelling in Europe, settled to lecturing 
and writing, and gathered a remarkable 
group of men about him. They became 
known as "the Transcendentalists," but 
Emerson never accepted Transcenden 
talism, or any fixed code of doctrine. He 
held a very liberal and refined Theism, or 
believed in an " Over-Soul "; but he was 
especially on guard against finality in 
opinions, and was content to use his 
splendid gifts as essayist and lecturer for 
ethical education. In 1847 he lectured in 
England, and he formed a high opinion of 
the English (see English Traits, 1856). 
He wrote several volumes of verse in 
addition to his graceful essays, and was 
one of the greatest and noblest forces of 
progress in America. D. Apr. 27, 1882. 

EMERSON, William, mathematician. 
B. May 14, 1701. Ed. private schools, 
Newcastle and York. He devoted himself 
to mathematical study, published his impor 
tant work Fluxions in 1749, and continued 
until 1776 to make material contributions 
to his science. He refused to enter the 
Eoyal Society. The Ency. Brit, says that 
there is no foundation for the statement 
that he was a sceptic, but his clerical 
biographer, the Eev. W. Bowe, admits that 
he rejected Christianity and was a Theist 
[Deist] (Some Account of the Life of 
W. Emerson, 1793, pp. xi and xii). Carlyle 
rightly describes him as an advanced Free 
thinker. D. May 20, 1782. 

EMMET, Robert, Irish patriot. B. 1778. 
Ed. private schools and Trinity College, 
Dublin. After a brilliant course of study 
he espoused the cause of rebellion, and in 
1800 he went to France, where he adopted 
Deism. In 1802 he had interviews with 
Napoleon and Talleyrand, and returned to 
Ireland. In 1803 he organized a premature 
rising, and was arrested and condemned to 
be hanged. He refused the priest s minis- 



tration on the way to the scaffold, saying 
that he was " an infidel by conviction " 
(Maxwell s History of the Irish Rebellion). 
D. Sep. 20, 1803. 

ENGELS, Friedrich, German Socialist 
leader. B. Nov. 28, 1820. He went into 
his father s business, and from 1842 to 
1845 he managed a branch of it in Man 
chester. On his return to Germany he 
wrote his first Socialist work, Die Lage 
der arbeitenden Klassen in England. He 
then co-operated with Karl Marx, but he 
was in 1850 compelled to return to England 
on account of his share in the rebellion 
of 1849. He helped to found the Inter 
nationale. Engels lived in England again 
from 1869 to his death. Belfort Bax, who 
knew him, calls him " the devout Atheist " 
(Reminiscences, p. 51). He followed Feuer- 
bach [SEE] in his Eationalist ideas. D. 
Aug. 5, 1895. 

ENGLISH, George Bethune, American 
writer. B. Mar. 7, 1787. Ed. Harvard. 
A member of the Boston Bar, he turned 
to the study of theology, with a view to 
entering the ministry, but he developed 
Deistic views. In 1813 he replied to 
Channing s sermons on infidelity, and 
published The Grounds of Christianity 
Examined. In later years he served in 
the army of Ismail Pacha, and afterwards 
as agent for the U.S. Government in the 
Levant. D. Sep. 20, 1828. 

ENSOR, George, B.A., Irish Deist. B. 
1769. Ed. Trinity College, Dublin. He 
indulged in political writing, in opposition 
to the English Government, but otherwise 
took no active part in politics. In 1806 
he published The Independent Man (2 vols.), 
and in 1814 a Deistic Review of the 
Miracles, Prophecies, and Mysteries of the 
Old and New Testaments and of the 
Morality and Consolation of the Christian 
Religion. His other works are political. 
D. Dec. 3, 1843. 

ERDMANN, Professor Johann Eduard, 


German philosopher. B. June 13, 1805. 
Ed. Dorpat and Berlin. In 1829 he entered 
the Lutheran ministry, but he abandoned 
it in 1832, and in 1836 was appointed 
professor of philosophy at Halle University. 
Erdmann s history of philosophy (2 vols., 
1865-67) is one of the most useful and 
learned works on its subject. He was an 
Hegelian "the last of the Mohicans," 
Germans say and thought that soul and 
body are aspects of one reality. D. June 12, 

ERICSSON, John, American inventor. 
B. (Sweden) July 31, 1803. Ericsson 
served for some years as an engineer in 
the Swedish army. In 1826 he emigrated 
to London, where he perfected the inven 
tion of the screw-propeller for steamships, 
which is mainly due to him. As the 
English builders were slow to accept his 
ideas, he went to America in 1839, and 
the new form of propulsion was at once 
adopted. He was a brilliant engineer, and 
an extraordinary number of valuable inven 
tions stand to his credit. It was he who 
designed the monitors that were so effec 
tively used in the Civil War. Ingersoll, 
who knew him well, tells us that he was 
one of the profoundest Agnostics I ever 
met " (Works, vii, 319). The State of New 
York erected a statue in honour of him, 
and his remains were conveyed to Sweden 
on a United States cruiser. D. Mar. 8, 

ESCHERNY, Count Francois Louis d , 

Swiss writer. B. Nov. 24, 1733. Of a 
wealthy family, he spent his early years 
in travel and made the acquaintance of 
Rousseau and other great French Ration 
alists. In his Lacunes de la philosophie 
(1783) he chiefly follows Rousseau, and is 
Deistic. He accepted the better principles 
of the Revolution, but was driven from 
France by its excesses. D. July 15, 1815. 

ESPINAS, Professor Victor Alfred, 

French sociologist. B. May 23, 1844. Ed. 

Lyc6e de Sens and Lycee Louis le Grand. 



After teaching philosophy at various pro 
vincial colleges he became, and has been 
since 1893, professor of the history of 
social economy at the Sorbonne. He has 
translated Spencer s Psychology (1898), 
and written Les societes animales (1877), 
Etude sociologique (1897), etc. He is a 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, Member 
of the Institut, and honorary member of 
Victoria University (Manchester). Baldwin 
classes him as " Positivist." 

ESPRONCEDA, Jose de, Spanish poet. 
-B. 1810. Ed. Madrid. He began to write 
rebellious poetry at the age of fourteen, 
and in his youth he joined several secret 
societies. Imprisoned in a monastery for 
a time, he quitted Spain for England and 
France, and took part in the 1830 Revolu- 
tion. He returned to Spain in 1833, but 
was again compelled to go into exile. He 
took part in the 1840 Eevolution, and 
was appointed secretary of embassy at 
the Hague. Espronceda s poems are very 
popular in Spain, and some of them 
(Cancion del Pirata, etc.) are Deistic. D. 
May 23, 1842. 

ESQUIROS, Henri Alphonse, French 
poet. B. May 23, 1812. His first volume 
of verse, Les hirondelles, appeared in 1834. 
In his Evangile du Peuple (1840), for 
which he suffered eight months imprison 
ment, he rationalizes the life of Jesus. He 
was elected anti-clerical member of the 
Legislative Assembly in 1848, but was 
compelled to fly in 1851. Esquiros was 
a member of the Provisional Government 
in 1870, the National Assembly in 1871, 
and the Senate in 1875. All his life he 
was a devoted Rationalist. D. May 12 

EYANS, George Henry, American 
reformer. B. (England) Mar. 25, 1805. 
He migrated to America in 1820, and was 
one of the earliest advocates of land reform. 
His views rather anticipated those of 
Henry George ; and he worked for the abo 
lition of slavery and other reforms. Evans 

printed, published, and edited the first 

Eationalist periodical in America, The 

Correspondent, and other journals. D. 
| Feb. 2, 1855. 

EZEKIEL, Moses Jacob, American 
sculptor. B. Oct. 28, 1844. Ed. Virginia 
Military Institute. He served in the Con 
federate Army 1864-65, and afterwards 
took to business, but devoted his leisure to 
painting and sculpture. He was admitted 
to the Society of Artists in 1872, and went 
to Berlin to complete his training for 
sculpture. Winning the Michael Beer 
Prize, he went to Italy for two years, and 
he became one of the most distinguished 
sculptors of the United States. In his 
later years he lived at Rome, and he 
enthusiastically greeted the Freethought 
Congress of 1904 (Wilson s Trip to Borne, 
p. 278). D. Mar. 27, 1917. 

FABRE, Ferdinand, French novelist. 
B. 1830. Ed. College de Bedarieux and 
Montpellier Seminary. Abandoning his 
early studies for the priesthood, he went to 
Paris in 1849. After a few years as 
secretary and tutor he took to letters. His 
first volume of poems, Feuilles de lierre, 
appeared in 1853, and his first novel, 
Les Courbezon, in 1861. The latter was 
crowned by the Academy. His L abbe 
Tigrane (1873) won for him a high posi 
tion. In 1883 he became librarian of the 
Biblioth6que Mazarin. In his many stories 
of clerical life Fabre is tender to his old 
Church, but he remained far outside it. 
D. Feb. 11, 1898. 

FABRE, Jean Henri, French ento 
mologist. B. Dec. 25, 1823. Ed. Saint 
Leons village school, Rodez college, and 
Avignon Normal School. Fabre, who came 
of a peasant family, was a teacher, and 
wrote a number of scientific text-books. 
While teaching at Avignon (1851-71) he 
became a friend of J. S. Mill. Throughout 
life he had studied insects, and his 
Souvenirs Entomologiques (first volume 
1879 now ten volumes) attracted Euro- 



pean attention. He was a Theist, but 
free from all superstition, and quite in 
different to dogmas and miracles " (D. G. 
Legros, La vie de J. H. Fabre, 1913, 
p. 192). In its obituary notice of Fabre 
the AthencBum wrongly says that he was 
" an early admirer of Darwin." He never 
read the Origin of Species, and never 
accepted Darwinism. He was an obstinate 
vitalist, like S. Butler. D. Oct. 11, 1915. 

Frangois Nazaire, French dramatist. 
B. July 28, 1750. In his youth Fabre won 
the prize of a wild rose (eglantine] at 
Toulouse, and he added the word to his 
name. He was on the stage for a time, 
then playwright, and one of the dramatists 
of the Revolution. He was a member of 
the Convention, and prepared the Revolu 
tionary calendar, but he fell with his friend 
Danton. D. Apr. 5, 1794. 

FABRICATORE, Professor Bruto, 

Italian writer. B. 1824. Ed. Naples 
University. He taught in, and from J847 
to 1859 was head of, the Marquis Puoti s 
Institute at Naples, which was obnoxious 
to the reactionary Government and did 
much to prepare the way for Garibaldi. 
The Antologia Contcmporanea, which he 
edited, was suppressed. After the Gari- 
baldian liberation he entered Parliament 
(1861-66) and became professor of Italian 
literature (1867). He took part in the 
Freethought Congress in 1869. 

FAGGI, Professor Adolfo, Italian 
philosopher. B. Aug. 9, 1868. From 
Palermo University, where he taught 
theoretical philosophy, he passed in 1908 
to Pavia, where he still is. His many 
works on psychology and philosophy pro 
ceed on psycho-physical lines, and his 
La Eeligione e il suo Avvenire (1892) is 
thoroughly Rationalist or Positivist. 

FAGUET, Professor Auguste Emile, 

D. es L., French writer. B. Dec. 17, 1847. 

Ed. Lycee de Poitiers, Lycee Charlemagne, 


and Ecole Normale Superieure. After 
teaching for a number of years in pro 
vincial schools he became, in 1890, pro 
fessor of literature at the Sorbonne. 
Faguet was one of the leading French 
literary and dramatic critics, and author of 
a long and esteemed series of historical and 
literary works. He was a Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honour and member of the 
Academy. In his Voltaire (1895) he 
deprecates active hostility to Christianity, 
and is for non-aggressive Agnosticism. D. 
June 7, 1916. 

FALLIERES, Clement Armand, 

eighth President of the French Republic. 
B. Nov. 6, 1841. Fallieres was of peasant 
origin, but by hard work he became a 
lawyer and practised at Nerac. He was 
mayor of Nerac in 1873. In 1876 he 
entered the Chambre, and was one of the 
stoutest supporters of Gambetta s anti 
clerical campaign. In 1882 he was chosen 
Minister of the Interior, in 1883 President 
of the Council, in 1884 Minister of Public 
Instruction, in 1887 Minister of the Interior, 
in 1889 again Minister of Public Instruc 
tion (during the period of laicization), in 
1890 Minister of Justice and Cults (when 
he severely checked the clergy), in 1899 
President of the Senate, and in 1906 
President of the Republic. Throughout 
his career he showed himself a sagacious 
and patriotic Rationalist statesman. He 
retired in 1913, and still enjoys (1920) the 
honours he has gathered. 

FARGUS, Frederick John, novelist 
(" Hugh Conway "). B. Dec. 26, 1847. 
Ed. Training-ship Conway and private 
school, Bristol. He became an auctioneer, 
but wrote verse and stories in his leisure, 
under the pseudonym of " Hugh Conway." 
In 1883 he published his famous novel 
Called Back, which sold nearly half a 
million copies, and in 1884 published Dark 
Days. He wrote several other novels and 
a volume of verse, A Life s Idylls (1879), 
which includes many Rationalistic poems, 
especially a sonnet entitled " The Unknow- 



able " (p. 84), which rejects Christianity and 
accepts only " the unknown God." In a 
letter to Mrs. Lynn Linton he congratulates 
her on having made " a great step towards 
the destruction of illogical creeds," and 
says of his friends that " with scarcely one 
exception those intellectually worth their 
salt are Agnostics " (Mrs. L. Linton, by 
G. S. Layard, 1901, p. 214). D. May 15, 

FARQUHAR, John, philanthropist. B. 
1751. Of poor Aberdeenshire parents, he 
took up military service in India, but, being 
wounded, became a very prosperous manu 
facturer there and a confidant of Warren 
Hastings. He returned to England a 
millionaire, but lived in such eccentric 
simplicity that he was often taken for a 
beggar. He gave away very large sums 
in philanthropy, and attained a remark 
able command of classical literature and 
mathematics. Farquhar offered Aberdeen 
100,000 to establish a college without 
religious teaching, but the offer was refused. 
He admired Brahmanism and rejected 
Christianity (Biog. Diet, of Eminent Scots 
men}. D. July 6, 1826. 

FAUCHE, Hippolyte, French orien 
talist. B. May 23, 1797. He devoted his 
attention to Sanscrit literature, and trans 
lated a number of the Hindu sacred books. 
It was his intention to translate the whole 
of the Maha Bharata, but only ten volumes 
were completed. He contributed to the 
Rationalist periodical, Liberte de Penser. 
D. Feb. 28, 1869. 

FAURE, Francois Felix, sixth Presi 
dent of the French Republic. B. Jan. 30, 
1841. Ed. Paris and England. He was 
apprenticed to tanning at an early age, 
then set up a shipbuilding business at 
Havre and prospered, becoming head of 
the Havre Chamber of Commerce. In 
1881 he joined the anti-clerical body in 
Parliament, and in the following year he 
was appointed Under-Secretary for the 
Colonies. He was Vice-President of the 

Chambre in 1893, Minister of Marine in 
1894, and President of the Republic from 
1895 to 1899. Faure was a tactful and 
high-minded statesman and a good econo 
mist. Except in regard to the Dreyfus 
affair, which he stubbornly refused to 
re-open in the hope that this would ensure 
peace, he led France wisely and kept the 
Church in check. He was assassinated 
Feb. 16, 1899. 

FAURE, Sebastien, French writer. B. 
1858. Ed. Jesuit College. He entered 
the Jesuit novitiate, but left it in 1880 and 
took to business. Becoming an anarchist 
(of the philosophical school) as well as 
a Rationalist, he won great influence by 
the eloquence of his lectures. He founded 
the Journal du Peuple and wrote La douleur 
universelle, etc. 

FAWCETT, Edgar, American poet and 
novelist. B. 1847. Ed. Columbia Uni 
versity. He took to letters and journalism, 
and his numerous novels and several 
volumes of verse were very popular in 
America. In his later years he lived in 
London. Fawcett called himself an " Ag 
nostic Christian," but the second word 
must be taken only in a moral sense. See 
his Agnosticism and Other Essays (1889) 
and Songs of Doubt and Dreams (1891). 
He was a warm admirer of Ingersoll 
(Arena, Dec., 1893). D. May 2, 1904. 

FAWCETT, the Right Honourable 
Henry, F.R.S., LL.D., D.C.L., statesman. 
B. Aug. 26, 1833. Ed. Queenwood College, 
King s College, and Cambridge (Peter- 
house). He entered Lincoln s Inn in 
1856, but he lost his sight in 1868 and 
turned to political economy. In 1863 he 
won high repute by his Manual of Political 
Economy, and he was appointed professor 
at Cambridge. He was returned to Par 
liament, as Liberal member for Brighton, 
in 1865, and he warmly supported such 
reforms as the abolition of religious tests 
at universities, general secular education, 
and Indian reform. In 1880 he was 




elected member for Hackney, and he 
was appointed Postmaster-General. His 
character and public work were so much 
esteemed that a monument was erected to 
him in Westminster Abbey by public sub 
scription. Sir L. Stephen shows in his 
Life of H. Fawcett (1885) that he agreed 
with J. S. Mill in regard to religion 
(p. 103). He speaks in his letters of 
theological controversy as " miserable 
squabbles." D. Nov. 6, 1884. 

FAWKENER, Sir Everard, merchant. 
B. 1684. Fawkener is the London silk 
merchant with whom Voltaire lived at 
Wandsworth in 1726. He was knighted 
in 1735, and appointed ambassador to 
Constantinople. In 1745 he became 
joint Postmaster-General. Voltaire (Lettres 
inedites, 1856), who wrote him many 
amusing letters, pictures him in one (dated 
Feb. 22, 1736) " smiling with his humane 
philosophy at the superstitious follies " of 
both Mohammedans and Christians. D. 
Nov. 16, 1758. 

FECHNER, Gustav Theodor, German 
psychologist. B. Apr. 19, 1801, Ed. 
Leipzig University. He was professor of 
physics at Leipzig, but an ailment of the 
eyes compelled him to turn to philosophy, 
and he established the psycho-physical 
theory of mind (especially in his Elemente 
der Psychophysik, 1860). His scientific 
and philosophic works, fifty in number, 
are of great value. In religion he was 
mystical, and is often regarded as a liberal 
Christian, but in his psychology he " ad 
mitted no difference between body and 
soul " (Villa, Contemporary Psychology, 
1903, p. 137), so that the orthodox dis 
owned him. Many of his curious religious 
works were published under the pseudonym 
of " Dr. Mises." D. Nov. 18, 1887. 

FELLOWES, Robert, M.A., LL.D., 
philanthropist. B. 1771. Ed. Oxford 
(St. Mary s Hall). He took orders in the 
Church, but never held preferment, and he 


presently abandoned the creed. He edited 
The Critical Eeview, 1804-1811, and in 
his later works (especially The Religion of 
the Universe, 1836) he professed Deism. 
Sometimes he adopted the pseudonym 
" Philalethes." Fellowes was an active 
reformer and a generous philanthropist. 
He was one of the founders of London 
University, and he partially endowed 
Edinburgh University. D. Feb. 6, 1847. 

FELS, Joseph, reformer. B. 1854. 
Ed. Yanceyville and Baltimore. At the 
age of fifteen he took employment in his 
father s business, which failed, and after 
a few years as a travelling salesman he, in 
1875, began to manufacture soap at Balti 
more. The firm removed later to Phila 
delphia. He made a large fortune, and 
used it generously in support of reform. 
His chief interest was the single-tax, of 
which he was an indefatigable apostle. 
He gave 25,000 to a Joseph Fels Fund 
for advocating it in America, and large 
sums to the cause in other countries. He 
also introduced profit-sharing into his 
factories and established a labour colony 
at Hollesley Bay. Personal exertion, by 
lectures and writings, was given as freely 
as financial help. He strongly supported 
social reforms of all kinds, both in England 
and America ; but he repudiated the name 
of philanthropist. Mr. Fels was a Theist, 
but entirely rejected Christian doctrines 
(Joseph Fels, by Mary Fels, 1920, pp. 
177-84). D. Feb. 21, 1914. 

FERRARI, Professor Guiseppe, 

D. es L., Italian historian. B. Mar. 7, 
1812. Ed. Pavia University. He took 
up the career of letters, published a life of 
Eomagnosi, and edited the works of Vico 
(1836). In 1840 he became professor of 
literature at Eochefort, but he lost the 
position by his outspoken Eationalism. 
Cousin got him a chair at Strassburg 
University, from which the Clericals again 
ejected him. After the Italian victory he 
taught at Turin and Milan, and was made 
Senator (1876). He was an Agnostic, or 



a Positivist in the Italian sense. D. 
July 1, 1876. 


Spanish teacher. B. Jan. 10, 1859. He 
was sent, with scanty education, into 
a shop, and in his early manhood he 
became an inspector of railways. In 1885 
he took part in an unsuccessful revolt and 
fled to Paris. Ferrer had already become 
an Agnostic, and had educated himself. A 
French lady bequeathed to him the money 
to found his " Modern School " at Barce 
lona, and it was opened in 1901. In the 
next five years more than fifty schools 
were founded on the same model, and the 
reactionary authorities decided to ruin 
him. After an abortive scheme to impli 
cate him in an attempt to assassinate the 
King in 1906, he was arrested for com 
plicity in the Barcelona rising of 1909 and, 
after a shameless travesty of military 
justice, condemned to be shot. On his 
prison wall he wrote : " Let no more gods 
or exploiters be served. Let us learn 
rather to love each other." William 
Archer (Life, Trial, and Death of F. 
Ferrer, 1911) and Professor Simarro, of 
Madrid University (El Proceso Ferrer, 
1910), have fully vindicated him. He was 
a philosophical Anarchist, deeply averse 
from violence, and absolutely innocent of the 
charge made against him. See also the 
English translation of his one work, The 
Origin and Ideals of the Modern School 
(1913). He was judicially murdered, by 
Church and State, Oct. 12, 1909. 

FERRERO, Guglielmo, Italian sociolo 
gist. B. 1872. Ferrero is an independent 
writer of the Positivist school, one of the 
leading Italian criminologists, and a high 
authority on ancient Rome. In 1905 he 
gave a brilliant series of lectures on the 
Roman Empire at the College de France, 
and in 1908 he was Lowell lecturer. 
There are English translations of his 
Female Offender (1895) and Characters 
and Events of Boman History (1909), but 
his chief work is Grandezza e decadenza di 

Roma (3 vols., 1904-1905). In an Ameri 
can symposium on the future life (In After 
Days, 1910, ch. viii) Ferrero declines to 
subscribe to the belief. 

FERRI, Professor Enrico, Italian 
criminologist. B. Feb. 25, 1856. Ed. 
Bologna, Pisa, and Paris. He taught 
penal law at Turin in 1879, was professor 
of the same at Bologna University in 
1880-81 and at Siena University in 1882- 
86, teacher at Rome University 1886-90, 
professor at Pisa 1891-93, at Rome 1894, 
and at Brussels 1895-96. With Lombroso 
he counts as the founder of modern Italian 
criminology. Ferri is a pupil and enthusi 
astic admirer of Ardigo [SEE] , and " rejects 
every religion under the sun " (letter to 
compiler). He was for a time Socialist 
leader in Parliament and editor of Avanti. 
He founded L Archivio di Psichiatria, and 
has written many valuable works on penal 
law and reform. 

FERRI, Luigi, Italian philosopher. B. 
June 15, 1826. ^ Ed. Bologna, and Lycee 
Bourbon and Ecole Normale Sup6rieure, 
Paris. He taught philosophy at various 
French provincial colleges, and he was in 
1858 appointed inspector of the teaching 
of philosophy in the secondary schools of 
Italy. In 1860 he became secretary to 
the Minister of Public Instruction, in 1863 
professor at the Institute of Higher Studies, 
and in 1871 professor at Rome University. 
His many works on philosophy and psy 
chology expound a Rationalism of the 
eclectic or spiritual school, like that of 
Cousin. He was a corresponding member 
of the French Institut, member of the 
Academia dei Lincei and of the Council 
of Higher Education, and Chevalier of the 
Order of Merit. D. Mar., 1895. 

FERRY, Jules Francois Camille, 

French statesman. B. Apr. 5, 1832. He 
began to practise at the Paris Bar in 1865, 
and at the same time joined the staff of 
the Temps. In 1869 he entered the Legis 
lative Assembly, and in 1870 was secretary 



of the Government of National Defence ( 
and Mayor of Paris. In 1871 he was i 
returned to the National Assembly, and in 
the following year he went as ambassador 
to Athens. A few years later he was 
recognized as one of the leaders of the 
anti-clericals. As Minister of Public In 
struction (1879) he was the chief organizer 
of secular education in France, and he held 
the Premiership in 1880 and 1883-85. In 
1891 he entered the Senate, and in 1893 
he was chosen President of that body. 
Ferry was a consistent Agnostic and able 
statesman, though Clemenceau opposed 
him on colonial policy. See Eambaud s 
Jules Ferry (1903) and Discours et opinions 
de Jules Ferry (2 vols., 1903-1904). D. 
Mar. 17, 1893. 

FEUERBACH, Friedrich Heinrich, 

German orientalist, brother of Ludwig 
Andreas. B. Sep. 29, 1806. Ed. Munich. 
After finishing his course in Germany he 
went to Paris to study oriental and modern 
languages. In his various works (Thean- 
tliropos, 1838; Die Religion der Zukunft, 
3 vols., 1843-45 ; Gedanken und Tatsachen, 
1862, etc.) he is not less Eationalistic than 
his more famous brother. He wrote also 
many works on philology. D. June 24, 

FEUERBACH, Ludwig Andreas, 

German philosopher. B. July 28, 1804. 
Ed. Ansbach Gymnasium, and Heidelberg 
and Berlin Universities. At first a devout 
student of theology, Feuerbach adopted 
Hegel s philosophy, and in 1830 he pub 
lished, anonymously, his famous Gedanken 
iiber Tod und Unsterblichkeit (denying per 
sonal immortality). For this he lost his 
academic position, and he became an inde 
pendent writer on philosophy and religion. 
After 1837 he abandoned Hegelianism, and 
in his chief works (Das Wesen des Christen- 
thums, 1841, translated by George Eliot, 
and Das Wesen der Religion, 1845) he 
regards God as a dream and all speculation 
beyond nature as a waste of time. In his 
latest work he expounds what is generally 

called scientific Materialism, though he 
never accepted that title. His collected 
works were issued in ten volumes (1846-66), 
and there are biographical studies of him 
by Griin, Beyer, Starcke, Engels, Bolin, 
Jodl, and Kohut. His style was brilliant 
and caustic, and his influence very con 
siderable. D. Sep. 13, 1872. 

FICHTE, Professor Johann Gottlieb, 

German philosopher. B. May 19, 1762. 
Ed. Pforta Gymnasium, and Jena and 
Leipzig Universities. He was a tutor until 
1791, when he met Kant and accepted his 
philosophy. In 1792 he published a Kritik 
oiler 0/enbarung (" Criticism of all Revela 
tion "), and in 1794 he became professor of 
philosophy at Jena. He diverged more and 
more from Kant, and an article he published 
in 1798 (declaring God to be only the moral 
order of the universe) brought upon him a 
charge of Atheism, and he was dismissed. 
His enthusiastic preaching of the war of 
liberation made him popular, and in 1810 
he became professor at, and rector of, Berlin 
University. His system of "transcendental 
idealism" assumes that we know only Self 
not the individual Self, but the Absolute 
Ego manifested in all consciousness. He 
was a Pantheist, and as deep in ethical 
fervour as Spinoza (so that much that was 
written about Fichte during the War was 
ludicrous). D. Jan. 27, 1814. 

FIELDING-HALL, Harold Fielding 
Patrick Hall, writer. He attracted much 
attention by his Soul of a People (the 
Burmese people) in 1898, and, after issuing 
several volumes of tales and poems, by his 
Hearts of Men in 1904. His personal creed 
is given at length in The World-Soul (1913). 
God is an unknown Power or World- Soul 
pervading the universe. He rejects Chris 
tian doctrines and personal immortality, 
and is not unlike Emerson in his vague 


Spanish statesman. B. Nov. 13, 1819. 

Ed. Madrid. He was a Republican and 




Eationalist lawyer of Madrid, who entered i 
the Cortes in 1850, and led the Republicans, j 
In 1868 he collaborated with Salmeron j 
[SEE] in opposing the monarchy, and at j 
the establishment of a Republic in 1873 he ! 
was chosen President of the Provisional 
Council. He directed that (as was done) 
he should have a secular funeral. D. 
Nov. 11, 1882. 

FILANGIERI, The Cavaliere Gaetano, 

Italian jurist. B. Aug. 18, 1752. Son of 
Prince C. d Arianella, he served some years 
in the Neapolitan army, then took up law 
and was appointed Court-Advocate. His 
high position was consistently used to 
advance reform. His Scienza della Legis- 
lazione (8 vols., 1780-88), written in the 
spirit of Montesquieu, was put on the 
Index, but it had a large circulation, in 
various languages. In 1787 he was the 
first Royal Counsellor for Finance. D. 
July 21, 1788. 

FINKE, Professor Heinrich, Ph.D., 
German historian. B. June 13, 1855. Ed. 
Minister Gymnasium and Academy, and 
Tubingen and Gottingen Universities. He 
was Archivist of Schleswig 1882-87, teacher 
of history at Miinster University 1887-97, 
and professor of history at Freiburg Uni 
versity in 1898. In 1906 he was made 
Privy Councillor. Professor Finke has 
written many important works on the ! 
Middle Ages, which do not spare the 
Church, and he is a frequent lecturer for j 
the German Monists and a strong supporter 
of Professor Haeckel. 

FIORENTINO, Professor Francesco, 

Italian philosopher. B. May 1, 1834. Ed. 
Naples University. He was studying for 
the Church when the Garibaldians arrived, 
and he then abandoned the Church and 
devoted himself to philosophy. He taught 
at Spoleto, then at, in succession, the uni 
versities of Bologna, Pisa, and Naples. 
Besides editing the works of Giordano 
Bruno (1879-84), he wrote La Filosofia 
contemporanea in Italia (1876) and other 


works. Fiorentino was a moderate Hegelian 
and anti-clerical. D. Dec. 22, 1884. 

FISCHER, Johann Georg, German poet. 
B. Oct. 25, 1816. Ed. Tubingen University. 
He was professor of history and geography 
at Stuttgart High School, but a volume of 
poems (Gedichte, 1854) opened a new path 
and he devoted himself to letters. His 
poetry was very popular, and many of his 
dramas celebrate the defeat of the Papacy 
in the Middle Ages. In 1882 he received 
the Order of Personal Nobility. D. May 4, 

FISCHER, Professor Ernst Kuno 
Berthold, German philosopher. B. July 23, 
1824. Ed. Leipzig and Halle Universities. 
He was professor of philosophy at Heidel 
berg 1849-53, but the Rationalist senti 
ments of the first volume of his History of 
Modern Philosophy (1853) brought about 
his retirement. From 1853 to 1872 he 
taught philosophy at Jena, then at Heidel 
berg once more. He was a great friend of 
Strauss and a Privy Councillor to the 
Grand Duke of Weimar. Fischer wrote 
very sympathetically on Bruno and Goethe, 
and in his own works expounds a modified 
Hegelian system. D. 1907. 

FISKE, Professor John, American 
philosopher. B. Mar. 30, 1842. Ed. 
Harvard. Instead of practising law, in 
which he had been educated, he took up 
letters and philosophy, and in 1869 began 
to lecture on philosophy at Harvard. In 
1879 he lectured at London University 
College, and in 1880 at the Royal Institu 
tion. In 1884 he was appointed professor 
of American history at Washington Univer 
sity, and he was joint editor of Appleton s 
Cyclopaedia of American Biography (1888- 
1900). Fiske did much to introduce 
Spencer s philosophy in America, though 
he was Theistic. He accepted an " un 
knowable " God, believed in immortality 
as an act of faith, and rejected Christian 
doctrines. See J. S. Clark s Life and 
Letters of J. Fiske (2 vols., 1917), and 




Fiske s Myths and Myth Makers (1872), 
Outlines of Cosmic Philosophy (1874), and 
The Idea of God (1885). D. July 4, 1901. 

FITZGERALD, Edward, poet. B. 
Mar. 31, 1809. Ed. Bury St. Edmunds 
and Cambridge (Trinity College). Fitzgerald 
led a retired life in the country, and attracted 
little or no attention by his earlier publica 
tions (Euphranor, 1851 ; Six Dramas of 
Calderon, 1853, etc.). In 1859 he published 
his free rendering of Omar Khayyam, which 
had for many years few readers. T. Wright, 
in his Life of E. Fitzgerald (2 vols., 1904, 
ii, 14-5), shows that the poem really reflects 
Fitzgerald s own Agnosticism in the later 
part of his life. Mr. Benn points out that 
some of the most heterodox passages are 
not found in the Persian original. F. H. 
Groome (Two Suffolk Friends, 1895) gives 
the same testimony, and corrects the 
common notion that Fitzgerald was an 
epicure. He was a man of the simplest 
diet, and of a high and generous character. 
D. June 14, 1883. 

FLAMMARION, Nicholas Camille, 

French astronomer. B. Feb. 25, 1842. 
Ed. Paris. He went as pupil in 1858 to 
the Paris Observatory, and in 1862 joined 
the Bureau des Longitudes. His Plurality 
des Mondes (1861) at once made him the 
most popular exponent of astronomy in 
Europe, and has passed through thirty- 
three editions. Some of his later works 
have had forty to fifty editions. He has, 
meantime, made important contributions 
to his science in some hundreds of memoirs. 
Flammarion is a Theist and admits immor 
tality, but he rejects Christianity. "The 
supernatural does not exist," he says (Les 
forces naturelles inconnues, 1907). He is 
not a Spiritualist (pp. 586, 592, etc.), but 
attributes abnormal phenomena to abnor 
mal powers of the medium. 

FLAUBERT, Gustaye, French novelist. 
B. Dec. 12, 1821. He turned from medi 
cine, for which he was trained, to letters, 
and made a severe study of poetry on the 

models of V. Hugo and Byron. From this 
he passed to minute and artistic realism in 
fiction, and in 1857 he published Madame 
Bovary, a satire on romanticism and a 
pioneer work of the naturalist school. 
Salammbo (1862), for the preparation of 
which he had gone to Tunis, pleased the 
public less. His Tentation de Saint 
Antoine (1874) expresses his scepticism, 
which appears more fully in his letters. 
He wrote only two further novels, a 
volume of short stories, and a political 
play. His life was virtually dedicated to 
the superb art of five stories. D. May 7, 

FLOQUET, Charles Thomas, French 
statesman. B. Oct. 5, 1828. Ed. St. 
Jean de Luz and Bayonne. He was 
admitted to the Paris Bar in 1851, and, 
like his friend Gambetta, he distinguished 
himself by lending his fine powers to the 
defence of radicals. He edited the Temps 
and the Siecle. In 1871 he was sent by a 
Paris constituency to the National Assem 
bly, and was one of the most ardent oppo 
nents of the temporary clerical reaction. 
Elected to the Chambre in 1877, he con 
tinued his anti-clerical work. Through the 
influence of Gambetta he had two terms as 
President of the Chambre (1885-93). He 
was one of the chief opponents of Boulang- 
ism, and fought a duel with Boulanger 
himself. Floquet was one of the fine 
workers of the Gambetta group who pre 
pared the way for the disestablishment and 
destruction of the Church in France. See 
Discours et opinions de M. C. Floquet 
(2 vols., 1885). D. Jan. 18, 1896. 

FLOURENS, Gustave, French writer, 
son of the following. B. Aug. 4, 1838. 
Ed. College Louis le Grand. He took 
diplomas in both science and letters, and 
in 1863 became deputy-professor (for his 
father) of natural history at the College de 
France. Owing to the drastic Eationalism 
of his lectures, his articles in La Pensee 
Notivelle, and his Science de I homme 
(1865), the clergy secured his dismissal, 



and he went to Crete. There he took part 
in the insurrection, and sat in the National 
Assembly. He returned to France in 1868, 
and was imprisoned for his utterances. 
He was shot, fighting for the Commune, 
Apr. 3, 1871. 

FLOURENS, Professor Marie Jean 
Pierre, physiologist. B. Apr. 15, 1794. 
Ed. Montpellier. He graduated in medi 
cine at the age of nineteen, and won great 
distinction a few years later by his 
researches into the nervous system. He 
was admitted to the Academy of Sciences 
in 1828, and became its Perpetual Secretary 
in 1833. Five years later he occupied the 
chair of comparative anatomy at the 
College de France. He entered the 
Chamber of Deputies in 1838, the Academy 
in 1840, and the House of Peers in 1846. 
Flourens, who was one of the most eminent 
physiologists of his time, was a Vitalist 
and opposed to Materialism, but he 
rejected Christian doctrines. D. Dec. 5, 

FLOWER, Benjamin Orange, Ameri 
can writer. B. Oct. 19, 1858. Ed. Ilion 
and Kentucky University. Adopting 
journalism as his profession, he founded 
and edited the Arena (Boston), then the 
Coming Age (1896-1904), finally combining 
the two as the Arena (1904-1909). He 
edited the Twentieth Century Magazine 
(1909-11), and he is now president of the 
Menace Publishing Company the prin 
cipal check on Komanism in America and 
the Free Press Defence League. Mr. 
Flower has written Lives of Whittier and 
others, and various advanced works. 

FLOWER, Eliza, musical composer. 
B. Apr. 19, 1803. Miss Flower, a sister of 
Sarah Flower Adams, devoted herself after 
1840 to providing a musical service at 
South Place Chapel, which had seceded 
from the Unitarian body. Sixty-three of 
the hymns and many anthems sung there 
were composed by her. Harriet Martineau 
has charming descriptions of the sisters 

(under other names) in Five Years of Youth 
and Deerbrook (see Garnett s Life of W. J. 
Fox, pp. 65-7). She shared the opinions 
of W. J. Fox. D. Dec. 12, 1846. 

FOERSTER, Professor Wilhelm, 

Ph.D., German astronomer. D. Dec. 16, 
1832. Ed. Breslau, Berlin, and Bonn 
Universities. He became second assistant 
at the Berlin Observatory in 1855, first 
assistant in 1860, and Director in 1865. 
Since 1863 he has also been professor of 
astronomy at Berlin University. Professor 
Foerster educated his children without 
religion, and is head of the German Ethical 
Movement. He is a Privy Councillor, and 
was almost the only German professor to 
oppose the War. 

FONBLANQUE, Albany, journalist. 
B. 1793. Ed. Woolwich. He joined the 
staff of the Times, and in 1826 became 
chief leader-writer to the Examiner, which 
he edited from 1830 to 1847 and ultimately 
purchased. He was statistician to the 
Board of Trade in 1847, and was offered 
the Governorship of Nova Scotia. Fon- 
blanque was in his time one of the most 
powerful and influential of London journal 
ists. He was a friend of Bentham and 
Mill, and shared their Utilitarianism. D. 
Oct. 13, 1872. 

FONTANE, Theodor, German novelist. 
B. Dec. 30, 1819. He was a chemist in 
his early years, but turned to letters and 
journalism in 1849. His poems (Gedichte, 
1851) were largely Eationalistic. He was 
dramatic critic of the Vossische Zeitung 
(1870-90), and one of the leading German 
novelists of his time. His novels were 
republished in twelve volumes 1890-91. 
Fontane was a non-Christian Theist 
(Ettlinger s Theodor Fontane, p. 59). D. 
Sep. 20, 1898. 

FONTENELLE, Bernard le Bovier de, 

French writer, nephew of Corneille. B. 
Feb. 11, 1657. Ed. Eouen Jesuit College. 
He deserted the law for letters, and, after 

258 L 



producing some unsuccessful plays and 
poems, he published his Dialogues des 
Morts (1683) and La Plurality des Mondes 
(1686). Both are Eationalistic. Fon- 
tenelle was a Cartesian Theist, and he is 
regarded as a forerunner of the Deists. 
He entered the Academy in 1691, and 
became its Perpetual Secretary in 1697. 
His collected works were published in 
eleven vols. 1758. D. Jan. 9, 1757. 

FOOTE, George William, President of 
the National Secular Society and of the 
Secular Society, Ltd. B. Jan. 11, 1850. 
He came to London from Devonshire in 
1868, and, having already rejected Chris 
tianity, he joined the Young Men s Secular 
Association. He taught in the Hall of 
Science Sunday School and wrote in the 
National Reformer. In 1876 he established 
the Secularist with Holyoake, and became 
sole editor of it after a few issues. In 
1879 he edited the Liberal, and in 1881 he 
founded the Freethinker. He was pro 
secuted in 1883 for blasphemy, by pub 
lishing in it (among other things) certain 
Comic Bible Sketches, and suffered twelve 
months hard labour in Holloway Gaol. 
From 1883 to 1887 he edited Progress. 
He succeeded Bradlaugh as President of 
the National Secular Society. Mr. Foote, 
who professed Atheism, was a lecturer and 
debater of great power, and wrote a number 
of Freethought works. He was an assidu 
ous student of English literature, and his 
journalistic work was distinguished by a 
rare fineness and strength. It was mainly 
through his instrumentality that the legality 
of bequests for Freethought purposes was 
established a victory with which his name 
will always be identified. D. Oct. 17, 1915. 

FORBERG, Friedrich Karl, German 
philosopher. B. Aug. 30, 1770. He 
became a teacher of philosophy at Jena in 
1792, and professor in 1793. At first a 
Kantian, he adopted the ideas of Fichte, 
and was involved with him in the charge 
of Atheism. He retired from the teaching 
of philosophy, and, after publishing his 

defence (Apologie seiner angeblichen Atheis- 
mus, 1799), became archivist, councillor, 
and librarian at Coburg. Forberg was a 
less religious Pantheist than Fichte. D. 
Jan 1, 1848. 

FOREL, Professor Auguste, Swiss 
naturalist. B. Sep. 1, 1848. Ed. Zurich 
and Vienna "Universities. At first assistant 
physician in Munich Asylum (1873-79), 
he was then appointed professor of psychi 
atry at Zurich University and Director of 
the Asylum. Forel is a scholar of remark 
able range and power. His work on ants 
(Eng. trans., Ants, 1904) won the Academy 
prize; and he is an authority on the 
anatomy of the brain, insanity, prison 
reform, social morals, temperance, etc. 
Other works of his translated into English 
are The Hygiene of Nerves and Mind (1907), 
The Senses of Insects (1908), and The 
Sexual Question. His chief Rationalist 
work is Vie et Mort (1908). He describes 
himself as " an Agnostic " (Was Wir E. 
Haeckel Verdanken, i, 242), and is a founder 
of the German Monist Association. 

FORLONG, Major-General James 
George Roche, writer. B. Nov. 1824. 
He was trained as an engineer, and entered 
the service of the Indian Army in 1843. 
He was head of the Survey Bureau 
1861-71, Superintendent Engineer in Cal 
cutta 1872-76, then Secretary and Chief 
Engineer to the Government of Oudh. 
Forlong had at first done missionary work 
among the natives, but the study of com 
parative religion opened his eyes. See his 
Rivers of Life (2 vols., 1883), which Mr. 
J.M.Eobertson describes as a "great work." 
He was an Honorary Associate of the 
Eationalist Press Association, and left a 
sum of money to it at his death. D. 1904. 

FORTLAGE, Professor Karl, German 
psychologist. B. June 12, 1806. He 
became a teacher at Heidelberg in 1821, 
at Berlin in 1845, and professor of philo 
sophy at Jena in 1846. Originally an 
Hegelian, he attempted to blend Fichte s 



philosophy and empirical psychology in 
a system which he called " Transcendental 
Pantheism." His chief work is System 
der Psychologie (2 vols., 1855) ; but his 
Pantheism is best expounded in his Dar- 
stellunq und Kritik der Beiveise des Dasein 
Gottes (1840). D. Nov. 8, 1884. 

FOSCOLO, Nicolo Ugo, Italian poet. 
B. Jan. 26, 1778. Ed. Spalato, and Venice 
and Padua Universities. An enthusiastic 
follower of Alfieri [SEE] , he in 1797 pub 
lished a Deistic tragedy (Tieste), for which 
he was called before the Venetian Inquisi 
tion. He warmly greeted the French 
Eevolution and Bonaparte, and served in 
the French Army. In 1809 he was 
appointed professor of rhetoric at Pavia 
University, but the return of the Austrians 
drove him to Switzerland. Ho settled in 
London in 1816, and was much esteemed 
as a lecturer, writer, and scholar. His 
works were published in eleven volumes 
(1850-59), and there are biographies by 
Pecchio, Carrer, Artusi, Winckels, Palla- 
veri, and others. D. Sep. 14, 1827. 

FOUILLEE, Professor Alfred Jules 
Emile, Ph.D., French sociologist. B. 
Oct. 18, 1838. He taught philosophy at, 
in succession, Louhans, Auxerre, Douai, 
and Montpellier. In 1872 he was appointed 
Master of Conferences at the Bordeaux 
Normal School, but his health compelled 
him to retire in 1875. He won general 
regard by a theory of " idea-forces " (La 
psychologic, des idees-forces, 1893) as the 
real sources of progress. Fouillee was a 
spiritual and eclectic thinker, blending a 
Platonic idealism with modern evolution, 
but holding aloof from Christianity. D. 
July 16, 1912. 

FOURIER, Baron Jean Baptiste 
Joseph, French mathematician. B. Mar. 
21, 1768. Ed. Auxerre Military School. 
He entered a monastery, but quitted it 
before taking the vows, and became pro 
fessor at the Auxerre Military School. 
During the Kevolution he was an active 

Jacobin, though a distinguished scholar 
and professor at the Polytechnic ; and he 
was one of the chief men of science taken 
by Bonaparte to Egypt. Napoleon made 
him Prefect of the Isere Department and 
Baron (1808). He entered the Academy 
of Sciences in 1817, in spite of clerical- 
royalist opposition, and the Academy of 
France in 1827. He was also corre 
sponding member of the London Eoyal 
Society and other learned bodies. His 
Theorie analytique de la chaleur (1822) 
and other works are classics. D. May 16, 

FOURIER, Francois Marie Charles, 

French political economist. B. Apr. 7, 
1772. Son of a wealthy merchant and 
himself prosperous in trade, the corruption 
he saw inspired him with Socialistic ideas. 
In 1808 he expounded his social system in 
his Theorie des quatre mouvements, and 
he wrote many other works. Fourierism 
was little noticed until near the end of his 
life. Fourier was mystic, but non-Christian. 
D. Oct. 8, 1837. 

FOX, the Right Honourable Charles 
James, statesman. B. Jan. 24, 1749. Ed. 
Eton and Oxford (Hertford College). Son 
of Baron Holland [SEE] , he entered Par 
liament as a Tory in 1768, became Junior 
Lord of the Admiralty in 1770, and (having 
passed to the Whigs) Lord of the Treasury 
in 1773 and Foreign Secretary in 1782. 
His powerful and brilliant oratory was 
used constantly in the service of reform. 
He opposed the American and French 
Wars, greeted the fall of the Bastille as 
"one of the greatest and best events in 
history," pleaded the abolition of the Slave 
Trade and the removal of the disabilities 
of Catholics and Dissenters, and pressed 
for Parliamentary Eeform. He was the 
most enlightened, and one of the ablest, 
of British statesmen of the period, and, 
though he wrote nothing, he was a man 
of rare culture. His private life was much 
criticized, but Gibbon, who knew him well, 
says : " Perhaps no human being was ever 



more perfectly exempt from the taint of 
malevolence, vanity, or falsehood " (Mis- > 
cell. Works, i, 168). His nephew and ! 
intimate, Lord Holland (who was present 
at his death), told Greville that Fox was 
" no believer in religion," and that, while 
he allowed his wife to have prayers said 
at his death-bed, he " paid little attention 
to the ceremony," as he " did not like to 
pretend any sentiments he did not enter 
tain " (Greville s Memoirs, iv, 159). Lord 
Holland says much the same in his 
Memoirs of the Whig Party (1852). D. 
Sep. 13, 1806. 

FOX, Elizabeth Yassall, Lady Holland. 
B. 1770. She married Sir G. Webster, 
but the union was dissolved in 1797, and 
she married H. B. Fox, the third Baron 
Holland. At Holland House she presided 
over the most brilliant gatherings in Lon 
don, which continued after the death of 
Lord Holland. She was one of the most 
remarkable women of the time, " a social 
light which illuminated and adorned Eng 
land, and even Europe, for half a century " 
(Greville s Memoirs, v, 313). She was, 
Greville says, "known to be \vholly 
destitute of religious opinions " (p. 314), 
and her calmness at death puzzled the 
orthodox. The Hon. H. J. Coke, who 
knew her in her later years, confirms that 
she disbelieved in immortality (Tracks of 
a Boiling Stone, 1905, p. 13). D. Nov. 16, 

FOX, Henry, first Baron Holland, 
statesman. B. Sep. 28, 1705. Ed. Eton. 
He was elected M.P. for Hindon in 1735, 
and was Survey or- General of Works 
1737-42, Lord of the Treasury in 1743, 
Secretary of War and Privy Councillor in 
1746, Secretary of War and leader of the 
House of Commons 1755-56, and again 
leader of the House of Commons in 1762. 
In the following year he retired from 
public life, and was created Baron Holland. 
Lord Chesterfield says in his Characters 
that Fox had "no fixed principles either 
of religion or morality " ; but in the latter 


respect we read (Chalmers s Biog. Diet.) 
that he was " an excellent husband " and 
" possessed in abundance the milk of 
human kindness." He was the father of 
Charles James Fox. D. July 1, 1774. 

FOX, Henry Richard Yassall, M.A. r 
third Baron Holland. B. Nov. 21, 1773. 
Ed. Eton and Oxford (Christ s Church). 
He took his seat in the House of Lords in 
1796 and supported his uncle, C. J. Fox, 
advocating the same Liberal reforms. The- 
name of Vassall was adopted on account 
of an inheritance acquired by Lady Hol 
land [SEE] . In 1816 he opposed the- 
detention of Napoleon, and he supported 
the Greek and Spanish insurgents. In 
1830 he was named Chancellor of the- 
Duchy of Lancaster. Holland House was 
the brilliant centre of English heterodoxy- 
in his time, and Greville, who frequented 
it, often reproduces Lord Holland s hereti 
cal opinions. Sydney Smith, another 
frequent visitor, says of Lord Holland : 
" There never existed in any human being, 
a better heart, or one more purified from 
all the bad passions, more abounding 
in charity and compassion, and which 
seemed to be so created as a refuge to the 
helpless and oppressed." D. Oct. 22,, 

FOX, William Johnson, preacher and 
politician. B. Mar. 1, 1786. Ed. chapel 
school, Norwich. He had to earn his- 
living as a boy, but he privately studied 
Greek, Latin, and mathematics, and in_ 
1810 he became a Congregationalist 
minister. He exchanged that body for 
the Unitarians two years later, and in 
1824 became minister of South Place 
Chapel, which was built for him. Accept 
ing the moral philosophy of Bentham, he 
threw himself into the reform movements 
of the time " he was the bravest of us 
all," Francis Place said and was recog 
nized as one of the finest orators in Lon 
don. Mill, Harriet Martineau, and others 
contributed to his Monthly Eepository. 
Before his retirement from South Place,. 



in 1852, he and the Chapel abandoned 
Unitarian orthodoxy and reached a liberal 
Theism. He was one of the chief speakers 
of the Anti-Corn Law League and an advo 
cate of disestablishment and secular educa 
tion. See Life of W. J. Fox, by Dr. E. 
and E. Garnett (1910). D. June 3, 1864. 

FRANCE, Jacques Anatole, French 
novelist. B. Apr. 16, 1844. Ed. College 
Stanislas, Paris. He inaugurated his great 
literary career with a biographical study, 
Alfred de Vigny, in 1868, followed by 
Poemes dorcs in 1873. Meantime he 
worked at journalism, and he was librarian 
at the Senate. In 1881 his Crime de 
Sylvestre Bonnard opened his brilliant 
series of novels. He was admitted to the 
Legion of Honour in 1895, and to the 
Academy in 1896. Besides his novels 
France has written a drastic criticism of 
the Church, L eglise et la republique (1905) ; 
and his complete rejection of all religious 
doctrines is recorded in an interview in 
A. Brisson s work, Les Prophetes (1903). 
M. France is Honorary President of the 
French National Association of Free 
thinkers. In the course of a piquant 
letter which he addressed to the Free- 
thought Congress at Paris in 1905, he 
said : " The thoughts of the gods are not 
more unchangeable than those of the men 
who interpret them. They advance but 
they always lag behind the thoughts of 

men The Christian God was once a 

Jew. Now he is an anti-Semite." 

FRANCK, Professor Adolph, French 
philosopher. B. Oct. 9, 1809. Ed, Nancy 
and Toulouse. He became professor of 
philosophy at the College Charlemagne in 
1840, and member of the Institut and pro 
fessor of classical languages at the College 
de France in 1844 ; and he was professor of 
law at the same college 1858-81. Franck 
was a Eationalistic Jew, and author of many 
works on philosophy, law, ethics, and 
Judaism. He edited the Dictionnaire des 
sciences philosophiques (6 vols., 1843-49). 
D. Apr. 11, 1893. 


Count Nicolas Louis, French poet and 
statesman. B. Apr. 17, 1750. Ed. Jesuit 
College, Neuf chateau. A volume of poems 
(Poesies diverses) which he published in his 
fifteenth year secured for him admission 
into four provincial academies. The town 
of Neufchateau adopted him (hence his 
name), and Voltaire tried to secure him as 
secretary. He studied law and became 
Lieutenant-General, then General Procu 
rator of Haiti. He accepted the moderate 
principles of the Eevolution, sat in the 
Legislative Assembly, and was Minister of 
the Interior 1797-99 and Director in 1798. 
In 1804 Napoleon made him Count and 
President of the Senate. His literary 
output was very great, and he remained a 
Deist to the end (see, especially, Le Con- 
servateur, 2 vols., 1800). D. Jan. 10, 1828. 

FRANKLAND, Sir Edward, K.C.B., 
Ph.D., D.C.L., LL.D., F.E.S., chemist. 
B. Jan. 18, 1825. Ed. Eoyal Grammar 
School, Lancaster. He was apprenticed 
to chemistry in 1840, and in 1847-48 
taught the science at Queenwood College. 
Tyndall and he then spent a year at Mar 
burg University. In 1850 he accepted the 
chair of chemistry at Putney Engineering 
College, and began to do distinguished 
work in his science. In 1857 he received 
the royal medal of the Eoyal Society, and 
became lecturer on chemistry at St. Bar 
tholomew s Hospital. He passed to the 
Eoyal Institution in 1863, and to the 
Eoyal College of Chemistry in 1865. 
Frankland was, says Professor Hartog, 
"an exceptionally brilliant and accom 
plished man of science " (Diet. Nat. Biog.), 
and was loaded with honours. He won 
the Copley Medal, and was corresponding 
member of the French, Berlin, Bavarian, 
Petrograd, Bohemian, and Upsala Aca 
demies of Science. He was President of 
the Chemical Society 1871-73, and of the 
Institute of Chemistry 1877-80. Very 
religious in his youth, he came to abandon 
"the fundamental dogmas of the Christian 
religion," including a personal God and 



personal immortality (Sketches from the 
Life of E. Frankland, 1902, pp. 47-8, an 
autobiography). D. Aug. 9, 1899. 

FRANKLIN, Benjamin, LL.D., F.E.S., 
American statesman. B. (Boston) 17 Jan., 
1706. He was intended for the Church, 
but was apprenticed to printing, and, 
educating himself, read Shaftesbury and 
Collins, and became a Deist. During a 
stay in England (1725-26) he published 
a Deistic pamphlet. In 1726 he set up as 
a printer at Philadelphia, and in 1729 
bought the Pennsylvania Gazette. He 
founded the Philadelphia Library in 1731, 
and was clerk of the General Assembly in 
1736, and Postmaster- General in 1737. 
In 1744 he established the American 
Philosophical Society, and during the next 
twenty years he devoted himself to science 
and invention. He got the Copley Medal 
in 1753, degrees from Oxford and Edin 
burgh in 1762, and membership of the 
Eoyal Society. In 1753 he became Post 
master-General for the Colonies, and he 
represented them in London from 1764 to 
1775. He signed the Declaration of Inde 
pendence, and in 1785 he was President of 
Pennsylvania. Fiske regards him as "in 
many respects the greatest of Americans " 
(Appleton s Cyclopaedia of American Biog.). 
In his Autobiography he records that he 
quitted the Presbyterian Church in 1734, 
retaining only a belief in God and a future 
life (1909 ed., pp. 185-88). D. Apr. 17, 

FRANSHAM, John, writer. B. 1730. 
He began to study for the Church, but was 
compelled to seek work as apprentice to 
a cooper at the age of fifteen. From 
strolling player, then weaver, he became 
a teacher (1750), and won considerable 
repute as a coach. He published a few 
tracts, but at his death he left six volumes 
of manuscript and a work of Chubb s with 
Deistic annotations. From these MSS. 
the Diet. Nat. Biog. shows that he was 
a drastic Eationalist. D. Feb. 1, 1810. 


FRAUENSTADT, Christian Martin 
Julius, German philosophical writer. B, 
Apr. 17, 1813. Ed. Berlin University. 
At first an Hegelian, he in 1847 became 
a close friend and one of the chief cham 
pions of Schopenhauer, whose literary 
executor he was. He wrote a number 
of works (especially a Schopenhauer Lexi 
con, 2 vols., 1871) in defence of his master 
(whose pessimism he modified) and on the 
relations of science and philosophy to 
religion. D. Jan. 13, 1879. 

FRAZER, Sir James George, D.C.L., 
LL.D., Litt.D., anthropologist. B. 3854. 
His first work, Totemism, appeared in 1887, 
and in 1890 he issued the first volume of 
his monumental Golden Bough, of which 
the twelfth volume appeared in 1915. He 
had written other works of history and 
anthropology, and he has been professor of 
social anthropology at Liverpool since 
1907. He was knighted in 1914, and is 
a Fellow of the British Academy, Honorary 
Fellow of the Eoyal Society of Edinburgh, 
and Corresponding Member of the Eoyal 
Prussian Academy of Science. His Eation- 
alism is generally implicit, but in the 
Preface to the second edition of The Golden 
Bough (1900, p. xxii) he acknowledges that 
his work " strikes at the foundations of 
beliefs in which the hopes and aspirations 
of humanity through long ages have sought 
a refuge." His last volume, Folklore in 
the Old Testament (1918), dissipates many 
popular Biblical myths. 

FREDERICK II, King of Prussia. B. 
Jan. 24, 1712. The severe education 
which his father imposed on him restrained 
his artistic impulses and led to unpleasant 
relations between them until he acceded to 
the throne in 1740. Apart from his wars 
and the Machiavellian features of his 
diplomacy, Frederick s long reign was 
beneficent to his country. He abolished 
serfdom on the royal domains, founded 
new industries, granted freedom of speech 
and religion, codified the laws, improved 
the finance, and greatly promoted art, 



letters, and education. In his Anti- 
Machiavel (written before his accession) 
he defines the monarch as " the first 
servant of the State." For German 
nationalism he had contempt, and his 
court became a centre of international 
culture and Rationalism. His opinions 
are freely expressed in his letters to 
Voltaire and others, and he wrote a 
number of works, of which the collected 
edition comprises thirty - one volumes 
(1846-57). D. Aug. 17, 1786. 

FREKE, William, mystic writer. B. 
1662. Ed. Somerford and Oxford (Wad- 
ham). Although he studied law and was 
called to the Bar, he never practised. In 
1693 he began to issue pamphlets attacking 
the Trinity, one of which was burned by 
the hangman, and Freke was fined 500. 
From 1696 to 1744 he was a Justice of the 
Peace. In 1709 he renounced even Uni- 
tarianism and posed as a Rationalistic 
visionary. D. Jan., 1744. 

FREILIGRATH, Ferdinand, German 
poet. B. June 17, 1810. Ed. Detmold 
Gymnasium. He was a business man, 
but a volume of poems which he published 
in 1838 was so esteemed that he turned to 
letters. He wrote forty volumes in forty 
years, and was one of the outstanding 
German writers of the time. In 1844 he 
candidly expressed his Rationalism and 
advanced political views in Mein Glaubens- 
bekenntniss, and he was compelled to leave 
Germany and live for a time in England. 
The same happened in 1851, and it was 
only in 1868 that he settled finally in 
Germany. His poems (6 vols., 1870) are 
greatly valued in German literature. D. 
Mar. 18, 1876. 

FREND, William, B.A., writer. B. 
Nov. 22, 1757. Ed. Canterbury (King s 
School) and Cambridge (Christ s College). 
He took orders and was vicar of Madingley, 
but he resigned in 1787 and wrote various 
pamphlets against the Church, which he 
called " a system of folly and superstition 

which disgraces human nature " (Mr. 
Coulthurst s Blunders Exposed). Christ s 
College expelled him, and he settled in 
London and associated with Home Tooke 
and Sir F. Burdett in various reforms. 
Frend remained a Theist, but he wore 
brass buttons in order to emphasize his 
severance from the Christian ministry. D. 
Feb. 21, 1841. 

FRERE-ORBAN, Hubert Joseph 
Walther, Belgian statesman. B. Apr. 24, 
1812. He was a very able lawyer of Liege, 
and local leader of the Liberals. He was 
returned to the Chambre in 1847, and he 
was Minister of Public Works in 1847 and 
Minister of Finance 1848-52. In 1857 he 
brought down the Catholic Ministry and 
was again Minister of Finance (to 1870). 
He was Premier 1868-70 and 1878-84, 
and drastically checked the Clericals. -D. 
Jan. 2, 1896. 

FRERET, Nicolas, French writer. B. 
Feb. 15, 1688. A Parisian lawyer and 
scholar, he was one of the first Frenchmen 
to avow himself an Atheist (in his Lettre 
de Thrasybule d Leucippe, 1758). Freret 
was a voluminous and learned writer 
(collected works in 20 vols., 1796), and was 
admitted to the Academy of Inscriptions 
in 1714, and became its Perpetual Secretary 
in 1742. D. Mar. 8, 1749. 

FREYCINET, Charles Louis de 
Saulce de, French statesman. B. Nov. 14, 
1828. He held a high position on the 
railways from 1856 to 1861, and under 
took various scientific expeditions for the 
Government between 1862 and 1867. In 
1870 Gambetta made him Chief of the 
Military Cabinet, and he entered the 
Senate in 1876. He was President of the 
Senate 1879-81, Minister of Public Works 
in 1877, twice Minister of War (1888-93 
and 1899), twice Foreign Minister (1879-81, 
1885-86), and three times Premier (1882- 
85, 1886, 1890-92). Freycinet, Officer of 
the Legion of Honour, member of the 
Academy, and author of several mathe- 



matioal and economic works, has through 
out his distinguished career consistently 
supported the Eationalist Left. 

FREYTAG, Gustav, German novelist. 
B. July 13, 1816. Ed. Ols Gymnasium, 
and Breslau and Berlin Universities. In 
1839 he was appointed teacher of German 
literature at Berlin University, but he 
devoted himself to writing and became one 
of the most distinguished novelists of the 
mid-century. From 1848 to 1870 he was 
joint editor of Die Grenzboten. For a time 
he sat in the North German Eeichstag, 
and he became Privy Councillor in 1854. 
His chief novels are Soil und Haben 
(3 vols., 1855) and Die Verlorene Hand- 
schrift .(1864) ; and he wrote also dramas 
and a six-volume history of Germany. 
His Eationalism is freely expressed in his 
letters and essays. The collected edition 
of his works (1886-88) runs to twenty-two 
volumes. D. Apr. 30, 1895. 

FRIES, Professor Jakob Friedrich, 

German philosopher. B. Aug. 23, 1773. 
Ed. Jena. He became a teacher of philo 
sophy at Jena in 1801, professor in 1804, 
professor at Heidelberg in 1805, and he 
was again at Jena 1816-19. Suspended 
for some years on account of his political 
action, he went back to Jena as professor 
of mathematics in 1824, and he returned 
to the chair of philosophy in 1825. His 
works on philosophy are numerous and 
important. A Moravian Brother in early 
life, he abandoned the creed for Kantism. 
which he later combined with the mysticism 
of Jacobi in what he called " ^Esthetic 
Eationalism." Experience is the only 
source of knowledge, but faith reaches 
spiritual realities. D. Aug. 10, 1843. 

FROEBEL, Friedrich, German educa 
tionist. B. Apr. 21, 1782. Son of a 
Lutheran pastor of Thuringia, he was 
early apprenticed to a forester, and was 
then employed under the Office of Woods 
and Forests. He became a surveyor, and 
later an architect. After studying educa- 


tion under Pestalozzi, he opened a school 
at Greisheim, and in 1826 he published his 
famous work on education, Die Menschener- 
ziehung. The Prussian Government forbade 
his Kindergartens, partly on the ground 
that he refused to teach Christianity. He 
was a Pantheist and non-Christian, but the 
hostility of the clergy to his reforms of 
education made him discreet in his language. 
See F. Froebel s Weltanschauung, by H. 
Goldammer (1866), and Pastor Schmeidler s 
Die Beligiosen Anschauungen F. Froebels 
(1883). Both admit that he was a Eation 
alist. D. July 21, 1852. 

FROTHINGHAM, Octavius Brooks, 

American lecturer and writer. B. Nov. 26, 
1822. Ed. Harvard, and Cambridge 
Divinity School. He was a Unitarian 
minister at Salem (1847), Jersey City 
(1855), and New York (1859-79). Adopting 
the views of the Transcendentalists, he 
broke with the Unitarian body, and changed 
the name of his church to " Independent 
Liberal." He founded, and was first Presi 
dent of, the Free Eeligious Association. 
His later years were devoted to writing 
(translation of Eenan, histories of Tran 
scendentalism, etc.) and lecturing. D. 
Nov. 27, 1895. 

FROUDE, James Anthony, M.A., 

historian. B. Apr. 23, 1818. Ed. West 
minster School and Oxford (Oriel). At 
Oriel he joined the Tractarians. Although 
he already in 1843 felt the influence of 
Carlyle and Goethe, he took orders in 1844, 
but he did not go beyond the diaconate, 
and his faith rapidly disappeared. In 1847 
he published a novel, Shadows of the Clouds, 
in which he described a character, which 
was identified with himself, as a pure 
Theist, regarding all beyond as " shifting 
cloud " (p. 180). His outspoken Nemesis 
of Faith completed his breach with the 
Church in 1849, and he resigned his fellow 
ship of Exeter College. Living for a time 
as a tutor, he began his great History of 
England, on which he spent twenty years. 
The publication of the first two volumes in 



1856 at once put him in the front rank 
of British writers. In 1872 the Clergy 
Disabilities Belief Act enabled him to sur 
render his orders. In 1876 he was appointed 
with Huxley on the Scottish Universities 
Commission ; and in 1892 he became, to 
the anger of the clergy, Regius Professor of 
Modern History at Oxford. He was sole 
literary executor of Carlyle. Froude, who 
was much more of an artist than a thinker, 
remained all his life a Theist. D. Oct. 20, 

FRY, John, writer. B. 1609. He was 
a Member of Parliament in 1648, and was 
on the committee for the trial of the King. 
Suspended in the House of Commons for 
blasphemy, he professed some sort of faith 
in the Trinity, but his later pamphlet, The 
Clergy in their Colours, was so heterodox 
that it was burned. Wood (Athen. Oxon., 
iii, 704-707) shows that he was a Deist. 
D. 1656 or 1657. 

FULLER, Sarah Margaret, Marchioness 
of Ossoli, American writer. B. May 23, 
1810. Ed. by father and at private schools. 
She began to learn Latin at six, and Greek 
at thirteen. Teaching in a school at Boston, 
she joined the Transcendentalists and edited 
their Dial, In 1844 she was literary critic 
of the New York Tribune. Settling at 
Rome in 1846, she married the Marquis of 
Ossoli in the following year. He took an 
active part in the rebellion against the 
Papacy and had to fly, and both were 
drowned within sight of New York. 
Margaret Fuller, a brilliant literary woman, 
was mystic and Theistic (or Pantheistic), 
but followed Goethe rather than the Boston 
school. " You see how wide the gulf that 
separates me from the Christian Church," 
she says in her Credo (Appendix to Braun s 
Margaret Fuller and Goethe, 1910, p. 254). 
Emerson, Channing, and T. W. Higginson 
wrote biographies of her. D. June 16, 

FURBRINGER, Professor Max, Ph.D., 
M.D., German anatomist. B. Jan. 30, 1846. 


Ed. Gera Gymnasium, and Jena and Berlin 
Universities. He was anatomical assistant 
at Jena 1870-73, prosector at Heidelberg 
1874-79, professor of anatomy at Heidel 
berg 1876-79, at Amsterdam 1879-88, and 
at Jena 1888-1901 ; and he has been back 
at Heidelberg University since 1901. Fiir- 
bringer is a Privy Councillor, and one of 
the leading anatomists of Germany. In 
Was Wir E. Haeckel Verdanken (1914, 
ii, 335-50) he acknowledges himself a 
Monist, and warmly eulogizes Haeckel as 
a hero of science" and "prophet" of 

FURNIYALL, Frederick James, M.A., 
Ph.D., D.Litt., writer. B. Feb. 4, 1825. 
Ed. London University College and Cam 
bridge (Trinity Hall). He was called to 
the Bar (Gray s Inn) in 1849, but devoted 
himself to social work. Although he worked 
for many years with the Christian Socialists, 
he had abandoned Christianity in his early 
manhood. He was an outspoken Agnostic, 
and a zealous Honorary Associate of the 
R. P. A. until he died. He helped to found 
the Working Men s College in 1854, giving 
much time to it, and was very active in the 
Sunday League and other reform bodies. 
In literature he had a very high position, 
founding the Early English Text Society, 
and the Chaucer, Wyclif, Shelley, and 
Browning Societies. Furnivall was as high 
and genial in character as he was beneficent 
in his activity. He was a fellow of Trinity 
Hall and of the British Academy, and had 
honorary degrees from Berlin and Oxford. 
D. July 2, 1910. 

GADOW, Hans Friedrich, M.A., Ph.D., 

F.R.S., zoologist. B. (Pomerania) Mar. 8, 
1855. Ed. Frankfort-on-Oder, and Berlin, 
Jena, and Heidelberg Universities. From 
1880 to 1882 he was in the Natural History 
Department of the British Museum, and 
since 1884 he has been Strickland Curator 
and Lecturer on Zoology at Cambridge 
University. He translated Haeckel s Last 
Link (1898), and has done important work 
in his science. In Was Wir E. Haeckel 



Verdanken (1914, ii, 160-64) he has high 
praise of his old master, Haeckel, " the 
most far-seeing of all zoologists," and he 
describes himself as Agnostic. 

GAGE, Matilda Joslyn, American writer. 
B. Mar. 24, 1826. Ed. New York. Daughter 
of an Abolitionist, Dr. Joslyn, she was 
brought up in a zeal for reform, and after 
1852 she was prominent in the Abolitionist 
and Suffrage movements. In 1872 she was 
President of the National Women Suffrage 
Association, and she edited The National 
Citizen (1878-81), and co-operated with 
Miss Anthony [SEE] in writing the monu 
mental History of Woman Suffrage (3 vols., 
1881-86). Mrs. Gage was one of the most 
advanced of the Rationalist women who 
were the soul of the movement in America 
(see her Woman, Church, and State, 1893). 
D. Mar. 18, 1898. 

GAIDOZ, Henri, French philologist. B. 
1842. Ed, Paris and Berlin. He was 
appointed professor of geography and ethno 
graphy at the Ecole Libre des Sciences 
Politiques in 1872, and professor of Celtic 
at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes 
in 1876. Gaidoz founded the Revue Celtique 
(1870) and the folklore magazine Nelusine 
(1877). He has published many valuable 
works on Celtic literature and comparative 
mythology of a pronounced Rationalist 

GALDOS, Benito Perez, Spanish novelist 
and dramatist. B. 1845. Ed. State College, 
Canaries (where he was born), and Madrid 
University. From law, in which he was 
trained, he turned to letters, and became 
the most eminent and respected of modern 
Spanish writers. He has written about 
seventy novels, of which twenty (Episodios 
Nacionales) form an historical series cover 
ing the whole period of the struggle with 
the Church. He has also written sixteen 
plays, the most successful of which, Electro, 
(1901), brilliantly symbolizes the struggle 
of Church and Rationalism for the soul 
of Spain. Galdos, who was Republican 

member of the Cortes for Madrid and 
member of the Spanish Academy, rendered 
magnificent service to Rationalism in Spain. 
The British Royal Society of Literature 
awarded him its medal on the ground that 
he was " the most distinguished living 
representative of Spanish literature." D. 
Jan. 4, 1920. 

GALIANI, Fernando, Italian statesman. 
B. Dec. 2, 1728. Ed. Rome and Naples 
Universities. He entered the clergy, and 
became canon of Amalfi in 1755. The 
King of Naples appointed him Secretary 
of State in 1759, and he was Secretary of 
the Legation at Paris from 1760 to 1769. 
Already a distinguished scholar, he asso 
ciated with the Encyclopaedists, and his 
correspondence with them (published in 
1818) shows that he was a Deist, though 
he kept the ecclesiastical title of Abbe. 
In 1769 he returned to Naples, and was 
Councillor of the Commercial Tribunal. 
D. Oct. 30, 1787. 

GALL, Franz Joseph, German anato 
mist. B. Mar. 9, 1758. Ed. Strassburg 
and Vienna Universities. He practised 
medicine at Vienna, but was much perse 
cuted for his Rationalistic writings and 
his phrenological views. Removing to 
Paris in 1807, he lectured there and 
in London on phrenology. Apart from 
phrenology, Gall contributed materially to 
our knowledge of the brain and nerves. 
His works are on the Index, and he refused 
religious ministration at death. D. Aug. 22, 

GALLATIN, Albert, American states 
man. B. (Geneva) Jan. 29, 1761. Ed. 
Geneva University (first in mathematics, 
natural philosophy, and Latin translation). 
Developing advanced ideas in his youth, 
he left Switzerland for the United States 
in 1780, and spent some years of struggle 
as trader, teacher, farmer, and store-keeper. 
He acquired wealth, and entered politics in 
1790 as a member of the State Legislature. 
In 1793 he was returned to the Senate, 



but was not qualified by sufficiently long 
residence in America. He was sent to 
Congress in 1795, and became Secretary to 
the Treasury in 1801. This office he held 
until 1813, and his mastery of finance was 
of great service to the States. From 1815 
to 1823 he was minister to France at 
Paris, and in 1826-27 he was envoy extra 
ordinary to Great Britain. In later years 
he devoted himself to history, ethnology, 
and education, and helped to found the 
New York University. His biographer, 
J. A. Stevens (in the " American Statesmen 
Series, 1884), remarks that his aim was 
to have " a foundation free from the 
influence of clergy." He, in fact, soon 
resigned from the Council, because " a 
certain portion of the clergy had obtained 
control." His son, James Gallatin, makes 
it clear in his diary (A Great Peacemaker, 
1914) that Albert Gallatin adopted in his 
youth the Deism of Voltaire, who had 
been a warm friend f his grandmother. 
Count Gallatin (who edits the Diary) says 
the same in his Preface. Gallatin was an 
idealistic statesman as well as an able 
financier. He worked for peace and 
attacked slavery. D. Aug. 12, 1849. 

GALSWORTHY, John, writer. B. 1867. 
Ed. Harrow and Oxford. Mr. Galsworthy 
does not encourage biographers, but he 
was called to the Bar in 1890 and turned 
to letters (Jocelyn) eight years afterwards. 
To date he has written a score of novels 
and ten plays, and is a great force for 
progressive ideas. His Rationalism is best 
seen in his Moods, Songs, and Doggerels 
(1911). The opening poem, " A Dream," 
is dimly Theistic. " My faith but shadows 
that required of men." 

GALTON, Sir Francis, D.Sc., D.C.L., 
F.R.S., founder of Eugenics. B. Feb. 16, 
1822, grandson of Erasmus Darwin. Ed. 
Birmingham (King Edward s School), 
London (King s College), and Cambridge 
(Trinity College). His father, a Quaker, 
having left him a fortune, he gave himself 
to travel and sport, with an increasing 

interest in science. In 1863 he became 
general secretary of the British Association. 
His studies in heredity began in 1865, and 
four years later he published his Hereditary 
Genius. In 1884 he founded an anthro- 
pometric laboratory. For the science of 
Eugenics (a name invented by him) he 
founded a research fellowship and a 
scholarship at University College, and left 
45,000 to found a chair. He was knighted 
in 1909, and he held medals from the 
English and French Geographical Societies, 
the Huxley medal, the Darwin medal, the 
Darwin-Wallace medal, etc. Professor K. 
Pearson says in his Life and Letters of F. 
Gallon (i, 207): "There is little doubt 
that from this period [1846] he ceased to 
be an orthodox Christian in the customary 
sense." Galton himself says, more can 
didly, in a letter to Darwin : " Your book 
drove away the constraint of my old 
superstition, as if it had been a nightmare " 
(p. 207). D. Jan. 17, 1911. 

GAMBETTA, Leon Michel, French 
statesman. B. Apr. 3, 1838. He was 
admitted to the Paris Bar in 1859, and it 
was not long before he made himself 
conspicuous as a Rationalist politician. 
He made drastic attacks, in court, on the 
reactionary second Empire, and, entering 
Parliament, led the Deputies of the Left. 
In 1870 he was Minister of the Interior in 
the Provisional Government, and in 1871 
he founded La Republique Franqaise. 
During the seventies he was the most 
powerful opponent of the Royalist-Clerical 
reaction, and their political intrigues 
brought out his famous war-cry : " Le 
clericalisme voila 1 ennemi." He was 
President of the Chambre in 1879 ; Pre 
mier in 1881. The modern Republic, and 
French Rationalism, owe an incalculable 
debt to his energy and oratory. D, Dec. 31, 

GAMBON, Ferdinand Charles, French 
politician. B. Mar. 19, 1820. A lawyer, 
and editor of the Journal des Ecoles, he 
entered Parliament in 1848 as an ardent 




progressive. The Emperor drove him from 
France, to which he returned in 1859. 
During the War he was Deputy for Paris, 
and he was imprisoned for his share in the 
Commune. D. Sep. 17, 1887. 

GARCIA-YAO, Antonio Rodriguez, 

Spanish writer. B. 1862. Ed. Institute 
of Cardinal Cisneros and Madrid Univer 
sity. A successful Madrid lawyer, he 
joined the Liberal and Eationalist move 
ment, and contributed to the Freethought 
organ, Las Dominicales del Libre Pensa- 
miento. His works are Eationalistic. He 
was assassinated Dec. 18, 1886. 

GARDENER, Helen Hamilton. See 

DAY, H. H. G. 

GARIBALDI, Giuseppe, Italian soldier. 
B. July 4, 1807. Son of a sailor of Nice, 
he went to sea at an early age, though his 
father wanted him to be a priest. He 
took part in the conspiracy of 1834, and 
had to fly from Italy. After an adven 
turous life, partly in South America, he 
returned to Italy, and began to take a 
leading part in the struggle for emancipa 
tion. After the failure of the Eepublic of 
1848 he went again to America, returning 
to Italy in 1859, and leading his famous 
expedition to Sicily and Naples in 1860. 
He fought fresh campaigns in 1862 and 
1866, and in 1870 he served in the French 
Army against Germany. In 1872 he was 
elected to the Italian Parliament. Gari 
baldi had a profound contempt for Eome 

- the Sacred Shop," as he called it and 
all creeds and ecclesiastical institutions 
(The Birth of Modern Italy, by J. W. Mario, 
1909, p. 199). He rejected Mazzini s 
Theism and had no religion. In his Life 
of Giuseppe Garibaldi (1881) Bent quotes 
a letter of his, written in 1880 (near 
the end of his life), which runs : " Dear 
Friends, Man has created God ; not God 
man. Yours ever, Garibaldi." Bent shows 
that to his last moment he discarded all 
religion (p. 299). D. June 2, 1882. 


GARNETT, Edward William, writer. 
B. 1868. Son of Dr, Eichard Garnett, ho 
opened his literary career in 1888 with the 
novel, The Paradox Club. He has written 
three plays, besides several novels, intro 
duced various Eussian novels (translated by 
Mrs. Garnett), and edited " The Overseas 
Library." Perhaps his most characteristic 
publication is the volume of prose poems, 
An Imaged World (1894) ; but his Eation- 
alism is best seen in his completion of his 
father s Life of W. J. Fox (1910, p. 298, 

GARNETT, Lucy Mary Jane, writer. 
Daughter of Thos. Garnett, F.E.C.S., she 
has lived many years in the East, and her 
works on Greece and Turkey are of value. 
She discusses the Turks without Christian 
bias, and is equally impartial in her Greek 
Folk-Poesy (1885). In 1893 she received 
a Civil List Pension for her services to 

GARNETT, Richard, LL.D., C.B., 
writer. B. Feb. 27, 1835. Ed. private 
school. He read Greek, German, and 
Italian at the age of thirteen, and, 
refusing to go to Oxford or Cambridge, he 
entered the service of the British Museum. 
In 1875 he became Assistant-Keeper of 
printed books and superintendent of the 
reading room, and in 1890 Keeper. He 
was president of the Bibliographical 
Society 1895-97, and he retired from the 
Museum in 1899. His Twilight of the 
Gods (1903) and Life of W. J. Fox (1910) 
show that he " cherished a genuine and 
somewhat mystical sense of religion, which 
I combined hostility to priestcraft and dogma 
with a modified belief in astrology " (Diet. 
Nat. Biog.}. D. Apr. 13, 1906. 

GARRISON, William Lloyd, American 
reformer. B. Dec. 10, 1805. He was 
apprenticed to printing while still a boy, 
worked up to journalism, and in 1826 
edited the Newburyport Free Press. It 
was in 1829 that he took up the cause of 
Abolition, and in 1831 (after a term of 



imprisonment) he founded The Liberator 
at Boston. In the following year he 
established the New England Anti-Slavery 
Society. Tn the terrific struggle which he 
sustained the clergy everywhere, even the 
Unitarian (in very large part), were his 
bitterest opponents, and the Bible was 
freely used against him. The clergy 
refused at times even to baptize children 
in his name. Like his best workers, 
Garrison was a nationalist, and he helped 
others to Rationalism. In the biography 
written by his children (W. L. Garrison, 
4 vols., 1885-89) it is shown that he was 
a Theist, but had " quite freed himself 
from the trammels of orthodoxy" (iv, 336). 
He never went to church, and he rejected 
all Christian doctrines. He eulogized 
Paine and freely criticized the Churches 
in his Liberator (iii, 145-47, 267, etc.). D. 
May 24, 1879. 

GARTH, Sir Samuel, M.A., M.D., 
physician. B. 1661. Ed. Ingleton, Cam 
bridge (Peterhouse), and Leyden. Settling 
in practice in London, he entered the 
College of Physicians in 1693, and was 
Gulstonian Lecturer in 1694 and Harveian 
Orator in 1697. He was one of the most 
eminent physicians of the time, a caustic 
and learned critic, and a notorious Ration 
alist (Chalmers s Biog. Diet.). Pope ob 
served that he was " a good Christian 
without knowing it." Reimmann (Historia 
Universalis Atheismi, p. 463) says that he 
had no religious beliefs. D. Jan. 18, 1719. 

GAUTIER, Theophile, French novelist. 
B. Aug. 31, 1811. Ed. College Charle 
magne, Paris. He abandoned painting, 
which he had studied, for letters, and 
was at first enthusiastic for V. Hugo 
and Romanticism. His Premieres Poesies 
appeared in 1830, and it was followed five 
years later, after a few stories and volumes 
of verse, by Mademoiselle de Maupin, which 
closed the Academy against him. His art 
is at its best in his Emaux et Camees (1852), 
while his Capitaine Fracasse (2 vols., 1863) 
is considered " a classic of Romanticism." 

His later work, however, departs from that 
school, but all his writings from first to 
last are disdainful of religion. D. Oct. 23, 

GAY-LUSSAC, Joseph Louis, French 
chemist. B. Dec. 6, 1778. Ed. Ecole 
Polytechnique, Paris. Berthollet chose him 
as his assistant in 1797, and he calmly 
pursued his science throughout the political 
changes. In 1809 he was appointed pro 
fessor of chemistry at the Polytechnic, in 
1829 Chief Assayer to the Mint, and in 
1832 professor of chemistry at the Jardin 
des Plantes. He entered the Chambre in 
1831, sitting on the Left, and was created 
Peer in 1839. Gay-Lussac was one of the 
greatest chemists of the time, and he shared 
the views of his close friends Arago and 
A. von Humboldt in regard to religion. D. 
May 9, 1850. 

GEIJER, Erik Gustaf, Swedish his 
torian. B. Jan. 12, 1783. Ed. Upsala 
University. He won the Grand Prize of 
the Swedish Academy in 1803, and became 
teacher of history at Upsala University in 
1810, and professor in 1817. In 1822 he 
was appointed official historiographer of 
Sweden, and in 1824 he was admitted to 
the Academy. As Member of Parliament 
for the University (1828-30 and 1840-41), 
no less than as teacher and writer, he 
fearlessly advocated Rationalism and pro 
gress. He had been prosecuted in 1820 
for his introduction to the works of Thorild 
[SEE] , but the jury had acquitted him, and 
persecution had been discouraged. His 
Rationalism is best seen in his Valda, 
smarre skriften (2 vols., 1841-42), and in 
his German work, Auch ein Wort iiber die 
religiose Frage dor Zeit (1847). He was 
a Theist, but not even Unitarian (latter 
work, p. 55). D. Apr. 23, 1847. 

GENDRE, Barbe, Russian writer. B. 
Dec. 15, 1842. Ed. Kieff University. She 
migrated to Paris, where she contributed 
to scientific and advanced periodicals, 
having developed Rationalist views before 



she left Russia. Letourneau has edited 
and published some of her papers (Etudes 
sociales, 1886). D. Dec., 1884. 

GENESTET, Petrus Augustus de, 

Dutch poet. B. Nov. 21, 1829. Ed. 
Amsterdam Protestant Seminary. He was 
a Protestant minister at Delft from 1852 
to 1860, but, becoming a Rationalist, he 
devoted himself entirely to letters. His 
first volume of poems (Eerste gedichten, 
1851) won much regard, and his later 
works made him one of the most popular 
of Dutch poets. His Rationalism appears 
in his Leckedichtjes (1860, a volume of 
poems and epigrams). D. July 2, 1861. 

GENIN, Francois, French writer. B. 
Feb. 16, 1803. Ed. Ecole Normale, Paris. 
A professor of literature at Laon, and later 
at Strassburg, he entered into relations 
with Littre, and joined the staff of Le 
National. In 1848 he became one of its 
editors, and wrote strongly against the 
Church. A work of his on Moliere won 
the Academy prize ; and he edited the 
works of Diderot (1847), and wrote a 
number of Rationalist works (chiefly Les 
actes des apotres, 3 vols., 1844). D. May 20, 

GENOYESI, Antonio, Italian philo 
sopher. B. Nov. 1, 1712. Ed. Salerno 
seminary. He was ordained priest in 
1736, and was professor of rhetoric at the 
seminary ; but the study of Locke and other 
philosophers wrecked his belief, and he 
quitted the priesthood. He was then 
appointed professor of metaphysics, and 
later of political economy, at Naples 
University. Although he made a pro 
fession of Christianity, his expressions 
were so heterodox that the clergy violently 
assailed him, and his works (4 vols., 1835) 
are really Deistic. D. Sep. 20, 1769. 

GEOFFRIN, Marie Therese, French 
writer. B. June 2, 1699. Daughter of a 
chamberlain of the Dauphin, she was 
married to Geoffrin at the age of fourteen, 


and his death some years later left her 
rich and independent. Witty and culti 
vated, she made her home the chief centre 
for the brilliant Parisian Rationalists of 
the time ; and the Dictionnaire Encyclo- 
pedique is largely due to her liberality. 
D Alembert and Morellet wrote high praise 
of her (Eloges de Mme. Geoffrin, 1812), and 
published her Letters and an essay Sur la 
conversation, which she had written. D. 
Oct. 6, 1777. 


French zoologist. B. Apr. 15, 1772. Ed. 
College de Navarre. His father destined 
him for the Church, and in his seventeenth 
year he became a canon and an abbe. He, 
however, turned his back on the Church, 
and studied science. In 1793 he was 
appointed professor of zoology at the Jardin 
des Plantes, and in 1809 at the Medical 
Faculty. He entered Parliament in 1815, 
but withdrew from political life at the 
Restoration. His Philosophic anatomique 
(1818) put forward a theory of organic 
types which prepared the way in France 
for the doctrine of evolution, and he sus 
tained an historic struggle with Cuvier over 
the new ideas. He was a Deist throughout 
life, yet at the 1830 Revolution he nobly 
saved the life of the Archbishop. His 
religion was " a fanaticism of humanity " 
| (Pariset). D. June 19, 1844. 


French zoologist, son of preceding. B. 
| Dec. 16, 1805. Ed. Paris. He was pro 
fessor of zoology at Bordeaux, then at the 
Paris Museum (1841), and finally at the 
Medical Faculty (1850). Besides several 
important works on his science, he wrote 
a biography of his father, edited his father s 
notes on the French expedition to Egypt, 
and issued the works of Buffon. The 
founding of the Paris Acclimatisation 
Society was chiefly due to him. D. 
Nov. 10, 1861. 

GHILLANY, Friedrich Wilhelm, Ger- 
i man historian. B. Apr. 18, 1807. Ed. 




Erlangen University. He served as a 
Lutheran minister at Nuremberg for some 
years, but abandoned the Church and 
ministry. In 1835 he became a teacher at 
Nuremberg, and in 1841 the City librarian. 
Under the pseudonym of " Eichard von der 
Aim " he issued a number of nationalist 
works. One of these, Jesus von Nazareth 
(1870), was re-issued under the pseudonym 
of Eugen Braun." His work on human 
sacrifices among the ancient Hebrews (Die 
Menschenopfer der alien Hebraer, 1842) 
had great influence. D. June 26, 1876. 

GHISLERI, Professor Arcangelo, 

Italian geographer. B. 1855. From teacher 
of geography in provincial colleges he 
became Director of the Geographical 
Section of the Istituto d Arti Grafiche at 
Bergamo. He adopted Eationalism in his 
nineteenth year. In 1877 he published a 
drastic Rationalistic work, II prete e la 
donna, which was followed by several 
others, in addition to various technical 
works. Professor Ghisleri founded the 
Bivista Beppublicana (1878), and edited 
Cuore e Critica and La Geografia per Tutti. 
The Almanack de la Libre Pensee Inter 
nationale for 1908 quotes a speech in which 
Prof. Ghisleri says : " The battle of Free- 
thought must also be waged against all 
who, though they do not believe in God 
or priest, maintain religion and priests 
because they are good policemen." He 
edits the Italian Rationalist paper La 

GIANNONE, Pietro, Italian writer. B. 
May 7, 1676. Ed. Naples. He was a 
lawyer who spent twenty years in writing 
an anti-clerical Storia Civile del Begno di 
Napoli (4 vols., 1723), which drew upon 
him such persecution from the Church 
that he quitted Italy for Vienna. The 
Austrian Emperor pensioned him for a 
time, but he returned to Italy, and was 
again expelled in 1735. He continued his 
anti-Papal work in Switzerland, but he 
was treacherously arrested on the Italian 
frontier, and died in prison Mar. 7, 1748. 

GIBBON, Edward, historian. B. (Put 
ney) Apr. 27, 1737. Ed. private tutors 
and Oxford (Magdalen). At Oxford, where 
he spent (he says) some of " the most idle 
and unprofitable " months of his life, he 
entered the Roman Church. His father, 
after fruitlessly trying a Deistic tutor, sent 
him to Lausanne, and he returned to the 
Church of England in 1754. During a 
visit to Italy in 1764 he, as he stood on 
the Capitol (Oct. 15), conceived the idea of 
his great work, and the death of his father 
in 1770 left him ample means and leisure. 
Already Johnson described him as one of 
the " infidel wasps " of the clubs. The 
first volume was issued in 1776, the second 
and third in 1781, and the remaining three 
in 1788. It ought to be read in Bury s 
finely annotated edition (7 vols.). His 
Miscellaneous Works, including his auto 
biographical Memoirs of My Life and 
Writings, were published in 1796 (2 vols.). 
For some years Gibbon represented Lym- 
ington in Parliament, but his life is wholly 
identified with his Decline and Fall, the 
most elegant, destructive, and learned 
historical work that had yet appeared. 
He was a Deist, though the absence from 
his letters and minor works of the Theistic 
phraseology which was then much used is 
significant. In his Outlines of the History 
of the World (Miscell. Works, ii, 437) he 
says of the fifteenth century : " By a pro 
pensity natural to man, the multitude had 
easily relapsed into the grossest polytheism. 
The existence of a Supreme Being was 
indeed acknowledged ; his mysterious attri 
butes were minutely, and even indecently, 
canvassed in the schools." Such passages, 
without the usual capital letters, do not 
indicate a very profound Deism. The 
finest study of Gibbon from this point of 
view is in Mr. J. M. Robertson s Pioneer 
Humanists. See also Mr. E. Clodd s Gibbon 
and Christianity (1916). The gibes of 
some recent religious writers at Gibbon s 
" errors " are amusing. Historical science 
was, of course, not then the science it is 
to-day, but Gibbon s care and industry 
were amazing. Sir Leslie Stephen, who at 




least knew the opinions of the historians, 
says that " his accuracy in statement of 
facts is now admitted," and " in accuracy, 
thoroughness, lucidity, and comprehensive 
grasp of a vast subject the History is un 
surpassable" (Diet. Nat. Biog.}. Gibbon s 
chief error is, in fact, his leniency to 
Christianity in ch. xv. It was neither so 
idealistic nor so successful as he describes. 
It may be added that Gibbon s erudition 
was not confined to history. He studied 
anatomy under Hunter, and devoted some 
time to chemistry. Many of the stories 
told of him are clerical libels. He was an 
admirable son, a kindly master, and a 
devoted friend. D. Jan. 16, 1794. 

GIDDINGS, Professor Franklin Henry, 

A.M., Ph.D., LL.D., American sociologist. 
B. Mar. 23, 1855. Ed. Union College. 
He engaged in journalism, but was in 1888 
appointed lecturer on political science at 
Bryn Mawr. In 1894 he passed to the 
chair of sociology at Columbia University, 
which he still occupies. Professor Giddings 
is a member of the New York Board of 
Education, the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science, and the 
American Economic Association ; and he 
has been President of the American Socio 
logical Society (1910-11) and the Inter 
national Institute of Sociology (1913). 
His Rationalist views are best seen in his 
Pagan Poems (1914), but his chief works 
are sociological (especially The Principles 
of Sociology, 1896 ; The Elements of Socio 
logy, 1898; and Inductive Sociology, 1901). 
Professor Giddings is recognized to be one 
of the foremost sociologists of America. 

GIFFORD, Lord Adam, founder of the 
Gifford Lectures. B. Feb. 29, 1820. Ed. 
privately and at Edinburgh Institution. 
He was apprenticed to a solicitor in 1835, 
but chose to become an advocate, and was 
called to the Bar in 1849. He became 
Advocate Depute in 1861, sheriff of Orkney 
in 1865, and judge of the Court of Session, 
with the title of Lord Gifford, in 1870. 
He frequently lectured, and at his death he 


left 80,000 to the Scottish Universities for 
lectures to promote the study of natural 
theology. In his Lectures Delivered on 
Various Occasions (privately printed in Ger 
many, 1889) Lord Gifford is a Pantheist, 
regarding Christianity as one of many 
great religions. He places Emerson at the 
head of recent religious writers (" There 
now lives no greater English writer than 
E. W. Emerson "), and in the fourth lecture 
he follows Spinoza (" We are parts of the 
Infinite literally, strictly, scientifically," 
p. 157). D. Jan. 20, 1887. 

GILMAN, Charlotte Perkins, Ameri 
can writer. B. July 3, 1860. In 1884 
Miss C. Beecher (who adopted her mother s 
name, Perkins) married W. Stetson, and 
under the name of Mrs. Stetson she won a 
high reputation in the American and inter 
national Women Movement. She wrote 
and lectured also on other social questions. 
In 1909 she founded, and still edits, The 
Forerunner, in which her Eationalist views 
are freely expressed. Her chief book is 
Women and Economics (1898), one of the 
ablest works of Feminist literature. Her 
sane and genial philosophy of life is still 
an important influence among the advanced 
women of America. 

GIMSON, Ernest William, artist and 
architect. B. Dec. 21, 1864, fourth son of 
Josiah Gimson. He was articled to a 
Leicester architect, but in 1885 he met 
William Morris, on whose recommenda 
tion he went to study architecture in 
London. He continued in association with 
Morris, and served on the committees of 
the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society and 
the Society for the Protection of Ancient 
Buildings. In 1893 he settled in Glou 
cestershire, at Shepperton, and, without 
abandoning architecture, devoted himself 
especially to producing artistic furniture 
and metal work. He trained the villagers 
to do beautiful work. Professor Lethaby 
says : "He belonged to the apostolic suc 
cession Ruskin, Morris, Webb one of 

the hidden forces of his day." His death 



was described by the Manchester Guardian 
as " the most severe loss that the little 
world of craftsmanship has endured in this 
country for a long while." Gimson shared 
and embodied in his life the high Owenite 
Eationalism of his father. D. Aug. 12, 

GIMSON, Josiah, mechanical engineer. 
E. Nov. 29, 1818. He was the head of an 
engineering business at Leicester who came 
under the influence of the idealist Ration 
alism which Owen inaugurated, and Holy- 
oake sustained, in the first half of the last 
century. With a few friends he started 
the Leicester Secular Society in 1852 ; and 
he founded, and was chief shareholder in, 
the Leicester Secular Hall Company. The 
handsome hall which they erected in 1881 
is still the home of the Leicester Secular 
Society, one of the most useful and admir 
able of the surviving Secular Societies. 
Mr. Gimson himself lectured and debated, 
and gave considerable financial assistance 
to the journalistic enterprises of Holyoake, 
Bradlaugh, Watts, and Foote. He was at 
one time a member of the Leicester Town 
Council, and his high character commanded 
great respect. D. Sep. 6, 1883. 

GIMSON, Sydney Ansell, mechanical 
engineer. B. Aug. 22, 1860, third son of 
Josiah Gimson. Mr. S. Gimson followed 
his father not only in the engineering busi 
ness, but in his close interest in the life of 
the Secular Society and in Eationalism 
generally. He has, with the exception of 
one year, been President of the Society 
since 1888, and it is mainly owing to his 
high ideals and devoted service that it 
survives in its full educational usefulness. 
Few men of business have given an equal 
personal service to the cause of Eation 
alism, or better presented its moral and 
intellectual standard. Mr. Gimson is a 
member of the Leicester City Council, and 
an Honorary Associate of the Rationalist 
Press Association. 

GINGUENE, Pierre Louis, French 


writer. B. Apr. 27, 1748. Ed. privately 
and Eennes College. He entered the 
Ministry of Finance at Paris, and privately 
devoted himself to letters and philosophy. 
When the Eevolution broke out, he sup 
ported it in his journal, La Feuille Vil- 
layeoise, though his moderation led to his 
arrest in 1797. He was sent as French 
ambassador to Turin, and in 1799 was a 
member of the Tribunate. His later years 
were given to letters, his chief work being 
a valuable Histoirc litt&raire d ltalie (9 vols., 
1811-24). Ginguene was a Deist of the 
Eousseau school. D. Nov. 11, 1816. 

GIOJA, Melchiorre, Italian economist. 
B. Sep. 20, 1767. Ed. Piacenza. Ordained 
priest in 1796, Gioja devoted himself to 
studies which undermined his faith, and he 
left the Church. He published a Deistic 
pamphlet in 1798, and in the following 
year he was appointed Director of the 
Milan Statistical Bureau. He lost the 
position in 1811, but was in 1813 en 
trusted with the task of compiling the 
statistics of Italy. Gioja was one of the 
leading Italian scholars of his time, and 
one of the founders of statistical science in 
Europe. D. Jan 2, 1829. 

GIRARD, Stephen, American philan 
thropist. B. (France) May 20, 1750. He 
went to sea in his boyhood, and in 1776 
settled in business at Philadelphia. In 1793 
he remained in the city during an epidemic 
of yellow fever, and won great regard by his 
heroic conduct. Becoming a wealthy ship 
owner, he paraded his Deistic views by giv 
ing such names as Voltaire, Eousseau, and 
Helvetius to his vessels. At his death he 
left nearly the whole of his fortune 
(7,500,000 dollars, probably the largest 
fortune then made in America) for charity. 
Of this sum 5,260,000 dollars were to be 
applied to building and endowing an 
orphanage at Philadelphia, and it was 
expressly stipulated that no ecclesiastic 
should ever enter it except as a visitor. 
The estate is now valued at about 
40,000,000 dollars. D. Dec. 26, 1831. 





GISBORNE, Maria, friend of Shelley. 
B. 1770. Daughter of a merchant who 
had given her a careful education, she first 
married a friend of Godwin, W. Kevely, 
who died in 1799. Godwin himself pro 
posed to her, but she married J. Gisborne 
and lived with him in Italy. Through 
Godwin she became an intimate friend of 
Shelley, who describes her as " an Atheist" 
like himself (Dowden s Life, ii, 210). His 
poetical " Letter to Maria Gisborne " was 
written in 1820. She was a very beautiful 
and talented woman. D. Apr. 23, 1836. 

GISSING, George Robert, novelist. 
B. Nov. 22, 1857. Ed. Quaker School, 
Alderley Edge, and Owen s College (Man 
chester). For some years he had an 
adventurous and unhappy life, partly in 
America. Eeturning to Europe in 1877, 
he went to study at Jena, and there 
developed Eationalist views. In 1878 he 
published Workers in the Daivn, but for 
some years he had little success. In 1882 
he was tutor to Mr. F. Harrison s sons. 
After 1884 he published a novel nearly 
every year, but recognition came late. 
Gissing, a man of great literary power and 
wide learning, was an Agnostic. He 
thought there was " some purpose " in the 
universe, but could not accept " any of the 
solutions ever proposed," and he dis 
believed in a future life (E. Clodd s 
Memories, pp. 179-82). D. Dec. 28, 

GIZYCKI, Professor Georg von, 

German Ethicist. B. 1851 (of Polish 
parents). He became professor of philo 
sophy at Berlin University and one of the 
leaders of the Berlin Ethical Society. He 
wrote studies of Hume and Shaftesbury, 
and various naturalist and evolutionary 
works on Ethics (A Student s Manual of 
Ethical Philosophy, Eng. trans., 1889 ; 
Introduction to the Study of Ethics, Eng. 
trans., 1891, etc.). He was also joint 
editor of The International Journal of 
Ethics, and he contributed a fine Eation 
alist chapter to Ethics and Eeligion (1900), 

in which he rejects all theology. D. Mar. 3, 

GLENN IE, John Stuart Stuart, 

writer. He was a London barrister, who, 
in 1873, published a Eationalist study of 
the development of Christianity, In the 
Morningland. He travelled in the East 
with Buckle, and describes his experiences 
in Pilgrim Memories (1875). Mr. G. B. 
Shaw, who acknowledges a debt to him, 
knew him as a member of the Zetetical 
Society (London) in 1879, and a drastic 
critic of Christian ethics. 

GLISSON, Professor Francis, M.D., 
M.A., F.E.S., physician. B. 1597. Ed. 
Cambridge (Caius). He graduated in 
medicine in 1634, and was admitted to the 
College of Physicians in 1635. He was 
Eegius Professor of Physic at Cambridge 
(1636-77), Gulstonian Lecturer at the 
College of Physicians (1640), and President 
of the College of Physicians (1667-69). 
Glisson was Lord Shaftesbury s physician, 
and dedicated to him his Tractatus de 
natura substantiae energetica (1672), which 
contains a naturalistic philosophy of the 
universe. D. Oct. 14, 1677. 

GOBINEAU, Count Joseph Arthur 

de, French orientalist. B. 1816. He 
entered the diplomatic service in 1849, 
was assigned to the Persian Embassy in 
1855, became Imperial Commissary to 
North America in 1859, and was appointed 
Ambassador Extraordinary to Persia in 
1861. His Histoire des Perses (2 vols., 
1869) is weighty ; and there is a valuable 
early account of Behaism in his Les 
religions ct les philosophies dans I Asie 
centrale (1865). Count Gobineau was very 
Conservative, and his famous Essai sur 
I inegalite des races humaines (4 vols., 
1853-55) greatly flattered the Germans 
(who have a Gobineau Society). But 
L. Schemann, his biographer (Gobineau, 
2 vols., 1916, ii, 489-90), shows that he 
resisted to the last the unceasing efforts of 
his friends to bring him back from Theism 



to the Catholic Church. They had to be 
content to give him the sacrament when 
he was unconscious, and bury him with 
Catholic rites. D. Oct. 13, 1882. 

GOBLET, Rene, French statesman. B. 
Nov. 26, 1828. He was at first a lawyer 
of Amiens who worked with the anti 
clerical Liberals. At the fall of the 
Empire he was appointed General Pro 
curator at the Court of Appeal, Amiens, 
and he was returned to the National As 
sembly in 1871. He entered the Chambre 
in 1877, and became Under- Secretary of 
Justice in 1879, Minister of the Interior 
in 1882, Minister of Education in 1885, 
Premier in 1886, and Minister of Foreign 
Affairs in 1888. As Minister of Education 
in 1886 he excluded the clergy from the 
schools of France, and as a leader of the 
Eadical-Socialists in his later years he 
pressed for strong action against the 
Church. D. Sep. 13, 1905. 

Eugene, Belgian anthropologist. B. 
Aug. 10, 1846. In early years he taught 
the history of religions at Brussels Uni 
versity, and was joint editor of the Bevue 
de Belgique. In 1875 he accompanied the 
Prince of Wales to India. He has been 
a member of the Academie Eoyale de 
Bruxelles since 1887, and of the Senate 
since 1892. Count d Alviella belongs to 
the Belgian Liberal party and is a Eation- 
alistic Theist. When he was invited to 
give the Hibbert Lectures at Oxford in 
1891 (Lectures on the Origin and Growth 
of the Conception of God), the Balliol 
authorities refused the use of a room. 
Several other works of his have appeared 
in English. His chief work is Croyances, 
Rites, Institutions (3 vols., 1911). He 
is President of the Belgian Cremation 
Society, which is much detested by the 

GODFREY, W. S., writer. B. Nov. 11, 
1855. Mr. Godfrey was a devout " Ply 
mouth Brother " until 1888, when he 

changed the shade of his theology and 
entered Spurgeon s Pastors College. From 
1890 to 1895 he served as a Baptist 
minister, and in the latter year he aban 
doned Christianity. He occasionally lec 
tured afterwards at South Place Chapel, 
but was chiefly engaged in business. His 
Agnosticism is expounded in his Theism 
Found Wanting and some of the sonnets 
in his At Odd Moments. 

GODKIN, Edwin Lawrence, D.C.L., 
American writer. B. (Ireland) Oct. 2, 
1831. Ed. Silcoates Congregationalist 
School and Queen s College, Belfast. 
Godkin was the son of a Presbyterian 
clergyman, but his opinions were much 
modified at college by the writings of 
J. S. Mill. He went to London, and was 
correspondent of the Daily News during 
the Crimean War. In 1856 he passed to 
the United States, studied law, and was 
admitted to the New York Bar in 1858. 
But he adhered to journalism, founded and 
edited the New York Nation (1865-99), and 
edited the Evening Post (1883). Godkin 
was one of the most powerful and idealistic 
journalists of New York. In his journals 
and writings he sternly opposed corruption 
and urged humanitarian ideals. He was 
a Theist, but otherwise very uncertain 
about religion, and stood outside all the 
Churches (Life and Letters of E. L. Godkin, 
by E. Ogden, 1907, ii, 35-9). D. May 21, 

GODWIN, Mary Wollstonecraft, 

writer. B. Apr. 27, 1759. Being com 
pelled through her father s misconduct of 
his affairs to earn her living, Mary Woll 
stonecraft began teaching, and in 1788 she 
took to writing and translating. In 1790 
she wrote an open letter to Burke on the 
French Eevolution, entitled A Vindication 
of the Rights of Man. Two years later 
she issued her famous Vindication of tJie 
Rights of Women. She lived in France 
1792-96, and married Godwin in 1797; 
but she died after childbirth in the same 
year. Mary Godwin was a woman of 



considerable learning, ability, and elo- j 
quence, an advanced Rationalist, and an 
enthusiast for reform. Mr. Kegan Paul 
published a biography of her in 1879. D. 
Sep. 10, 1797. 

GODWIN, William, writer. B. Mar. 3, 
1756. Ed. private schools and Hoxton 
Academy. He became a dissenting minis 
ter, of strict Calvinist views, in 1777, but 
a study of the French Eationalists destroyed 
his belief, and he quitted the Church in 
1783. He took to letters, and was a friend 
of Holcroft, Paine, and Home Tooke. 
Holcroft induced him to adopt Atheism, 
which he later abandoned for a vague 
Theism or Pantheism. His chief work, 
Political Justice, appeared in 1793, and in 
the following year he issued his powerful 
novel, Caleb Williams. In his prime 
Godwin was a strong supporter of Radi 
calism, but he fell under the influence of 
Coleridge. See Kegan Paul s W. Godwin : 
His Friends and Contemporaries (2 vols., 
1876). D. Apr. 7, 1836. 

GOETHE, Johann Wolfgang von, 

German poet. B. Aug. 28, 1749. Ed. 
Frankfort, and Leipzig and Strassburg Uni 
versities. He was trained in law, but he 
deserted it for letters, and in 1771 published 
his Gotz von Berlichingen, which may be 
said to have opened the Sturm und Drang 
period in Germany. His next work, Die 
Leiden des jungen Werther, a sentimental 
story, definitely opened his great career. 
Invited to the court of the Grand Duke of 
Weimar, he discharged his administrative 
duties with great skill and conscientious 
ness, and made Weimar the Athens of 
Germany. Every branch of science was 
studied by him, and in many branches he 
made important discoveries ; but it is his 
poetry that gave him a supreme place in 
German letters. In 1786-88 he lived in 
Italy, and he returned a more pronounced 
Rationalist, and more severe artist, than 
ever (Bomische Elegien). Schiller joined 
him at Weimar in 1799, and the Xenien 
which they wrote together include some 


mordant Rationalistic aphorisms. In his 
later years he was more religious in feeling, 
but never went beyond the Pantheism of 
Spinoza, and had only vague ideas about 
the future. " The sensible man leaves the 
future world out of consideration," he said. 
Faust gives constant expression to his 
Pantheism. A year before he died he 
wrote that he was an eclectic in religion 
(McCabe s Goethe, 1912, p. 352). D. 
Mar. 22, 1832. 

GOLDIE, John, writer. B. 1717. Son 
of a poor Scottish miller, Goldie educated 
himself and became a cabinet-maker at 
Kilmarnock. He was one of the Robert 
Burns group of rebels, and caused local 
excitement by his Essay on Various Impor 
tant Subjects (1779). It is of him that 
Burns writes : 

Goudie, terror of the Whigs, 

Dread of black coats and reverend wigs. 

In his Gospel Eecovered from its Captive 
State (6 vols., 1784) he professes a kind 
of sentimental Christianity, but scourges 
ecclesiastics. D. 1809. 

GOLDSTUECKER, Professor Theodor, 

German orientalist. B. Jan. 18, 1821. 
Ed. Konigsberg Gymnasium, and Bonn 
and Konigsberg Universities. Refused 
permission to teach at Konigsberg because 
he was a Jew, he went to France and 
England to complete his philological 
studies. Expelled, for political reasons, 
from Berlin in 1850, he returned to Eng 
land and became professor of Sanscrit afc 
London University College. He assisted 
Professor Wilson in compiling his Sanscrit- 
English Dictionary, and was chiefly instru 
mental in forming the Sanscrit Text Society, 
for which he did a good deal of translation. 
He belonged also to the Royal Asiatic 
Society and the Philological Society. D. 
Mar. 6, 1872. 

GOLDZIHER, Ignaz, Hungarian orien 
talist. B. June 22, 1850. Ed. Budapest, 
Berlin, Leipzig, and Leyden Universities. 
He began to teach at Budapest University 



in 1872, but spent the following year 
travelling in the East, and became one of 
the first authorities on Mohammedan 
theology, His works on Jewish theology 
also are of great value (especially his Ration 
alistic Hebrew Mythology, 1877). In 1876 
he was admitted to the Hungarian Aca 
demy, and in 1889 to the Royal Institute 
for the Dutch Indies. 

GOMME, Sir George Laurence, F.S.A., 
folklorist. B. 1853. Ed. City of London 
School. He entered the service of the 
Fulham District Board of Works, then of 
the Metropolitan Board of "Works. He 
was appointed Statistical Officer to the 
L.C.C. in 1891, and Clerk to the Council 
in 1900. Sir G. L. Gomme (knighted 
in 1911) was a high authority on folklore, 
and his many works (Ethnology in Folklore, 
1892 ; Folklore as an Historical Science, 
1908, etc.) are regarded as introducing scien 
tific methods into his subject. He founded 
the Folklore Society, and at various times 
edited the Antiquary, the Folklore Journal, 
and the Archaeological Revieio. At the 
time of his death he was President of the 
Anthropological Section of the British 
Association. D. Feb. 25, 1916. 

GOMPERZ, Heinrich, Ph.D., Austrian 
philosopher. B. Jan. 18, 1873. Ed. 
Vienna University. He began to teach 
philosophy at Berne University in 1900, 
and at Vienna University in 1905. In his 
philosophical works (Die Welt als geordnete 
Ereigniss, 1901 ; Weltanschauung skhre, 
2 vols., 1905-1908, etc.) he expounds an 
idealistic Monism, similar to that of 

GOMPERZ, Theodor, Austrian philo 
logist. B. Mar. 29, 1832. Ed. Vienna 
University. In 1869 he was appointed 
professor of classical philology at Vienna 
University, and he became one of the most 
learned and authoritative writers on Greek 
literature. His Greek Thinkers (Eng. 
trans., 4 vols., 1901-12) is a classic history 
of Greek philosophy, and the. Introduction 

includes a Rationalistic dissertation on the 
j origin of religion. He was a friend of 
J. S. Mill, whose works he edited in the 
German version (12 vols., 1869-80). D. 
Aug. 29, 1912. 

GONCOURT, Edmond Louis Antoine 

de, French writer. B. May 26, 1822. He 
began a literary partnership with his 
brother Jules in 1851 (with the novel 
j En 18 . . ), and soon became the leader of 
the more cultivated section of the natur 
alist school of fiction writers. Besides a 
- long series of novels, of exquisite art, the 
, brothers published biographical and his- 
; torical works, notably superb studies of 
French life in the eighteenth century. 
I Madame Gervaisais (1869) is the most 
| pronounced of their novels from the 
: Rationalist point of view, but their com 
plete disdain of all religion is best seen in 
I Idees et Sensations (1877), a collection of 
I aphorisms. They consider religion " part 
; of a woman s sex," and think religion 
without supernaturalism " wine without 
grapes." Life they define, on Materialist 
j principles, as "the usufruct of an aggregation 
j of molecules." Edmond continued to 
write after the death of Jules, and it was 
plain that the joint works had owed most 
of their art to him. He left the greater 
part of his fortune to found an Academy 
| which should give an annual prize for a 
prose work. D. July 16, 1896. 

GONCOURT, Jules Alfred Huot de, 

French writer, brother of preceding. B. 
Dec. 17, 1830. They were the sons of a 
French general, and lived and worked 
together in a house at Auteuil, which was 
full of art treasures (described in La maison 
d un artiste, by E. de Goncourt, 1881). 
Edmond was the abler, but he has des 
cribed their association in terms of intense 
affection in Les freres Zemganno (1879). 
He also edited his younger brother s letters 
(Lettres de Jules de Goncourt, 1885). D. 
June 20, 1870. 

GORANI, Count Giuseppe, Italian 




writer. B. 1744. Ed. Milan. Of an 
ancient and noble family, he early became 
a friend of Beccaria and joined a society 
for the discussion of social and religious 
questions. He published a Treatise on 
Despotism (1770), and he was an ardent 
humanitarian and friend of the Encyclo 
paedists. At the outbreak of the Revolu 
tion he sought to spread its more moderate 
principles in Italy, and he was compelled 
to fly to Switzerland. He wrote various 
political and educational works. D. 
Dec. 12, 1819. 

GORDON, Adam Lindsay, Australian 
poet. B. 1833. Ed. Cheltenham College 
and Oxford (Merton) . He went to Austra 
lia in 1853 and became a trooper in the 
mounted police, then a horsebreaker. In 
1865-66 he sat in the Legislative Assembly 
of South Australia. Passing to Victoria in 
1867, he attracted great attention by a 
volume of poems, Sea Spray and Smoke. 
His two volumes of Bush Ballads (1870) 
sustained his reputation, but grave busi 
ness trouble caused him to take his life, 
June 24, 1870. His Rationalism is often 
expressed in his verse. 

GORDON, Thomas, Scottish writer. 
B. about 1684. He seems to have been 
admitted to the Scottish Bar, but he went 
to London and took up teaching, later 
becoming clerk to Trenchard. He wrote a 
series of papers against the clergy, which 
D Holbach translated into French. Walpole 
made him First Commissioner of the Wine 
Licences. He translated Tacitus, Sallust, 
and Cicero, and wrote a preface to Bar- 
beyrac s Spirit of Ecclesiastics in All Ages, 
which he translated (1722), and The Pillars 
of Priestcraft and OrtJiodoxy Shaken (1752). 
D. July 28, 1750. 

GORHAM, Charles Turner, writer. B. 
1856. Ed. private schools. In 1899 
Mr. Gorham, who was then engaged in 
business in London, assisted in the founding 
of the Rationalist Press Association. He 
succeeded Mr. C. E. Hooper as Secretary of 

the Association in 1913, and is a regular 
contributor to the Literary Guide and the 
B. P. A. Annual. From 1917 to 1919 
he was joint-editor of the Humanist, an 
organ of the Ethical Movement. Mr. 
Gorham s Agnostic views are chiefly ex 
pressed in his Ethics of the Great Eeligions 
(1904), The First Easter Dawn (1908), 
Christianity and Civilization (1913), The 
Spanish Inquisition (1916), and A Plain 
Man s Plea for Rationalism (1919). 

GORKY, Alexei Maximovitch PeshkoY 

(" Maxim Gorky "), Russian novelist. B. 
Mar. 14, 1868. At the age of nine he 
began to work in a boot shop, and for 
many years he led a rough, wandering 
life, working successively as a painter of 
icons, cook s boy, baker, porter, hawker, 
railway watchman, and lawyer s clerk. 
He educated himself, and developed a 
drastic Rationalist and Socialist philosophy 
of life. His first story, Makar Chudra, 
was published in 1892, but it was chiefly 
Chelkash (1895) that attracted world- 
attention to his power. " Gorky " (the 
Russian word for " bitter ") is a character 
istic pseudonym. His name is (as above) 

A. M. Peshkov. He has a Nietzschean 
contempt of Christianity and all religion, 
and is a Marxian Socialist (or Bolshevik). 
Gorky is one of the most serious construc 
tive humanitarians of the present ruling 
body in Russia. 

GOULD, Frederick James, educationist. 

B. (Brighton) Dec. 19, 1855. He was a 
choir boy at St. George s Chapel, Windsor 
Castle, then a village schoolmaster. In 
1877 he began to teach under the London 
School Board, but in 1896 he resigned his 
profession rather than give religious lessons, 
and he became one of the most prominent 
workers of the Rationalist and Ethical 
Societies. He was secretary of the 
Leicester Secular Society, and member of 
the School Board and Town Council, 
1899-1908. Of recent years Mr. Gould 
has worked also in the Positivist Church 
(of which he is a member) and the Moral 




Instruction Movement. He has given series 
of model lessons to children in the United 
States (1911 and 1913-14) and, under 
Government auspices, in India (1913). 
He has written a Concise History of Reli 
gion (3 vols., 1893-97) and many other 
works. Of no man could it be more truly 
said that his life is an embodiment of his 
high ideals. 

GOURMONT, Remy de, French novelist. 
B. Apr. 4, 1858. Ed. Lycee de Coutances 
and Caen University. From 1883 to 1891 
(when he lost his position by writing 
a critical article) lie was at the Paris 
National Library. He had already opened 
his literary career by his novel Sixtine 
(1890), and the long and brilliant series of 
novels, poems, and literary works which 
he has since published have put him in the 
front rank of French writers. He was also 
editor of the Mercure de France and the 
Depeche de Toulouse. He belonged rather 
to the Symbolist school, but was a drastic 
Eationalist. There is a collection of short 
essays on religion in his Promenades Philo- 
sophiques (5 vols., 1905-1908), serie iii, 
livre iii. He considers that, "while religion 
was always a paganism to the crowd, 
paganism was almost always, in Europe, 
the religion of superior minds" (p. 89). 
God, he says, " is not all that exists ; he is 
all that does not exist" (p. 253). D. 
Sep. 27, 1915. 

GRAHAM, Professor William, M.A., 

Litt.D., economist. B. 1839. Ed. Dun- 
dalk Educational Institute and Trinity 
College, Dublin. Graham earned his living 
by teaching while he was at Trinity, and 
he afterwards became a tutor in mathe 
matics and philosophy. In 1875 he was 
appointed lecturer on mathematics at St. 
Bartholomew s Hospital (London), and in 
1882 professor of jurisprudence and political 
economy at Queen s College, Belfast. He 
was called to the Bar in 1892, but never 
practised. His Creed of Science (1881), 
a Spencerian work, which admits an 
unknown Power, but rejects immortality 

as "a doctrine begot of men s presump 
tion " (p. 165), caused him to lose an 
important Government appointment which 
had been offered to him. D. Nov. 19, 

GRANT, Professor Kerr, Australian 
physicist. B. 1878. Ed. Melbourne Uni 
versity. He was lecturer on physics at 
the Ballarat School of Mines, then at 
Melbourne University. Since 1911 he has 
occupied the chair of physics at Adelaide 
University. Professor Grant is joint 
inventor of a fine method of weighing. 
He is a warm supporter of the spread of 

GRANT, Ulysses Simpson, eighteenth 
President of the United States. B. Apr. 27, 
1822. Ed. West Point. He obtained 
a commission in the U.S. army and fought 
in the Mexican War. He returned to civil 
life in 1854, but volunteered for the Civil 
War and was made Brigadier-General. In 
1862 he became General in command of 
the Department of the Tennessee, in 1863 
Lieutenant-General, and in 1865 General of 
the Army. The Union owed its victory to 
his energy and ability. He was temporary 
Secretary of War in 1867-68, and Presi 
dent of the United States from 1868 to 
1877. Hamlin Garland, in the best study 
of his life (U. S. Grant : His Life and 
Character, 1898), says that he "subscribed 
to no creed" (p. 522), and the statement 
is effectively supported even by his Chris 
tian biographers. The Rev. M. J. Cramer, 
who seems to have pestered him for a 
profession of faith, ventures only to say 
that he " believed the fundamental doc 
trines of the Christian religion" (U. S. 
Grant, 1897, p. 28). In a chapter on 
" His Views on Religion " Dr. Cramer does 
not even sustain this, and shows that 
Grant was merely a Theist. He " often 
prayed to God mentally, but briefly " 
(p. 43). Dr. Cramer quotes (p. 203) a 
letter in which General Halleck clears 
Grant of the charges of swearing and 
drunkenness, and says that his sobriety 



was remarkable for "a man who is not a 
religious man." E. D. Mansfield, another 
fervent Christian (A Popular and Authentic 
Life of U. S. Grant, 1868), has to omit 
all reference to his religion. Grant was 
baptized only when he was unconscious 
and believed to be dying, and on recovery 
he remarked that he was " surprised." D. 
July 23, 1885. 

GRANT DUFF, the Right Honourable 
Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone, M.A., 
F.E.S., G.G.S.I., statesman. B. Feb. 21, 
1829. Ed. Edinburgh Academy, the 
Grange School, and Oxford (Balliol). He 
was called to the Bar (Inner Temple) in 
1854, and he entered politics a few years 
later. He was M.P. for Elgin Burghs 
1857-81, Under- Secretary for India 
1868-74, Under-Secretary for the Colonies 
in 1880, and Governor of Madras 1881-86. 
His record of Indian administration is 
distinguished for conscientious and en 
lightened work. He was Lord Rector of 
Aberdeen University 1866-72, President of 
the Eoyal Geographical Society 1889-93, 
and President of the Eoyal Historical 
Society 1892-99 ; and he was admitted to 
the Privy Council in 1901. Grant Duff 
was a great admirer of Eenan, and agreed 
with him that it is " impossible to control 
the human intellect by creeds or articles of 
any sort or kind" (Ernest Eenan, p. 2). 
He was a Theist. D. Jan. 12, 1906. 

GRAY, Benjamin Kirkman, economist. 
B. Aug. 11, 1862. Ed privately. After 
some years in a London warehouse he 
became a teacher (1883-86), and then a 
Congregationalist minister. In 1894 he 
passed to the Unitarian ministry, but three 
years later he left the Unitarians and 
devoted himself to social work and eco 
nomics. He was a special authority on 
the economics of philanthropy (History of 
English Philanthropy, 1905, etc.), on which 
he lectured at the London School of Eco 
nomics. Gray \vas a Socialist, and a 
" mystic and freethinker " (H. B. Binns, A 
Modern Humanist, 1910). D. June 23, 1907. 

GREARD, OctaYe Yallery Clement, 

D. es L., French educationist. B. Apr. 18, 
1828. Ed. Ecole Normale. After teaching 
for some years, he became Director of 
Primary Education at Paris in 1865, and 
Inspector-General in 1872. The Catholics 
forced Jules Simon to dismiss him from 
the higher post, and he returned to the 
office of Director. Jules Ferry spoke of 
him in 1877 as " the first educationist in 
France," and Leon Bourgeois says that he 
" created the new [secular] education in 
the primary schools of the Eepublic." He 
was admitted to the Academy of Moral 
and Political Science (1875), to the Legion 
of Honour (1884), and to the French 
Academy (1886). Bourgan (Octave Greard) 
records that he never returned to the 
Catholic Church which he had quitted, 
though he was a Theist. D. Apr. 25, 1904. 

GREEN, John Richard, historian. B. 
Dec. 12,1837. Ed. Magdalen College School, 
private tutors, and Oxford (Jesus). Green 
went to Oxford " a passionate High 
Churchman," but in the course of his 
two years there became " irreligious " 
(Letters of J. E. Green, 1901, p. 18). Dean 
Stanley partially restored his faith, and he 
took orders and did clerical work until 
1869. He then abandoned the Church 
and began to write his Short Histori/ of the 
English People (published 1874). In this 
and his later works, which put him in the 
front rank of English historians, he avoids 
religious controversy, but in his letters he 
proposes to " fling to the owls and bats 
these old and effete theologies of the 
world s childhood" (p. 292) and develop a 
" Eational religion." He scouts Chris 
tianity and has no " real faith in a here 
after" (p. 312). D. Mar. 7, 1883. 

GREEN, Joseph Frederic, Positivist. 
B. July 5, 1855. Ed. Islington Proprietary 
School, Oxford (St. Mary s Hall), and 
London (King s College). He was a 
minister of the Church of England from 
1880 to 1886. Quitting the Church, he 
became secretary of the International 



Arbitration and Peace Association and a 
member of the Positivist Church and 
English Positivist Committee. Mr. Green 
is also Chairman of the Executive of the 
National Democratic Labour Party, mem 
ber of the Council of the International 
Peace Bureau, and member of the Com 
mittee of the Humanitarian League. 

GREENAWAY, Kate, painter. B. 
Mar. 17, 1846. ^.Heatherley s Art School, 
South Kensington, and Slade School. Her 
first picture was exhibited, in the Dudley 
Gallery, in 1868 ; and she exhibited regu 
larly for many years in the Academy and 
elsewhere. From the illustration of maga 
zines she passed, as her repute grew, 
especially for her depictment of child life, 
to issuing books of her own which had a 
very wide circulation. Ruskin speaks 
warmly of the delicacy of her art and 
humour in Prcsterita and Fors Clavi- 
gera. In their biography of her (Kate 
Grecnaway, 1905) M. H. Spielmann and 
G. L. Layard quote many letters in which 
she avows her advanced scepticism. She 
professes to be religious, but " it is in my 
own way " (p. 189). She is quite Agnostic 
about a future life, and considers it 
" strange beyond anything I can think to 
be able to believe in any of the known 
religions " (p. 190). She is not even 
clearly a Theist. D. Nov. 6, 1901. 

GREENLY, Edward, F.G.S., geologist. 
B. Dec., 1861. Ed. Clifton, and London 
University College. From 1889 to 1895 
he was an officer of H. M. Geological 
Survey (Scottish Branch), and he was 
joint author (with other officers) of several 
sheets of the map of the North of Scotland, 
with the accompanying memoirs (The Geo 
logy of the North-west Highlands, The Geo 
logy of Caithness, etc.). He has written a 
number of papers on his science, and since 
1895 he has been occupied, unofficially, 
with a geological survey of Anglesey, the 
results of which are presented to H. M. 
Geological Survey. See his Geology of 
Anglesey. Mr. Greenly is a member of the 

Council of the Pali Text Society as well as 
a Fellow of the Geological Society (1890). 
The Geological Society awarded him the 
Barlow-Jameson Fund in 1898 and the 
Lyell Medal in 1920. " You may well be 
proud of your endeavour," the President 
remarked in handing him the Lyell Medal. 
In 1920 the University of Wales conferred 
on him an honorary degree of Doctor of 
Science. His Anglesey work was done at 
his own expense. Mr. Greenly is a member 
of the R, P. A. 

GREENWOOD, Sir George, politician. 
B. Jan. 3, 1850. Ed. Eton and Cambridge 
(Trinity College). He was first-class in 
the Classical Tripos, and was called to the 
Bar (Middle Temple) in 1876. From 1906 
to 1918 he was Liberal M.P. for Peter 
borough, and was knighted in 1916. Sir 
George is a strong supporter of the Ration 
alist Press Association, and in 1902 he 
issued, under the the name of " George 
Forester," a statement of his Agnostic 
views (The Faith of an Agnostic). It was 
re-issued, under his own name, in 1919. 
He has written various other works. 

GREG, William Rathbone, writer. B. 
1809. Ed. Bristol, and Edinburgh Uni 
versity. He entered his father s business, 
and in 1832 became himself a mill-owner. 
From 1864 to 1877 he was Comptroller of 
the Stationery Office. Studying much in 
his leisure, Greg published a Rationalist 
work, The Creed of Christendom (1851), 
which went through many editions, and in 
1872 he issued Enigmas of Life, which 
reached a twentieth edition. He was a 
Theist, and tender to Christianity. In a 
broad moral sense he defined himself as a 
Christian, but he did not firmly accept even 
the belief in a future life. D. Nov. 15, 1881. 

GREGORY, Sir William Henry, 

KG. M.S., statesman. B. July 12, 1817. 
Ed. Harrow and Oxford (Christ s Church). 
He was M.P. for Dublin 1842-47, and for 
Gal way 1857-71 ; and he strongly advo 
cated the Sunday opening of museums and 




other reforms. In 1867 he became a Trustee 
of the National Gallery. As Governor of 
Ceylon (1871-77) he so won the gratitude 
of the natives that they called him " our 
god." He was a Theist, but he tells us in 
his Autobiography (1894) that "there were 
few who took more advanced views " than 
himself (p. 166), and that he was "eminently 
latitudinarian " and indifferent to " dog 
matic religion" (p. 167). D. Mar. 6, 1892. 

GREYILLE, Charles Cavendish Fulke, 

writer. B. Apr. 2, 1794. Ed. Eton and 
Oxford (Christ s Church). He was appointed 
Secretary to Jamaica, and later Clerk of 
the Privy Council (1821-59). His inti 
mate knowledge of statesmen and State 
affairs during that period gives great value 
to his Memoirs (8 vols., 1875-87), and from 
them we learn the Rationalist opinions of 
many. Greville s own hostility to the 
Church is often expressed (iii, 212-15 ; 
v, 215 ; viii, 47, etc.). Sir H. Taylor remarks 
in his Autobiography that Greville was 
" avowedly Epicurean " (i, 315). D. Jan. 18, 

GREYY, Frangois Paul Jules, third 
President of the French Republic. B. 
Aug. 15, 1813. Grevy was a Parisian 
lawyer who took part in the Revolution 
of 1848, and was a Commissary of the 
Provisional Government. He entered the 
National Assembly, then the Legislative 
Assembly, but quitted politics for a time 
after Napoleon s coup d etat. In 1868 he 
was President of the Advocates of Paris 
and Republican member of the Legislative 
Assembly. He was elected to the National 
Assembly in 1871, and to the Chambre, of 
which he became President, in 1876. As 
head of the moderate Republicans, after 
the death of Thiers, he became President 
of the Republic in 1879, and he was re- 
elected in 3885. Gr6vy was not personally 
involved in the scandal which compelled 
his resignation in 1887 (the misconduct of 
his step-son). He was a high-minded 
statesman and sober opponent of the 
Church. D. Sep. 9, 1891. 


GREY, Albert Henry George, fourth 
Earl Grey, statesman. B. Nov. 28, 1851. 
Ed. Harrow and Cambridge (Trinity Col 
lege). Grey was senior in Law and History 
Tripos in 1873. He represented South 
Northumberland in Parliament from 1880 
to 1885, and Tyneside from 1885 to 1887 ; 
and in 1894 he succeeded Mr. Rhodes as 
representative of the British South Africa 
Company. In 1896-97 he was Adminis 
trator of Rhodesia, and in 1904 he became 
Governor General of Canada. Earl Grey 
was associated with Holyoake in the Co 
operative Movement, and was a warm 
admirer of that gentleman. In a letter 
to him in 1900 he declared that Christ, 
Mazzini, R. Owen, and Holyoake (or else 
Darwin) were " the four men who have 
opened the eyes of mankind most widely 
to the truths of human brotherhood " 
(McCabe s Life and Letters of G. J. 
Holyoake, 1908, ii, 303). He was one of 
the most conscientious and idealistic states 
men in British political life in the nineteenth 
century. D. Aug. 29, 1917. 

GRIFFIN, Sir Lepel Henry, K.C.S.I., 
statesman. B. July 20, 1838. .Ed. Maiden s 
School (Brighton), Harrow, and private 
tutor. Entering the Indian Civil Service, 
he became assistant commissioner to the 
Punjab in 1860, under-secretary to the 
local government in 1870, officiating 
secretary in 1871, superintendent of the 
Kapurthala State in 1875, chief secretary 
of the Punjab in 1878, and agent to the 
Governor-General of Central India in 1881. 
After his return to England (1889) he was 
Chairman of the Imperial Bank of Persia. 
He had been knighted in 1881. In his 
" Sikhism and the Sikhs " (in Great 
Religions of the World, 1901) Sir Lepel 
plainly rejects Christianity, though he is, 
apparently, Theistic. He thinks that 
Brahmanism " provided conceptions of 
the Deity as noble and exalted as those 
to be found in any religion of East or 
West " (p. 140), and seems to approve 
" that state of suspension of judgment 
which is somewhat inadequately designated 



Agnosticism " (p. 148). The entire chapter 
is Rationalistic. D. Mar. 9, 1908. 


GRILL PA RZER, Franz, Austrian 
dramatist. B. Jan. 15, 1791. Ed. Vienna. 
Compelled to discontinue his legal studies, 
GriUparzer was a clerk in the Treasury 
until 1856, devoting his leisure to letters 
and philosophy. His first tragedy, Die 
Ahnfrau, was presented at Vienna in 1817. 
The poems and plays which succeeded 
gave him a commanding position in 
Austrian literature. In 1847 he was 
admitted to the Academy of Science, and 
in 1861 he entered the Austrian Upper 
House. He was a Theist, and a great 
admirer of Kant and Goethe. His col 
lected works were published in ten volumes 
in 1871, and there are many biographies 
of him. D. Jan. 21, 1872. 

GRIMM, Baron Friedrich Melchior 
von, German writer. B. Dec. 26, 1723. 
Ed. Leipzig. He settled in Paris and 
became a close friend of Rousseau, Diderot, : 
Holbach, and D Alembert, sharing the | 
views of the Deists. During thirty-six 
years he wrote letters to various German j 
princes, and they afford a valuable picture I 
of the times as well as an expression of his j 
opinions (Correspondance litteraire, philo- 
sopliique, et critique, 16 vols., 1877-82). 
After 1775 he was plenipotentiary minister 
at Paris of the Duke of Gotha. He left at 
the Revolution, and became Councillor to 
Catherine the Great. D. Dec. 19, 1807. 

GRISEBACH, Eduard, German writer. 
B. Oct. 9, 1845. Ed. Gottingen University. 
Adopting a diplomatic career and serving 
some years in the embassies at Rome and 
Constantinople, he became, in succession, 
German Consul at Smyrna, Vice-Consul at 
Jassy (1876), and Consul at Bucharest 
(1880), at St. Petersburg (1881), at Milan 
(1883), and at Haiti (1884). He is a fol 
lower of Schopenhauer, whose works he 
edited. Of his own works his (anonymous) 

volume of poems, Der neue Tannhduser 
(1869), is most characteristic. 

GROOME, Francis Hindes, writer. B. 
Aug. 30, 1851. Ed. Wyke Regis, Ipswich 
Grammar School, and Oxford (Corpus 
Christi). Groome had become acquainted 
with the gypsies at Ipswich, and after 
leaving Oxford he, though a son of the 
Archdeacon of Suffolk, spent some years 
among them in various parts of the con 
tinent and married a woman of gipsy blood. 
In 1876 he settled to a literary life in 
Edinburgh. He edited the Ordnance 
Gazetteer of Scotland, and he was on the 
literary staff of W. and R. Chambers. He 
was one of the highest authorities on the 
gypsies. In his fine appreciation of 
Fitzgerald (Two Suffolk Friends, 1895) he 
plainly endorses his scepticism (p. 77). D. 
Jan. 24, 1902. 

GROOS, Professor Karl, German 
psychologist. B. Sep. 10, 1861. Ed. 
Heidelberg University. In 1889 he became 
a private teacher of philosophy at Giessen 
University, and three years later he was 
appointed professor. In 1898 he passed to 
Basle University. Groos is mainly in 
terested in psychological aesthetics, from 
which he excludes metaphysical considera 
tions. He has won considerable repute by 
his analysis of play, in animals and men 
(Die Spiele der Thiere, 1896 ; Die Spieleder 
Menschen, 1899). In regard to religion he 
follows the Pantheistic philosophy of 

GROPPALI, Professor Alessandro, 

Ph.D., Italian sociologist. B. May 5, 
1874. He became professor of the philo 
sophy of law and of sociology at Modena 
University. Groppali is a distinguished 
member of the Italian Positivist School. 
He calls Ardigo "our greatest thinker," 
and agrees with him in regard to religion 
(in preface to V. Osimo s Appunti di Filo- 
sofia Contemporanea, 1905). He edited the 
Bassegna di Sociologia, wrote many works 
on philosophy and social questions, and is 




a member of the International Institute 
of Sociology, the Sociological Society 
(London), and the American Academy of 
Political and Social Science. 

GROT, Professor Nikolai YakoleYich, 

Eussian psychologist. 13. 1852. Ed. St. 
Petersburg. He occupied the chair of 
philosophy at, in succession, Niezhin 
(1876-83), Odessa (1883-86), and Moscow 
(1886-99). In his numerous works on 
psychology and philosophy, and his review 
of those sciences, he at first strongly 
opposed mysticism and metaphysics (The 
Psychology of Sensations, etc.), then (after 
1885) he accepted metaphysics and natural 
religion, and finally (1895-99) he returned 
to empirical psychology and taught a 
Monistic Pantheism. D. May 23, 1899. 

GROTE, George, D.C.L., LL.D., his 
torian. B. Nov. 17, 1794. Ed. Charter 
house. Leaving school early in order to 
enter his father s bank, Grote devoted his 
leisure assiduously to study, especially the 
study of philosophy and economics. He 
came under the influence of James Mill, who 
introduced him to Bentham in 1819 ; and 
in 1822 they issued (under the pseudonym 
of "Philip Beauchamp ") a scathing and 
brilliant Rationalist essay, An Analysis of 
the Influence of Natural Religion on the 
Temporal Happiness of Mankind. It dras 
tically rejects all religion, including Theism. 
Bentham provided the material, which 
Grote put into shape. Grote was one of 
the most active workers for the London 
University. He left its council for a time 
when they appointed a clergyman as pro 
fessor of philosophy, and in 1866 he pre 
vented Martineau from occupying the 
chair. He sent 500 to Charles Comte 
[SEE] and the French Revolutionaries of 
1830, and he was a devoted worker for 
parliamentary and educational reform in 
England. Retiring from his bank in 1843, 
he applied himself to the writing of his 
masterly History of Greece (which he had 
begun in 1822), and published the first two 
volumes in 1846. The eleventh volume 

appeared in 1853, and he then began his 
Plato and the other Companions of Sokrates 
(3 vols., 1865). He became Treasurer of 
University College in 1860, and at his 
death left it 6,000 to endow a chair of 
philosophy. D. June 18. 1871. 

GROTE, Harriet, writer. B. July 1, 
1792. Daughter of an Indian Civil servant 
named Lewin, she married George Grote in 
1820 and gave him valuable and sympa 
thetic assistance in his life-work. She 
linked him with the French Rationalists, 
and was herself " one of the chief inter 
mediaries of her time between France and 
England " (Diet. Nat. Biog.). She wrote 
biographies of Ary Scheffer and of her 
husband (The Personal Life of George 
Grote, 1873), and other works. Harriet 
Grote was a very gifted woman and a strong 
Rationalist. Hearing that her niece, Lady 
Duff-Gordon, had entered the Church of 
England, she sent her " a sarcastic, cutting 
letter " (Three Generations of English 
Women, 1893, p. 442). D. Dec. 29, 1878. 

GRUN, Karl, German writer. B. 
Sep. 30, 1817. Ed. Bonn and Berlin Uni 
versities. He became a teacher at Colmar, 
then editor of a paper at Mannheim. 
Expelled from Baden on account of his 
opinions, he lectured for some years in 
Cologne, and was again expelled for his 
heresies. After four years in France, he 
returned to Germany in 1848, and he was 
expelled in 1849. He then spent some 
years, writing and lecturing, in France and 
Italy. His works (including studies of 
Goethe, Schiller, and Feuerbach, and fine 
cultural histories of the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries) are very numerous. 
D. Feb. 18, 1887. 

GRUYER, Louis Auguste Jean 
Francois Philippe, Belgian writer. B. 
Nov. 15, 1778. Ed. College des Augustins 
and Ecole Centrale. He entered his 
father s business, but in 1799 he took 
service in the French army, passing to the 
French Civil Service in 1801. Gruyer 



reached a high office, and on his retirement 
in 1820 devoted himself to writing philo 
sophical works. He was a Theist, but 
rejected immortality. D. Oct. 15, 1866. 

GUEPIN, Professor Ange, French 
physician. B. 1805. Ed. Paris. He 
adopted advanced ideas during his medical 
course, and after the Revolution of 1830 
he was appointed professor at the Nantes 
School of Medicine. He actively co 
operated in establishing scientific con 
gresses in France. At the Napoleonic 
coup d etat in 1850 he was deposed, but in 
1870 he became Prefect of Loire-Inferieure. 
He was a distinguished oculist and medical 
writer, a Saint-Sirnonian, and a strong 
Rationalist. D. May 21, 1873. 

GUEROULT, Adolphe, French writer. 
B. Jan. 29, 1810. He was the son of a 
rich manufacturer, but he adopted Saint- 
Simonian ideas. In 1842 Guizot appointed 
him French Consul in Mexico, and in 1847 
in Rumania. On his return to France he 
took an active part in industrial and 
political affairs. He edited La Presse and 
founded L Opinion Nationale. In 1863 he 
was elected to the Legislative Assembly 
and sat with the anti-clericals. His views 
are expounded chiefly in his Etudes de 
politique et de philosophic religieuse (1862). 
D. July 21, 1872. 

guese poet. B. Sep. 15, 1850. Ed. 
Coimbra University. Trained in law, he 
occupied various posts in the administra 
tion, and in time was recognized as a 
leader of the advanced Democrats. His 
poetry was immensely popular in Portugal, 
and much of it, as his A velhice de Padre 
Eterno ("The Eternal Father s Old Age," 
1885), is very anti-religious. 

GUERRINI, Olindo, D. es L., Italian 
poet. B. Oct. 4, 1845. Ed. Ravenna, 
Turin, and Bologna University. Guerrini 
graduated in law, but he took to letters 
and became Librarian at Bologna Uni- 

versity. His volumes of verse, Postuma 
(1877), Polemica (1878), and Nova Polemica 
(1879), gave him the lead of the natural 
istic school in Italy. His prose works 
show great learning and versatility. He 
was a Chevalier of the Crown of Italy and 
an Educational Councillor. In the Preface 
to his Nova Polemica he declares : "I do 
not believe in God." 

GUESDE, Jules Basile, French poli 
tician. B. Nov. 11, 1845. Guesde began 
his career as a clerk in the Foreign Office, 
but he adopted advanced opinions, and in 
1871 he was compelled to fly to Switzer 
land on account of an article in his journal, 
Les droits de I homme. After his return to 
France in 1876 he established the first 
French Socialist organ, L Egalite, and led 
the Marxian Socialists. Guesde s opposi 
tion to M. Combes during the separation 
controversy was merely on the ground of 
the right of association. He is a strong 
Rationalist and humanitarian. In A. 
Brisson s Les Proplietes he says : " We 
will say no ill of the priests. They were 
once useful. Their work is over. Let us 
get on with ours." 

GUEUDEYILLE, Nicolas, French 
writer. B. about 1650. Ed. Rouen. He 
was a famous Benedictine preacher, who, 
being called to account for heresy, fled to 
Holland and quitted the Church. There 
he taught philosophy, edited a journal, and 
issued anti-Christian works (Dialogue de 
M. le baron de la Hontan et d un sauvage 
de I Amerique, 1704 ; Pensees libres, 1716, 
etc.). He was a very learned writer, and 
translated Plautus, Erasmus, T. More, etc. 
D. about 1720. 

Bevington, poet. B. 1845. Of a Quaker 
family named Bevington, she early accepted 
the doctrine of evolution and embodied it, 
and its Rationalistic consequences, in her 
poetry. Darwin, who rarely read poetry, 
greatly appreciated her Keynotes (1879) and 
Poems, Lyrics, and Sonnets (1882). She 



wrote also, from the Agnostic standpoint, 
in the Nineteenth Century, Fortnightly, 
Mind, etc. She married the artist Ignaz 

GUIMET, Emile Etienne, French 
hierologist. B. June 26, 1836. He suc 
ceeded to his father s chemical business at 
Fleurieu-sur-Saone, and in his leisure took 
an interest in comparative religion. In 1876 
he went on behalf of the Government to 
study religion in the Far East, and in 1879 
he established the Guimet Museum (of 
comparative religion) at Lyons. In 1885 
it was transferred to Paris and made over 
to the State. Guimet published his 
lectures (1904), and various works on 
oriental art, travel, and archaeology. He 
is an Officer of the Legion of Honour. 

GULL, Sir William Withey, M.D., 
F.E.S., D.C.L., LL.D., physician. B. 
Dec. 31, 1816. Ed. privately. He taught 
in a Lewes school for some time, then 
graduated in medicine, and was lecturer at 
Guy s Hospital from 1843 to 1856. He 
was a Fellow of the Eoyal College of 
Physicians (1848), Fullerian professor of 
physiology at the Eoyal Institution 
(1847-49), physician and joint lecturer on 
medicine at Guy s Hospital (from 1856). 
He was also Censor of the College of 
Physicians, and member of the General 
Medical Council and the Senate of London 
University. In 1872 he was created a 
baronet, and was appointed physician to 
the Queen. Equally eminent as physician 
and lecturer, he delivered the Gulstonian 
Lectures, the Harveian Oration, and the 
Hunterian Oration. He was a close friend 
of James Hinton [SEE] , and shared his 
Pantheism (see his Introduction to Life and 
Letters of J. Hinton, 1878). D. Jan. 29, 

GUMPLOWICZ, Professor Ludwig, 

LL.D., Polish sociologist. B. Mar. 9, 1838. 
Ed. Cracow and Vienna Universities. After 
practising law for some years at Cracow 
he was appointed teacher, then professor 


(1876), of public law at Gratz University. 
Gumplowicz wrote, both in German and 
Polish, a number of weighty works on law 
and sociology. He regarded religion as 
a natural psychological-sociological pheno 
menon, and ethics as a code imposed on the 
individual by the group. D. Aug. 24,1909. 

GUNDLING, Professor Nikolaus 
Hieronymus, German jurist. B. Feb. 25, 
1671. Ed. Leipzig and Halle Universities. 
In 1705 he became extraordinary, and in 
1706 ordinary, professor of philosophy at 
Halle. In the following year he changed 
to rhetoric, and in 1709 to law, in 
which he followed the naturalist view of 
Thorn asius. He wrote extensively on 
law, philosophy, and history, from the 
Deistic point of view. D. Dec. 9, 1729. 

GUNST, Frans Christiaan, Dutch 
writer. B. Aug. 19, 1823. Ed. Berne 
University. He refused to enter the 
! Catholic priesthood, as was intended by 
! his parents, and took to writing and book 
selling. With Junghuhn he founded the 
Dacjeraad, a Eationalist periodical, to 
which he frequently contributed ; and he 
wrote a number of biting criticisms of the 
Church of Eome. He was for some time 
secretary of the Amsterdam City Theatre, 
and was President of the Independent 
Lodge of Freemasons. D. Dec. 29, 1886. 

GURNEY, Edmund, writer. B. Mar. 23, 
1847. Ed. Blackheath and Cambridge 
(Trinity College). Gurney became a Fellow 
of Trinity in 1872, and devoted himself to 
music and reading, publishing a remarkable 
book, called The Power of Sound, in 1880. 
He qualified also in medicine, then aban 
doned medicine for law, and finally 
returned to philosophy and psychology. 
He assisted in founding the Society of 
Psychical Eesearch (1882), and, with 
Myers and Podmore, he published Phan 
tasms of the Living (1886). The work 
was for him one of inquiry, but in his 
Tertium Quid (2 vols., 1887) he, while 
rejecting a personal God and expressing 




only a hope of a future life, pleads for an 
intermediate attitude between orthodoxy 
and Positivism. D. June 23, 1888. 

GUYAU, Jean Marie, French philo 
sopher. B. Oct. 28, 1854. Educated by 
his mother (who wrote under the pen- 
name of " Giordano Bruno"), he won the 
Academy prize at the age of nineteen by 
an essay on utilitarian morality. His 
health compelling him to decline a pro 
fessorship, he settled in the south of 
France, and wrote several notable books 
on natural ethics and religion (Esquisse 
d une morale sans obligations ni sanctions, 
1885; L irreligion de I avenir, 1886, etc.). 
Like Fouillee, his step-father, he stresses 
the sociological factor and eliminates all 
theology. D. Mar. 31, 1888. 

GUYOT, Yves, French statesman and 
economist. B. Sep. 6, 1843. Ed. Eennes 
Lycee. He settled in Paris in 1867, 
for a time edited the Eationalist Pensee 
Nouvelle, and was a member of the 
Municipal Council. In 1876 he organized 
the Voltaire centenary festival. He en 
tered the Chambre in 1885, and was 
Minister of Public Works 1889-92. His 
chief Eationalist works are Etudes sitr les 
doctrines sociales du christianisme (1873) 
and Le bilan de I eglise (1883). Guyot has 
been at various times Vice-President of 
the Society of Political Economy and 
President of the Anthropological Society, 
the Statistical Society, and the Society of 
-Aerial Navigation ; and he is a member of 
the English Eoyal Statistical Society and 
the American Academy of Political and 
Social Science. 

GYLLENBORG, Count Gustaf Friedrik 
Yon, Swedish poet. B. Dec. 6, 1731. 
Gyllenborg, whose didactic poem, The 
Seasons, had a high repute, occasionally 
expresses his Deistic sentiments in his 
satires, fables, and odes. He was one of 
the first members of the Swedish Academy 
(1786), and was at one time Chancellor of 
Upsala University. D. Mar. 30, 1808. 


HACHETTE, Jean Nicolas Pierre, 

French mathematician. B. May 6, 1769. 
Ed. Charleville and Eheims. He taught, 
in succession, at Eocroy, Mezieres, and 
Callioure ; and at the formation of the 
Polytechnic School at Paris he was invited 
to teach geometry there and at the Normal 
School. In 1810 he became also professor 
at the Paris Faculty of Science. The 
Clericals withdrew most of his appoint 
ments after 1816, and prevented him from 
taking a seat in the Academy of Sciences 
until 1831. Hachette was one of the great 
French mathematicians of the time, and 
was loaded with honours. D. Jan. 16, 1834. 

HADDON, Professor Alfred Cort, 

M.A., D.Sc., F.E.S., ethnologist. B. May 24, 
1855. Ed. Cambridge (Christ s College). 
He was professor of botany at the Dublin 
Eoyal College of Science 1880-1901, Uni 
versity Lecturer in Ethnology at Cam 
bridge 1900-1909, and Lecturer in Eth 
nology at London University 1904-1909. 
He is now University Eeader in Ethnology 
at Cambridge, and has contributed many 
important works to his science. He was 
at one time President of the Eoyal Anthro 
pological Institute, and was President of 
the Ethnological Section of the British 
Association in 1902 and 1905. Mr. Had- 
don is a member of the Eationalist Press 
Association and one of the leading ethno 
logists in Europe. 

HAECKEL, Professor Ernst Heinrich, 

M.D., Ph.D., Sc.D., LL.D., German zoolo 
gist. B. Feb. 16, 1834. Ed. Merseburg 
Gymnasium, and Berlin and Wiirzburg 
Universities. He graduated in medicine, 
but never practised. After wavering for 
a year or two between painting and bio 
logical science, for both of which he had 
great gifts, he decided for the latter. In 
1861 he became private teacher, in 1862 
extraordinary professor, and in 1865 ordi 
nary professor, of zoology at Jena Univer 
sity. Already detached from orthodoxy 
by the writings of Goethe, he eagerly 
embraced the teaching of Darwin, and 



became the German apostle of evolution. 
His development of the theory was, how 
ever, far more than a repetition of Darwin. 
His Gcnerelle Morphologic der Organismen 
(2 vols., 1866), Natiirliche Sclwpfungsges- 
chichte (1868), Anthropogenic (1874), and 
Systematische Phylogenie (3 vols., 1894-96) 
are masterpieces of evolutionary philo 
sophy ; and his skill in illustrating his 
own works added considerably to his 
educational value. The charge, which a 
popular Christian Evidence lecturer, Dr. 
Brass, brought against him in 1908, of 
" falsifying " some of his illustrations, 
recoiled heavily on the lecturer s own head. 
Forty-six of the most eminent zoologists 
and embryologists of Germany and Austria 
spontaneously issued a letter in which 
they " most stringently condemn " the 
charge. The most that they would admit 
was that Haeckel, for clearer education, 
sometimes made his illustrations more 
diagrammatic than they liked. Professor 
Hertwig and Professor Rabl went further, 
and convicted Brass himself of falsifying 
illustrations. The Kepler Bund the 
Christian Evidence body to which Brass 
belonged issued a counter-manifesto, but, 
although they expressly accused their own 
champion of " bad taste " in his charges, 
no distinguished biologist in Germany 
would sign their letter. The facts and 
documents are all given in Professor 
H. Schmidt s Haeckel s Embryonenbilder 
(1909), and the reiteration of the charge 
in the religious Press since 1909 is gravely 
dishonest. Haeckel was one of the first 
biologists of his day. He wrote forty 
scientific volumes, and he had four gold 
medals and seventy diplomas of member 
ship of learned societies. For fifty years 
he was an outspoken Rationalist, or Monist, 
and his Riddle of the Universe (1899) was 
translated into over twenty languages, 
more than two million copies being sold. 
Few scientific men ever received greater 
honours during life, and none approached 
Haeckel in the work of popular enlighten 
ment. He was a man of simple life and 
most winning character, an idealist of the 

most refined type, an accomplished artist, 
and a man of science with an exceptionally 
wide range of study. D. Aug. 8, 1919. 

HALEYY, Jacques Francois Fromen- 
tel Elie, composer. B. May 27, 1799. 
Ed. Paris Conservatoire and Rome (Prix 
de Rome). In 1826 he was appointed 
professor at the Conservatoire, and in the 
following year his first opera was staged. 
His La Juive (1835), a classic of modern 
French music, put him in the front rank of 
French composers. He was also an elegant 
writer, a Commander of the Legion of 
Honour, and a member of the Academy. 
A warm friend of Renan, he seems to have 
exchanged the Jewish creed for a liberal 
Theism. D. Mar. 17, 1862. 

HALEYY, Joseph, French orientalist. 
B. Dec. 15, 1827. After teaching for some 
years at Adrianople, where he was born, 
and Bucharest, he \vas naturalized in 
France, and discharged various missions 
in Armenia and Arabia for the French 
Government and the Jewish Alliance. He 
was then appointed teacher of Ethiopia at 
the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, and he was 
joint-editor, with Darmesteter, of the liberal 
Revue des Etudes Juives from 1880 on 
ward. His works on Assyrian and Ethiopic 
remains are weighty ; his advanced views 
are seen in his Becherches bibliques (1895). 

HALEYY, Leon (brother of Jacques), 
French writer. B. Jan. 14, 1802. Ed. 
Lyc6e Charlemagne. Renouncing the 
Jewish faith early in his literary career, 
he joined the Saint-Simonians and col 
laborated on their Producteur. Halevy 
was a man of great erudition and admir 
able art. He translated Homer, JEschylus, 
Herodian, and Shakespeare, and wrote a 
number of dramas and volumes of verse, 
history, and travel. Several of his works 
were crowned by the Academy. He was 
professor of literature at the Polytechnic 
1831-34, and was in the Ministry of Public 
Instruction 1837-53. D. Sep. 2, 1883. 



HALEYY, Ludovic (son of Leon), 
French dramatist. B. Jan. 1, 1834. Ed. 
Lycee Louis le Grand. He was in the 
Ministry for Algiers 1858-65, then a reporter 
in the Legislative Assembly. His operettas 
and comedies gaining considerable favour, 
he quitted the Civil Service and devoted 
himself entirely to the stage. Halevy was 
a most prolific and successful writer of 
comedies and comic operas. After 1880 
he turned to fiction, and wrote several 
brilliant novels. Very quiet and refined 
in person, his work shows complete inde 
pendence of either Christian or Jewish 
standards. He was admitted to the 
Academy in 1886. Mr. Bodley considers 
that his death made "the greatest gap in 
the French world of letters since that of 
Dumas fils" (Athenceum, May 16, 1908). 
D. May 8, 1908. 

HALL, John Carey, C.M.G., I.S.O., 
Positivist. B. Jan. 22, 1844. Ed. Coleraine 
Academical Institution and Queen s College, 
Belfast. Entering the consular service in 
Japan in 1868, he became Acting Vice- 
Consul at Yedo in 1869, Assistant Japanese 
Secretary to the Legation at Tokyo in 1882, 
Acting Japanese Secretary in 1884, Acting 
Assistant-Judge of the Supreme Court at 
Shanghai in 1888, and Consul-General at 
Yokohama in 1902 (to 1914). Mr. Hall has 
written on China and Japan, and was one 
of the founders of the China Society. He 
is a member of the Positivist Church, and 
contributes occasionally to the Positivist 
Review. He is also a member of the 
E. P. A. 


astronomer. B. Nov. 8, 1656. Ed. St. 
Paul s School and Oxford (Queen s Coll.). 
He began to study astronomy at school, 
and at the age of nineteen submitted a 
paper to the Eoyal Society. In 1676 he 
went to St. Helena to study the southern 
stars, of which he published a catalogue. 
He was admitted to the Eoyal Society at 
the early age of twenty-two, and, though 
a poor man, he greatly assisted Newton, 

financially and personally, in bringing out 
his Principia. In 1691 he was refused 
the Savilian professorship at Oxford on the 
express ground of his Eationalist opinions, 
but he secured it in 1703, and was one 
of the most industrious and illustrious 
occupants of the chair. He edited the 
Philosophical Transactions, and was in 
1713 appointed Secretary of the Eoyal 
Society. Chalmers quaintly observes in 
his Biographical Dictionary : " That ho 
was an infidel in religious matters seems 
as generally allowed as it appears un 
accountable." He wrote nothing about 
religion. D. Jan. 14, 1741. 

HAMERLING, Robert, Austrian poet 
and novelist. B. Mar. 24, 1830. Ed. 
Vienna Gymnasium. He became a teacher 
at his school, and devoted himself to study 
ing philology and philosophy. In 1855 he 
went to teach at Trieste, but he retired 
in 1866, to give all his time to poetry and 
letters. His Ahasver in Bom (1866), Der 
Kdnig von Sion (1869), and Aspasia (3 vols., 
1876), all Eationalistic in sentiment, had 
an immense circulation, and were translated 
into several languages. He was one of the 
chief Austrian writers of the century. D. 
July 13, 1889. 

HAMERTON, Philip Gilbert, artist and 

writer. B. Sep. 10, 1834. Ed. Burnley 
and Doncaster Grammar Schools. He 
refused to go to Oxford because he would 
not sign the Thirty-nine Articles, and took 
to painting and writing. As etcher, novelist, 
and writer on art he had considerable 
success, and he was joint founder of the 
Portfolio (1869). In his posthumously 
published Autobiography (1897) he avows 
his Eationalism, though he thought that 
true liberation " from theology would 
come by acquiring knowledge rather than 
by controversy. D. Nov. 4, 1894. 

HAMILTON, Lord Ernest William, 

writer. B. 1858. Ed. Harrow and Sand 
hurst. Son of the first Duke of Abercorn, 
he took a commission in the llth Hussars, 
322 N 



and he was from 1885 to 1892 M.P. for 
North Tyrone. Lord Hamilton has written 
several novels and war-books, but for some 
years before the War he gave much atten 
tion to the study of religion. In Involution 
(1912) he declares that "Church dogmas 
are doomed " (p. 21), that Christ was a 
human teacher like Buddha, and that the 
doctrine of a future life is in acceptable 
(p. 349). He is, however, a Theist. 

HANNOTIN, Emile, French writer. B. 
Aug. 21, 1812. He was a liberal and anti 
clerical journalist at Paris who was com 
pelled by Napoleon III to retire from the 
Press. Among his later writings are several 
nationalist works on religion : Un progres 
du christianisme (1854) and Essai sur 
I homme (1882). D. 1886. 

HANOTAUX, Gabriel Albert Auguste, 

French historian. B. Nov. 19, 1853. Ed. 
Lycee de St. Quentin, Ecole de Chartres, 
and Ecole de Droit. To his legal training 
M. Hanotaux added political experience as 
well as wide reading. He was Minister of 
Foreign Affairs 1894-96 and 1896-98, and 
he has written much on foreign and colonial 
questions and on the diplomatic antecedents 
of the War. He is an Officer of the Legion 
of Honour and a member of the Academy. 
Culturally, he is one of the most accom 
plished of living French historians (espe 
cially in his Histoire du Cardinal de 
Richelieu, 2 vols., 1893 and 1903, and 
Histoire de la France contemporaine, 1903). 
He is for peace with the Church, but stands 
wholly outside it (see his Introduction to 
Despagnet s La republique ct le Vatican, 

HANSON, Sir Richard Davies, Chief 
Justice of South Australia. B. Dec. 6, 
1805. Ed. private school. He was articled 
to a London solicitor, and after 1828 he 
practised, besides editing the Globe. In 
1838 he accompanied Lord Durham to 
Canada, and in 1840 he went from Canada 
to New Zealand, becoming Crown Prose 
cutor at Wellington. He went to South 

Australia in 1846, became Advocate General 
in 1851, Attorney General in 1856, and 
Chief Justice of the Supreme Court in 
1861. He was knighted in 1869, and was 
elected Chancellor of Adelaide University 
in 1874. Hanson was an outspoken Eation- 
alist. He published Law in Nature (1865), 
The Jesus of History (1869), Letters to and 
from Borne (1869), and The Apostle Paul 
(1875). D. Mar. 4, 1876. 

HARBERTON, Viscount. 

E. A. G. P. 

HARDWICKE, Herbert Junius, M.D., 
F.K.C.S., M.E.C.P., physician, brother of 
W. W. Hardwicke. B. 1850. Ed. London, 
Edinburgh, and Paris. He was a member 
of the Edinburgh College of Physicians, 
and was for some time a surgeon in the 
Egyptian service. In 1879 he took a 
prominent part in the foundation of the 
Sheffield Hospital for Skin Diseases, to 
which he was appointed Physician. Dr. 
Hardwicke is an Agnostic, and, seeing the 
timidity of publishers after the prosecution 
of Mr. Foote, he set up a press of his own 
to print his Popular Faith Unveiled (1884) 
and Evolution and Creation (1887). He 
has written also on travel and on hygiene. 

HARDWICKE, William Wright, M.D., 

M.E.C.P., L.E.C.P.E., physician. He was 
formerly Medical Officer of Health for 
Harwich Borough and Port ; and for many 
years Physician to Molesey and Hampton 
Court Cottage Hospital. Author of The 
Rationalist s Manual, 1897 ; Evolution of 
Man, his Religious Systems, and Social 
Customs, 1899; Sunday Observance, its 
Origin and Meaning, 1906. Like his brother, 
Dr. H. J. Hardwicke, he is a Spencerian 

HARNEY, George Julian, journalist. 
B. Feb. 17, 1817. From 1832 to 1855 
Harney took a brave part in the struggle 
against the Newspaper Stamp Act, and 
was twice imprisoned for selling unstamped 



papers. He was joint editor of the London 
Democrat (1839), and editor for some years 
of the Chartist Northern Star, the Demo 
cratic Review (1849-50), the Bed Republican 
1850), and the Friend of the People. He 
lived in America from 1863 to 1888, and 
after his return he was on the staff of the 
Newcastle Weekly Chronicle. He was a 
staunch Eationalist (McCabe s Life of 
Holijoake, i, 72). D. Dec. 9, 1897. 

HARRIOT, Thomas, mathematician. B. 
15GO. Ed. Oxford (St. Mary s Hall). He 
was mathematical tutor to Sir W. Raleigh, 
and he accompanied Sir R. Grenville s 
expedition to Virginia in 1581. On his 
return he was pensioned, and he devoted 
himself to mathematics and astronomy. 
Harriot was little behind Galileo in the 
use of the telescope, and he made many 
discoveries. Wood informs us that he 
" cast off the Old Testament " and was 
"a Deist" (Athen. Oxon. ii, 301). D. 
July 2, 1621. 

HARRISON, Austin, writer. B. Mar. 27, 
1873. Ed. Harrow, and Lausanne, Mar 
burg, and Berlin Universities. Mr. Harrison 
has written much on Germany, and he was 
one of the very few to foresee its recent 
development. He does not follow his 
father, Frederic Harrison, in his Posi- 
tivist views, but is rather a Nietzschean 
Rationalist. Since 1910 he has edited the 
English Review, in which most of his 
vigorous writing appears. 

HARRISON, Frederic, M.A., D.C.L., 
Litt.D., LL.D., head of the English Posi- 
tivists. B. Oct 18, 1831. Ed. King s 
College, London, and Oxford (Wadham). 
Called to the Bar (Lincoln s Inn) in 1858, 
he was a member of the Royal Commission 
on Trade Unions 1867-69, secretary of the 
Royal Commission for Digesting the Law 
1869-70, Professor of Jurisprudence and 
International Law to the Inns of Court 
1877-89, and alderman of the L. C. C. 
1889-93. Mr. Harrison was President of 
the English Positivist Committee from 


1880 to 1905, and he is still the most com 
manding figure of the movement. He was 
Rede s Lecturer at Cambridge in 1900, 
Washington Lecturer at Chicago in 1901, 
and Herbert Spencer Lecturer at Oxford in 
1905. He records in his Autobiographical 
Memoirs (i, 150) that he definitely aban 
doned Christianity in 1857, the weakness 
of F. D. Maurice s sermons being the final 
influence in shaking his creed, and em 
braced Positivism about 1862. His literary 
works are numerous and distinguished, but 
his views on religion are best read in The 
Creed of a Layman (1907) and The Positive 
Evolution of Religion (1912). Both in 
character and in culture Mr. Harrison is 
one of the most eminent of British men of 

HARRISON, Jane Ellen, LL.D., Litt.D., 
Hellenist. B. Sep. 9, 1850. Ed. Chelten 
ham and Cambridge (Newnham). For 
some years Miss Harrison was lecturer on 
archaeology at Cambridge, and she has 
written weighty works on Greek religion 
(especially her Prolegomena to the Study of 
Greek Religion, 1912). She was a member 
of the Council of the Hellenic Society 
1889-96 and of the Committee of the 
British School of Archaeology at Athens 
in 1890 ; and she is a corresponding 
member of the Royal Archaeological In 
stitute of Berlin. Her views on religion are 
given in her Conway Memorial Lecture for 
1919. She believes that "the old ortho 
doxy is dead, and may well be buried," but 
admits an Immanent God who is "nothing 
but the mystery of the whole of things." 

HARTLAND, Edwin Sidney, LL.D., 
F.S.A., anthropologist. B. July 23, 1848. 
Ed. Bristol. He practised as a solicitor at 
Swansea from 1871 to 1890, and was clerk 
to the Swansea School Board from 1872 to 
1890. Since 1890 he has been Registrar 
of the Gloucester County Court and District 
Registrar of the High Court. He was 
Mayor of Gloucester in 1902. Mr. Hart- 
land is a high authority on comparative 
religion (The Legend of Perseus, 3 vols., 



1894-96, etc.) and folk-lore. He was Presi 
dent of the Folk-Lore Society in 1899, and 
President of the Anthropological Section of 
the British Association in 1906. Ho is an 
Honorary Associate of the R. P. A. 

HARTE, Francis Bret, American 
novelist. B. Aug. 25, 1839. Ed. Albany 
College (by his father, a Roman Catholic 
professor). He was, in succession, a 
teacher, miner, compositor, and journalist 
(on the Golden Era, California). In 1864 
he was appointed secretary of "the branch 
mint, and in 1870 professor of literature in 
California University. He was American 
Consul at Crefeld 1878-80, and at Glasgow 
1880-85. His last years were spent in 
England. It was in 1868 that he began 
the mining stories which made his reputa 
tion, and in those and his poems there are 
many thrusts at orthodoxy. He embraced 
Unitarianism for a time, but passed on to 
Theism. " In later years," says T. E. 
Pemberton (The Life of Bret Harte, 1903), 
" he was content to worship God through 
his works " (p. 77). He tells us himself 
that he " never voiced a creed " (same work, 
p. 343). D. May 5, 1902. 

HARTMANN,Karl Robert Eduard von, 

German philosopher. B. Feb. 23, 1842. 
The son of a general, Hartmann was 
trained for the army and served in it until 
1865, when he " adopted thinking as his 
vocation" (he said). His great work, Die 
Philosophie des Unbewussten, was pub 
lished in 1869 and had an immense circu 
lation. Of his numerous other works the 
Beligionsphilosophie (2 vols., 1886-87) is 
the most important ; but his hostility to 
Christianity is best seen in his Selbstver- 
setzung des Christenthums (1888). His 
chief aim is to fuse the Idea of Hegel and 
the Will of Schopenhauer together as 
aspects of the same reality, and to combine 
the best elements of Christianity and 
Buddhism. In his system of " concrete 
Monism" the " spirit of the universe " is 
unconscious. D. June 6, 1906. 


HARWOOD, Philip, journalist. B. 
1809. He served in a solicitor s office in 
Bristol and obtained his articles, but he 
decided to join the Presbyterian ministry, 
and went to Edinburgh University. The 
weakness of Dr. Chalmers s lectures drove 
him to Unitarianism, but his rejection of the 
miraculous stirred the Unitarian body, and 
he became assistant to Fox at South Place 
Chapel in 1841. In 1842 he was appointed 
lecturer at the Beaumont Institution, Mile 
End. Losing that in turn by his heresies, 
he took to journalism and was sub-editor 
of the Morning Chronicle (1849-54), sub 
editor of the Saturday Review (1855-68), 
and editor of the Saturday Eeview 
(1868-83). D. Dec. 10, 1887. 

Professor Herman, Dutch writer. B. 
Feb. 13, 1841. Ed. Leyden University. 
He graduated in law and natural philo 
sophy, and in 1866 won a gold medal by a 
chemical treatise. For some time he was 
professor of chemistry and natural history 
at the Hague. He was on the City Council 
at Delft, and was later elected to the City 
Council at Assen ; but he refused to take 
an oath, and was not allowed to sit. He 
was Director of the Archaeological Museum 
at Assen and member of various learned 
bodies. Member of the Dutch Free 
thinkers Society and contributor to the 
Dageraad, he also translated into Dutch 
several works of Darwin, Biichner, and 
other foreign Rationalists. 

HASLAM, Charles Junius, writer. B. 
Apr. 24, 1811. Haslam was an Owenite 
Socialist of Manchester who in 1838 pub 
lished a strongly Rationalist work, Letters 
to the Clergy of all Denominations. The 
publisher, Hetherington, was prosecuted 
for blasphemy. Haslam wrote several 
further pamphlets in criticism of religion. 
D. Apr., 1898. 

HAUPTMANN, Gerhart, German 
dramatist. B. Nov. 15, 1862. Ed. Salz- 
brunn Real-Schule, Breslau Art School* 



and Jena and Berlin Universities. Haupt- 
mann interrupted his studies in sculpture 
to take up science, but he returned to 
sculpture and worked in Italy. In 1885 
he turned to letters, and, influenced by 
Ibsen, he wrote a series of very uncon 
ventional social plays. His great drama, 
Die Weber, was produced in Berlin in 1892. 
In his later works (Die Versunkene Glocke, 
1897, etc.) Hauptmann is mystic and sym 
bolical, combining a kind of Theism or 
Pantheism with his social idealism. There 
is an English edition of his collected works 
(1913, etc.). 

HAUREAU, Jean Barthelemy, French 
historian. B. Nov. 9, 1812. He was a 
Parisian journalist, who, in 1838, became 
librarian at Le Mans and devoted himself 
to history. His Manuel du Clergc (1844) 
"was a powerful anti-clerical work, and at 
the Revolution of 1848 he was appointed 
Conservator of the National Library. He 
resigned in 1851 and strongly opposed 
Napoleon III. He was Director of the 
National Press (1870-81), Director of the 
Fondation Thiers, and Commander of the 
Legion of Honour. Perhaps the most 
valuable of his many historical works is 
his Histoire de la pliilosophie scolastique 
(3 vols., 1872-81). D. Apr. 29, 1896. 

HAUY, Valentin, French educationist. 
B. Nov. 13, 1745. Ed. Paris. After 
teaching for some years at Paris he entered 
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. It was 
owing to his fine and persistent efforts that 
the first school for blind children was 
established in France in 1784. It was 
taken over by the Government in 1791. 
Haiiy, who was a Theophilanthropist, 
pursued his work in Russia from 1806 to 
1817, then again in France until his death. 
Nearly every country in Europe was 
stirred by his zeal and example. D. 
Mar. 18, 1822. 

HAYET, Professor Ernest Auguste 
Eugene, French writer. B. Apr. 11, 1813. 
Ed. Ecole Normale. He was appointed 

j professor of Greek literature at the Ecole 
Normale in 1840, and of Latin eloquence 
at the College de France in 1855. When 
Renan s Vie de Jesus appeared in 1863, 
Havet boldly supported it by an article in 
the Revue dcs Deux Mondes. He then 
entered upon a prolonged and valuable 
study of Christian origins, which is finally 
summed in his Le Christianisme et ses 
origincs (3 vols., 1872-84). He was a 
member of the Legion of Honour and of 
the Academy of Political and Social 
Science. D. Dec. 21, 1889. 

HAYLICEK, Karel, Czek writer. B. 
Oct. 31, 1821. Ed. Archiepiscopal Semi 
nary, Prague. He was a private tutor at 
Moscow 1842-44, but he returned to Prague, 
and founded the National Gazette. It was 
suppressed after the Revolution, and Hav- 
licek was interned in the Tirol, where he 
wrote his biting Tiroler Elecjien. He con 
tinued the work after his return to Bohemia 
in 1855. His satires and epigrams, which 
often assail religion (as in " The Baptism 
of St. Vladimir"), were collected and pub 
lished in 1877. D. July 29, 1856. 

HAWKESWORTH, John, LL.D., writer. 
B. 1715. Having had little education, he 
served as a clerk until 1744, when he joined 
the staff of the Gentleman s Magazine. He 
edited the Adventurer (1752-54) and the 
works and letters of Swift, and \vrote a 
number of plays and stories. In 1771 he 
was commissioned by the Government to 
compile the record of voyages to the South 
Seas, and he caused great scandal by 
refusing to admit that narrow escapes 
were due to Providence. He was clearly 
very sceptical. In 1773 he became a 
Director of the East India Company. D. 
Nov. 16, 1773. 

HAWKINS, Dexter Arnold, American 
educationist. B. June 23, 1825. Ed. 
Bowdoin College. From 1848 to 1852 he 
lectured in the teachers institutions of 
Maine, but he then studied law at Harvard 
and Paris, and in 1854 began to practise 




in New York. Hawkins continued to write 
and lecture on educational reform, and he 
was chiefly instrumental in securing a 
National Bureau of Education. His Ration 
alism may be read in his Roman Catholic 
Church in New York City (1880). D. July 24, 

HAWTHORNE, Julian, American 
novelist, son of Nathaniel Hawthorne. B. 
1846. Ed. Harvard. After some years at 
electrical engineering, which he had studied 
in Germany and the United States, he 
adopted a literary career. Ho has written 
about thirty novels, a History of the United 
States (1899), and several literary works. 
In Hawthorne and His Circle (1903) he 
says that his father had a pew in the 
Unitarian Church at Liverpool, where the j 
father was for a time stationed, and sent him | 
to occupy it on Sundays (never attending j 
himself), but he " never learned to repeat j 
a creed, far less to comprehend its signi 
ficance" (p. 190). He is a Theist. 

HAWTHORNE, Nathaniel, American 
novelist. B. July 4, 1804. Ed. Bowdoin 
College. After graduating he gave his 
attention to literature and journalism, and 
in 1837 the publication of the first collec 
tion of his Twice-Told Tales vindicated his 
talent. He, however, worked in the Boston 
Custom House from 1839 to 1841, and 
then spent a year with the Transcendental- 
ists at Brook Farm. He w r as compelled to 
return to the Civil Service, but the Scarlet 
Letter secured his literary position in 1850. 
The grim Puritanism described in it, the 
atmosphere of his youth, had been dis 
carded by him at college, and he never 
afterwards went to church (F. P. Stearns, 
The Life and Genius of N. Hawthorne, 
1906, p. 422). He was deeply religious 
within the limits of Theism, but he was so 
far from association with any Christian 
sect that " his own family did not know 
what his religious opinions were " (ibidem, 
p. 423). D. May 18, 1864. 

HAYNES, Edmund Sidney Pollock, 


lawyer and writer. B. Sep. 26, 1877. 
Ed. Eton and Oxford (Balliol). He was 
Brakenbury Scholar at Oxford. Mr. Haynes 
engaged as a solicitor in the firm of which 
his father was a partner at London, and 
he is now a partner of the firm. He 
married Professor Huxley s grand-daughter, 
Oriana Waller. His important professional 
position has not prevented him from being 
one of the most powerful opponents of the 
clergy on the subject of divorce reform, on 
which he has written and lectured much, 
or from publishing Rationalist works 
(Religious Persecution, 1904 ; The Belief 
in Personal Immortality, 1913). He is an 
Agnostic, and a life-member of the R. P. A. 

HAYWARD, Abraham, Q.C., lawyer. 
B. Nov. 22, 1801. Ed. private schools 
Bath and Tiverton. He entered the Inner 
Temple in 1824 and became a barrister, 
writing in the magazines, and editing the 
Law Magazine (1828-44). In 1838 he pub 
lished an excellent translation of Goethe s 
Faust, and he became Queen s Councillor 
in 1845. Hayward greatly offended English 
Rationalists in 1873 by an unpleasant letter 
on J. S. Mill in the Times, but he had not 
himself ceased to be an Agnostic. In the 
Spectator, May 10, 1919, a letter from 
Kinglake to Sir M. Grant-Duff is quoted, 
in which it is said that "no clergyman 
invaded his peace " at his death, and his 
last words were : " We know nothing. 
There is something great" (p. 590). D. 
Feb. 2, 1884. 

HAZLITT, William, critic and essayist. 
B. Apr. 10, 1778. Ed. Hackney Theo 
logical College. He withdrew from his 
preparation for the ministry and devoted 
himself to portrait painting. Making the 
acquaintance of Coleridge, Lamb, Godwin, 
and Holcroft, he turned to letters, and 
published an Essay on the Principles of 
Human Action (1805). In 1812 he gave 
a course of lectures on philosophy at the 
Russell Institution. His Characters of 
Shakespeare s Plays (1817) and Table Talk 
(1821-22) placed him in the front rank of 




English essayists of the time. He took 
Montaigne as his model, and was described 
by Thackeray as " one of the keenest and 
brightest critics that ever lived " (Cambridge 
Hist. Engl. Lit., xii, 178). His works fre 
quently betray his Eationalist opinions, as 
in the essay, "My First Acquaintance with 
Poets," where he tells how he read " with 
infinite relish " Hume s Treatise on Human 
Nature, and speaks with disdain of the 
Bible which captivated the "lack-lustre 
eyes " of his father (a Unitarian clergyman). 
He was a Theist, but does not seem to 
have believed in a future life. D. Sep. 18, 

HE AFORD, William, writer. B. June 16, 
1855. Mr. Heaford, who was in the Civil 
Service until 1920, began to work in 
the Freethought movement in London in 
1876, and founded the Camberwell Secular 
Society. He contributed to the Secular 
Chronicle, and during the last three decades 
he has contributed frequently to the Free 
thinker and the Literary Guide, as well as 
to the Pacifist journals Concord and Notes 
Internationales. He translated Naquet s 
Collectivisme and Count de Eenesse s Jesus 
Christ. For many years he was equally 
prominent on the Freethought platform, 
and he is one of the chief links between 
English and Continental Freethinkers. He 
speaks French, Spanish, and Italian, and 
has attended a number of the International 
Freethought Congresses. 

HEAPE, Walter, M.A., F.E.S., F.Z.S., 
zoologist. B. 1855. Ed. Cambridge. He 
was engaged in business from 1873 to 1879, 
then went to Cambridge. He was Demon 
strator of morphology at Cambridge 1882- 
85, and Superintendent of the Marine 
Biological Association 1886-88. He was 
also Balfour student 1890-93, and has 
written many papers and works. In Sex 
Antagonism (1913) Mr. Heape compares 
the Christian belief in the miraculous 
conception of Christ to a belief of the 
Queensland blacks in spirit-conception 
both " know the truth ; it is only super- 


stition which compels them to deny it " 
(p. 91). 

HEARN, Lafcadio, writer. B. June 27, 
1850, of Irish father and Greek mother, in 
Leucadia (or Lafcadia), one of the Ionian 
Isles. Ed. Ushaw Eoman Catholic College. 
He early abandoned Catholicism, and was 
for a time an Atheist. In 1869 he went to 
America and became a journalist. Sent on 
a journalistic mission to Japan in 1891, he 
accepted an appointment at Tokyo Univer 
sity, and was described as "the most brilliant 
of writers on Japanese life " (Athenceum, 
Oct. 1, 1904). His first work on Japan, 
Out of the East, appeared in 1894. Hearn, 
who changed his name to Yakumo Koizumi 
and adopted Buddhism, rendered great 
service in proving the moral superiority of 
Buddhism to Christianity. D. Sep. 23, 1904. 

HEBBEL, Friedrich, German tragedian 
and poet. B. Mar. 18, 1813. Ed. village 
school, Wesselburen. Put^into an office at 
the age of fourteen, Hebbel published poetry 
which attracted wide attention, and a few 
patrons sent him to Heidelberg and Munich 
Universities. His first tragedy was pro 
duced in 1841, and his power was soon 
recognized. His masterpiece, Die Nibe- 
lungen (1862), depicts the conflict of the 
Pagan and Christian view of life. Hebbel 
was a Pantheist (E. Horneffer, Hebbel und 
das religiose Problem dcr Gegemvart, 1907). 
His collected works were published in 
12 vols., 1866-68. D. Dec. 13, 1863. 

HEBERT, Jacques Rene, French Eevo- 
lutionist. B. Nov. 15, 1755. He was 
employed at a Parisian theatre at the 
outbreak of the Eevolution, which he 
eagerly embraced. His journal, Le Pere 
Duchesne, was one of the most fiery organs 
of the Eevolution. In 1792 he was a 
member of the Eevolutionary Council and 
Procurator General of the Commune. 
Hebert was one of the most insistent on 
substituting the cult of Eeason for the cult 
of a Supreme Being. He was guillotined 
March 24, 1794. 




HEBERT, Professor Marcel, French 
philosopher. In his Evolution de la foi 
catholigue (1905) he studies the Church 
from outside, without hostility, and con 
cludes that it will last, " but without any 
effective authority on all that thinks, acts, 
and advances in Humanity " (p. 3). He 
believes that man has a sense of " the 
Divine," but he is Agnostic as regards 
personal immortality (pp. 250-51). 

HEGEL, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich, 

German philosopher. B. Aug. 27, 1770. 
Ed. Stuttgart Gymnasium and Tubingen 
University. He was a private tutor at 
Berne (1793-96) and Frankfort (1797- 
1800). In 1800 he became teacher of 
philosophy at Jena, and with Schelling he 
edited the Kritische Journal der Philosophic. 
In 1804 he began to write his most impor 
tant work, Die Phanornenologie des Geistes 
(published 1807), and to diverge further 
from Schelling. His second principal work, 
Die Wissenschaft der Logik, appeared 1812- 
16 (3 vols.). In 1816 he became professor 
at Heidelberg, and in 1818 at Berlin. Hegel 
(whose collected works were published in 
18 vols., 1834-45) has probably proved the 
most influential philosopher of modern 
times. Like a few of his modern followers, 
he professed to be in a sense a Christian, 
but he did not believe even in a personal 
God or personal immortality, much less in 
the doctrines of the Church. See the dis 
cussion of his religious views in Mr. Benn s 
History of English Rationalism (1906, 
i, 380). D. Nov. 14, 1831. 

HEINE, Heinrich, German-Jewish poet. 
B. Dec. 13, 1797. Ed. Diisseldorf Lyceum, 
and Bonn, Gottingen, and Berlin Univer 
sities. He had studied law, and in 1825, 
in order to get an official position (from 
which Jews were excluded), he formally 
adopted Christianity. He wrote at the 
time to his friend Moser: "I assure you 
that if the law had allowed me to steal 
silver spoons I would not have been 
baptized " (quoted in C. Puetzfeld s H. 
Heines Verhdltniss zur Religion, 1912, 

p. 50). He was then, and remained until 
1848, an Atheist. His " conversion " 
proved of no avail, and he travelled and 
won a high literary repute by the descrip 
tion of his wanderings (Reisebilder, 1826- 
27). In 1827 he collected his scattered 
poems in an exquisite volume (Buch der 
Lieder), and in 1831 he settled at Paris. 
From 1848 onward he was bed-ridden with 
spine disease, and he began again to believe 
in God (though never in a future life). 
He cynically remarked that his new con 
version might be due " to morphia or 
poultices." To the end he scorned both 
Christianity and orthodox Judaism (see 
Puetzfeld). D. Feb. 17, 1856. 

HEINZEN, Karl Peter, German writer. 
B. Feb. 22, 1809. Ed. Bonn University. 
He was expelled from Germany while still 
a university student, but returned and 
entered business. In 1845 he was again 
expelled, for a work on the Prussian 
bureaucracy, and fled to Switzerland, then 
America. He returned to Germany to 
take part in the revolutionary movement 
of 1848, and at its failure settled in 
America, where he edited the Pioneer and 
\vrote a number of Rationalist and other 
works. D. Nov. 12, 1880. 

HELMHOLTZ, Hermann Ludwig Fer 
dinand von, German physiologist. B. 
Aug. 31, 1821. Ed. Berlin University. 
In 1842 he was appointed assistant surgeon 
at Berlin, in 1843 military surgeon at 
Potsdam, in 1848 teacher of anatomy at 
Berlin, in 1849 professor of physiology at 
Konigsberg, in 1855 professor of anatomy 
and physiology at Bonn, in 1858 professor 
of physiology at Heidelberg, in 1871 pro 
fessor of physics at Berlin, and in 1888 
President of the Physico-Technical Insti 
tute at Charlottenburg. These appoint 
ments, at the highest seats of learning in 
Germany, show the remarkable range of 
Helrnholtz s erudition. He was one of the 
earliest writers to determine the conserva 
tion of energy (Die Erhaltung der Kraft, 
1847), and he did remarkable work on the 



anatomy and physiology of the sense- 
organs, from which he excluded the idea 
of design. An outspoken Agnostic, he was 
one of Germany s most eminent men of 
science and one of the first physicists 
(in later life) and physiologists of his time. 
D. Sep. 8, 1894. 

HELYETIUS, Claude Adrien, French 
Encyclopedist. B. (Paris) Jan. 18, 1715. 
He was employed in the financial world, 
and became in 1738 a Farmer- General of 
the Finances. Having a large fortune, he 
resigned his position in order to cultivate 
letters and philosophy ; and his house 
was one of the chief centres of the 
Encyclopaedists. Stimulated by Locke s 
essay, he in 1758 published a work, DC 
I esprit, which was burned by order of the 
Parlement. Mme. du Deffand remarked 
that he had "let out everybody s secret." 
His better known work, De I honime, was 
published posthumously, and is frankly 
Materialistic. His collected works were 
published in fourteen volumes in 1796. 
D. Dec. 2G, 1771. 

HENDERSON, Professor Laurence 
Joseph, A.B., M.D., American biochemist. 
B. June 3, 1878. Ed. Harvard and Strass- 
burg Universities. Henderson was lecturer 
on biochemistry at Harvard in 1904-1905, 
instructor from 1905 to 1910, and has 
been associate professor since 1910. He 
is a fellow of the American Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, and a member of the 
American Physiological Society, the Ameri 
can Society of Biological Chemists, and 
the American Chemical Society. Besides 
his numerous scientific papers, he has 
written The Fitness of the Environment 
(1913) and The Order of Nature (1917). 
In these works he rejects emphatically the 
idea of design in nature and all natural 
theology based on it, though he contends 
for a certain kind of teleology. He thinks 
Darwin s advance from theology to Theism, 
and from Theism to Agnosticism, the 
normal growth, and adds : " We shall 
never find the explanation of the riddle, 

for it concerns the origin of things " (The 
Order of Nature, p. 209). 

Etienne Felix d , French writer. B. 
Apr. 27, 1755. He served in the army, 
then in the diplomatic service, being 
charge d affaires at Constantinople 1793-95. 
Napoleon made him a general and a baron 
(1809), but he was deposed at the Restora 
tion, and devoted himself chiefly to writing 
on animal magnetism (to which he ascribed 
the miracles of Jesus). He wrote also 
Des Comediens et du clerge (1825), a drastic 
anti-clerical work. D. Aug. 2, 1841. 

HENLEY, William Ernest, LL.D., 
poet and critic. B. Aug. 23, 1849. Ed. 
Crypt Grammar School, Gloucester. He 
settled in London in 1877, and, in succes 
sion, edited London (1877-78), the Maga 
zine of Art (1886-89), the National 
Observer (1891-94), and the Neiv Review 
(1894-98). His first poems were published 
in 1888, and a definitive edition appeared 
in 1898, followed later by For England s 
Sake (1900) and Hawthorn and Lavender 
(1901). Henley was not a systematic 
thinker he thought philosophy " like 
chalk in one s mouth " and his mood in 
regard to religion changed much. In his 
later poetry he is a decided Theist, but 
he is consistently sceptical about a future 
life. In 1875 he wrote (Poems, 1898, 

p. 119) :- 

Out of the night that covers me, 

Black as the pit from pole to pole, 
I thank whatever Gods may be 

For my unconquerable soul. 

Beyond this place of wrath and tears 
Looms but the horror of the shade. 

He changed only in the direction of a 
firmer Theism. D. June 11, 1903. 

HENNE AM RHYN, Otto, Ph.D., Swiss 
historian. B. Aug. 26, 1828. Ed. St. 
Gallen Gymnasium and Berne University. 
In 1852 he became a secretary of depart 
ment, in 1857 a gymnasium professor, in 
1859 the State Archivist at St. Gallen, in 
1872 an editor at Leipzig, and in 1885 



again State Archivist. He edited the j 
Freiinaurer Zeitung, and was one of the 
leading Freemasons of Switzerland. His 
numerous historical works, including an 
eight-volume general history of culture 
(1877-1908) and various volumes on social 
and ethical questions, are all Rationalistic 
(especially Die Jesuiten, 1889). He says 
in his Autobiography that he " cast off all 
the fetters of the creeds " at the university, 
though in his later work he is Theistic. 

HENNELL, Charles Christian, writer. 
B. Mar. 30, 1809. Ed. private schools. 
He went to work as a clerk at the age of 
fifteen, when he already knew French, 
Latin, and Greek, but continued to study 
in his leisure. In 1838 he set up a pros 
perous business of his own. Charles Bray 
[SEE] married his sister, and the connec- i 
tion led Hennell to a study of the Bible ; 
which compelled him to renounce Uni- j 
tarianism. His work, Inquiry Concerning \ 
the Origin of Christianity (1838), was j 
translated into German and Italian. He j 
was a Theist (Christian Theism, 1839). \ 
D. Sep. 2, 1850. 

HENNELL, Mary, writer, sister of C. C. 
Hennell. B. May 23, 1802. Like her 
brother, Miss Hennell felt the influence of 
C. Bray and abandoned Unitarianism. 
She wrote an essay entitled " Outline of 
the Various Social Systems and Com 
munities which have been Founded on the 
Principle of Co-operation," which was 
published as an appendix to Bray s Philo 
sophy of Necessity (1841) and separately 
printed in 1844. D. Mar. 16, 1843. 

HENNEQUIN, Emile, French critic. 
B. 1858. Ed. Geneva. He entered the 
journalistic world of Paris, on the Havas 
Agency, and was then on the staff of Le 
Temps until his death. His literary work, 
especially a Critique Scientifique published 
a few weeks before his death, gave promise 
of great distinction, and he was a thorough 
Rationalist, but he died prematurely 
July 14, 1888. 


Jean, French writer. B. Sep. 20, 1759. 
He was a well-known Parisian lawyer, 
who was in 1783 appointed Advocate 
General of the Paris Parlement. His 
Visite a Buff on (1785, re-issued in 1829 as 
Voyage a Montbard) is our best testimony 
to Buffon s views. Being " a pupil of 
Diderot " (Grande Encyc.), he accepted the 
Revolution and was made a judge. He 
was a member of the Legislative Assembly 
and of the Committee of Legislation, and 
was in 1792 President of the Legislative 
Assembly. He was guillotined Apr. 5, 

HERBERT, Edward, first Baron Her 
bert of Cherbury. B. Mar. 3, 1582. Ed. 
privately, and at Oxford (University Col 
lege). Herbert was a gifted and industrious 
student, whose accomplishments drew 
attention to him early in life. In 1603 
he was created Knight of the Bath, and 
in 1606 Sheriff of Montgomeryshire. He 
served in the Dutch War, and travelled all 
over Europe. In London he was a great 
friend of Ben Jonson, Selden, and Carew. 
In 1619 he went as Ambassador to Paris, 
where, in 1624, he published the first 
Deistic treatise, De Veritate. He wrote 
other works on religion in Latin. He 
entirely rejected revelation as priestly 
trickery, but his natural theology was 
mystic and Platonist. D. Aug. 20, 1648. 

HERBERT, Auberon Edward William 
Molyneux, D.C.L., reformer. B. June 18, 
1838, son of the third Earl of Carnarvon. 
! Ed. Eton and Oxford (St. John s College). 
He served in the army from 1858 to 1862, 
; , then returned to Oxford, and graduated in 
! Civil Law. He was lecturer on history 
and jurisprudence at St. John s College 
until 1869, when he resigned his fellow 
ship. In the Dano-Prussian War (1864) 
he received knighthood in the Order of the 
Dannebrog for rescuing the wounded under 
fire. In 1866 he became private secretary 
to Sir Stafford Northcote, and he was M.P. 
for Nottingham 1870-74. Herbert was 




a Spencerian Agnostic (see, especially, his 
articles in the Nineteenth Century, Aug. 
and Sep., 1901), and he ably supported 
Bradlaugh, and pressed for secular educa 
tion and other reforms. D. Nov. 5, 1906. 

HEREDIA, Jose Maria de, French 
poet. B. (in Cuba, of French mother) 
Nov. 22, 1842. Ed. Paris, and Havana 
University. He settled in Paris, adopted 
French nationality, and studied law, but 
he turned to letters and published his first 
poems in 1862. His exquisite sonnets in 
the Parnasse Contemporain and elsewhere 
gave him a high position in his art, but he 
cared so little for publicity that he issued 
only one volume, Les Trophees (1893, Eng. 
trans., 1897). He was a member of the 
Academy. Heredia was an enthusiastic 
admirer of the Rationalist poets Chenier, 
Hugo, and Leconte de Lisle, and shared 
their creed. D. Oct. 3, 1905. 

HERTWIG, Professor Oscar, M.D., 

Ph.D., German anatomist. B. Apr. 21, 
1849. Ed. Miilhausen Gymnasium, and 
Jena, Zurich, and Bonn Universities. He 
was appointed teacher of anatomy and em 
bryology at Jena in 1875 and professor in 
1878. In 1888 he became Director of the 
Berlin Institute of Anatomy and Biology, 
and professor of general anatomy and em 
bryology at the University. Hertwig is a 
member of the Royal Academy of Science, 
Privy Councillor, and joint editor of the 
Archiv filr mikroskopische Anatomic und 
Entivickelungsgeschichte. His works on 
embryology and biology have won for him 
membership of the French Societe de 
Biologie, the Linnsean Society, the Royal 
Microscopic Society, the Boston Society of 
Natural History, and a dozen others. 
Professor Breitenbach enumerates Pro 
fessor Hertwig among the pupils of 
Haeckel who have been faithful to his 
teaching (Was Wir E. Haeckel Verdanken, 
1914, i, 209). 

HERTWIG, Professor Richard, M.D., 
Ph.D., zoologist, brother of preceding. B. 


Sep. 23, 1850. Ed. Miilhausen Gym 
nasium, and Jena, Zurich, and Bonn Uni 
versities. He was appointed teacher of 
zoology at Jena in 1875, professor in 1878, 
professor of zoology at Konigsberg in 1881, 
at Bonn in 1883, and at Munich in 1885. 
He is a Privy Councillor and the author of 
many important works (including some of 
the Challenger series). In the Haeckel 
Memorial Volume (Was Wir E. Haeckel 
Verdanken, 1914) Professor Hertwig has a 
fine appreciation of his old master and his 
life-work (ii, 165-70). 

HERTZEN, Alexandr Ivanovich, 

Russian writer. B. Mar. 25, 1812. Ed. 
Moscow University. Although he was a 
son of Prince Jakovlev, he joined a Saint- 
Simonian society in his youth and was 
imprisoned. He then entered the govern 
ment service, but left it in 1842 to engage 
in the study of philosophy and letters, and, 
further developing his advanced opinions, 
he was banished from Russia in 1846. 
From London, where he set up a press in 
1851, and later from Switzerland, he issued 
a periodical, the Kolokol (Bell), which had 
an immense power in Russia. Hertzen 
was rich and cultivated, and many of his 
works (published in 10 vols. in 1875) 
embody his very drastic Rationalism. D. 
Jan. 21, 1870. 

HERTZOGENBERG, Heinrich von, 

Austrian musical composer. B. June 10, 
1843. Ed. Vienna Conservatorium. He 
settled at Leipzig, where he founded a 
Bach Society, and in 1885 was appointed 
professor of composition at the Berlin 
Royal High School of Music. He wrote 
some fine chamber and choral pieces. He 
was an intimate friend of Brahms, and 
their correspondence shows that Hertzo- 
genberg, who was brought up a Catholic, 
became as Rationalistic as Brahms. I 
believe nothing," he wrote near the end of 
his life (Letters of J. Brahms : the Hertzo- 
genberg Correspondence, 1909, p. 416). 
Hertzogenberg was joint editor of an 
ecclesiastical musical paper (Monatsschrift 



fur Gottesdienst und Kirchlichc Kunst). 
" He who has no faith must have emo 
tions," he said in explanation. D. Oct. 9, 

HERYEY, John, Lord Hervey of Ick- 
worth, Lord Privy Seal. B. Oct. 15, 1696. 
Ed. Westminster School and Cambridge 
(Clare Hall). Son of the first Earl of 
Bristol, he entered the House of Commons 
in 1725, and in 1730 he was appointed 
Vice-Chamberlain of the Royal Household. 
He was an intimate friend of Queen 
Caroline [SEE] , and was, like her, a Deist. 
In 1740 he became Lord Privy Seal. In 
the Introduction to Lord Hervey s principal 
work, Memoirs of the Reign of George the 
Second (2 vols., 1847), the Et. Hon. J. W. 
Croker observes that Hervey adopted " all 
the anti-Christian opinions " of the Deists 
and had " a peculiar antipathy to the 
Church and Churchmen " (p. xxvi). He 
adds that Hervey was the real author of 
a Deistic defence of Mandeville, Some 
Remarks on the Minute Philosopher, by " A 
Country Clergyman" (1732). His Deism 
is easily seen in ch. xxiii of his Memoirs. 
D. Aug. 5. 1743. 

HERYIEU, Paul Ernest, French 
dramatist and novelist. B. Sep. 2, 1857. 
Ed. Lycee Condorcet and Ecole de droit, 
Paris. He became an advocate at the 
Court of Appeal in 1877, and secretary of 
embassy in 1881. His distinguished 
literary career opened in 1882 with the 
story Diogene le chien, and he reached a 
very high position both in drama and 
fiction. He was a Commander of the 
Legion of Honour and Honorary President 
of the Societ6 des Gens de Lettres. D. 
Oct. 25, 1915. 

HETHERINGTON, Henry, publisher. 
B. 1792. He was a printer at London, 
and one of the most active of the workers 
in establishing the first Mechanics Institute 
and the early Trade Unions. Nobly 
resenting the "tax on knowledge" (the 
press-stamp), he set up a press in his house 

and issued, at a penny, The Poor Man s 
Guardian (1831-35). He was twice im 
prisoned for this, and five hundred persons 
were imprisoned in three years for selling 
it. He was again imprisoned in 1840 for 
blasphemous libel in publishing Haslam s 
Letters to the Clergy. Hetherington was 
one of the bravest fighters for liberty and 
enlightenment in dark days (see G. J. 
Holyoake s Life of H. Hetherington, 1849). 
He wrote A Feio Hundred Bible Contradic 
tions and other small works. D. Aug. 24, 

HEYSE, Paul Johann Ludwig von, 

German poet and novelist. B. Mar. 15, 
1830. Ed. Friedrich Wilhelm Gymnasium, 
Berlin, and Berlin and Bonn Universities. 
In 1854 King Maximilian invited him to 
settle, on a pension, at Munich, his 
Francesca da Rimini (1850) having given 
proof of high ability. Heyse was particu 
larly skilful and fruitful in short stories, of 
which he published twenty-four volumes, 
besides several volumes of poetry, ten 
novels, and fifty plays. His novels, espe 
cially Kinder der Welt (1873), a Ration 
alistic treatment of religion, drew upon him 
the w r rath of the orthodox, but his high 
position in modern German letters is undis 
puted. In 1910 he was awarded the Nobel 
Prize for literature. D. Apr. 2, 1914. 

HIBBERT, Julian, writer. B. 1801. 
Hibbert was a wealthy and cultivated 
Eationalist, a follower of Owen, who 
generously supported Eichard Carlile in 
his struggle. Wheeler recalls that on one 
occasion he gave Carlile 1,000, and he 
\vas little less generous in supporting 
Watson, Hetherington, and other re 
formers. He founded a British Associa 
tion for the Promotion of Co-operative 
knowledge, printed various Greek works 
from his private press, and commenced the 
compilation of a Dictionary of Anti-Super- 
stitionists. In 1833 he was subpoenaed, 
and he told the London court that he was 
"an Atheist" and would not kiss the 
Bible. He was harshly driven out of 



court, amid hisses, by the magistrates. D. 
Dec., 1834. 

HIGGINS, Godfrey, archaeologist. B. 
May 1, 1773. Ed. Cambridge (Trinity 
Hall). He studied law, but, receiving a 
large fortune at the death of his father, he 
abstained from practice, and devoted his 
time to the study of religion. From 1802 
to 1816 he served in the army. His first 
work, Hora Sabbatic (1826), was a study 
of the origin of the Sabbath. In 1829 he 
published An Apology for the Life and 
Character of Mahommed and The Celtic 
Druids, which opened his serious study of 
religion. The rest of his research is incor 
porated in his posthumous Anacalypsis 
(2 vols., 1836). Higgins professed to be a 
Christian, in the naturalist sense, but 
was a Deist. D. Aug. 9, 1833. 

HIGGINSON, Colonel Thomas Went- 
worth, American writer. B. Dec 22, 1823. 
Ed. Harvard. In 1848 he was ordained, 
and he became Pastor of the First Congre 
gational Church, Newburyport. Compelled 
to leave this on account of his opposition 
to slavery, he took a free church in 
Worcester until 1858, when he abandoned 
the ministry and flung himself into the 
anti-slavery campaign. He was a Colonel 
in the Civil War. After 1864 he devoted 
himself to letters and politics, sitting in 
the Massachusetts Legislature 1880-81 
and on the State Board of Education 
1881-83. He translated Epictetus and 
wrote many historical and biographical 
works. In an American symposium on 
immortality (In After Days, 1910) Colonel 
Higginson rejects " all sects and creeds," 
but believes in some sort of God and future 
life (ch. vi). D. May 9, 1911. 

HILL, George Birkbeck Norman, 

D.C.L., LL.D., writer. B. June 7, 1835. 
Ed. Oxford (Pembroke College). At Oxford 
he became a friend of Swinburne, Morris, 
and Eossetti, and shared their views. He 
was a schoolmaster from 1858 to 1869, 
then a journalist and author. He edited 


Boswell (6 vols., 1887), some of Johnson s 
works, and the letters of Hume and 
Eossetti. In one of his letters he says : 
" Priestcraft in every form I hate, and 
dogma I laugh at " (Letters of G. B. Hitt t 
1906, p. 245). He thought Christianity 
" a very noble poem, but of such stuff as 
dreams are made of." D. Feb. 27, 1903. 

HILLEBRAND, Professor Karl, Ger 
man writer. B. Sep. 17, 1829. Ed. 
Giessen and Heidelberg Universities. He 
was imprisoned for his share in the Eevolu- 
tion of 1848. Migrating to Paris, he was 
for a time secretary to Heine, but he 
graduated at the Sorbonne, taught German 
at the St. Cyr Military School, and eventu 
ally became professor of foreign literature 
at Douai. After the Franco-German War 
he settled in Italy, and wrote in French, 
German, and Italian. His essays alone fill 
seven volumes. In 1880 he lectured at the 
London Eoyal Institution (Lectures on 
German Thought). D. Oct. 19, 1884. 

HINS, Eugene, Ph.D., L., Belgian 
writer. B. Nov. 8, 1839. Hins, a strong 
Socialist as well as Eationalist, edited the 
Internationale for some years, and was one 
of the leading lecturers and writers of the 
Belgian Eationalists. In 1872 he was 
banished to Eussia. He was professor at 
the Eoyal Athenaeum, Charleroi, and wrote 
La Bussie devoilee au moyen de sa litterature 
populaire (1883) and other works, generally 
under the pseudonym " Diogene." After 
his retirement from the Belgian Civil 
Service in 1900 Hins was very active in the 
Eationalist world. " You waste your time 
and trouble in attacking clericalism," he 
wrote ; " attack its root religion." 

HINTON, James, surgeon and philo 
sopher. B. 1822. Ed. Nonconformist 
School, Harpenden. At first a clerk, he 
qualified in medicine, and, after a few years 
practice as a naval surgeon, settled in 
London (1850) becoming a high autho 
rity on ear diseases. Always deeply 
interested in philosophy, and a member of 



the Metaphysical Society, he had rejected j 
Christianity in early youth, and he never 
resumed it, but he was very religious and 
mystical (see his Mystery of Pain, 1866, 
etc.). He did not believe in a personal 
God. D. Dec. 16, 1875. 

HIPPEL, Theodor Gottlieb von, Ger 
man writer. B. Jan. 31, 1741. Ed. 
Konigsberg University. He was educated 
for the ministry, but he refused to enter 
it and studied law. In 1765 he became | 
Legal Consultant of Konigsberg, in 1780 . 
Mayor, and in 1786 Privy Councillor and j 
President of State. His numerous writings ; 
novels, poems, dramas, etc. (14 vols., : 
1828-39) are in many places Ration- j 
alistic. The identity of the author was j 
rigorously concealed until after his death. ; 
D. Apr. 23, 1796. 

BIRD, Dennis, M.A., writer. B. Jan. 28, 
1850. Ed. private schools and Oxford 
(New College). Mr. Hird took his degree 
with honours in natural science, and in 
1879 he was appointed tutor and lecturer 
at New College. Seven years later he 
became curate at St. Michael s, Bourne 
mouth, and in 1887 curate at Battersea. 
He was afterwards secretary of the Church 
of England Temperance Society and Lon 
don Police Court Missionary. He lost his 
position on becoming a Socialist, and, 
having been appointed Eector of Eastnor, 
he was again dismissed, for publishing A 
Christian with Two Wives (1896). For 
ten years (1899-1909) he was Principal of 
Euskin College at Oxford, and in 1909 he 
and a few others founded the Central 
Labour College in London. Failing health 
and war conditions compelled him to 
abandon this in 1915. Mr. Hird, who is 
an Agnostic, has written several popular 
works on evolution, and, before his health 
failed, lectured assiduously on it. 

HIRN, Professor Yrgo, Ph.D., Finnish 
aesthetic writer. B. 1870. Him is pro 
fessor of aesthetics and modern literature 
at Helsingfors University, and he is one 


of the foremost living writers of Finland. 
Several of his works (The Origins of Art, 
1900 ; The Sacred Shrine, 1912) have been 
translated into English. The latter work 
is a masterly and sympathetic study from 
the outside of Catholic art and poetry, 
though at the close Professor Him describes 
himself as an Agnostic, and regards Catholic 
doctrines merely as " stray ings of the 
human mind " (p. 478). 

HIRTH, Georg, German journalist and 
art-writer. B. July 13, 1841. Ed. Gotha, 
and Jena University. He edited the 
Leipzig Deutsche Turnzeitung 1863-66, 
and then, as secretary of the Victoria 
Foundation, became a high authority on 
statistics. In 1868 he founded the Annalen 
des deutscJies Beichs. In 1875 he turned 
to art-printing and publishing, and he has 
written a number of notable volumes on 
art and the history of art. From 1896 on 
he edited Jug and. He was one of the 
founders of the Monist League. D. Mar. 29, 

HO ABLE Y, George, American jurist. 
B. July 31, 1826. Ed. Cleveland, Western 
Eeserve College, and Harvard. He was 

admitted to the Bar in 1847, and he 
became judge of the Superior Court of 
Cincinnati in 1851 and City Solicitor in 
1855. He refused a judgeship of the 
Supreme Court, and established a firm at 
New York, besides teaching law at Cin 
cinnati. Hoadley was one of the counsel 
who successfully opposed the attempt to 
impose Bible lessons in American schools. 
He was Governor of Ohio 1883-85. D. 

HOBBES, Thomas, philosopher. B. 
Apr. 5, 1588. Ed. Westport Church, 
Malmesbury, and Oxford (Magdalen Hall). 
Hobbes, who had begun to learn Latin 
and Greek at the age of six, was for twenty 
years tutor to Mr. Cavendish (later Earl of 
Devonshire), and afterwards to his son. 
He had not only exceptional leisure for 
study, but in the course of foreign tours 



he met most of the Continental thinkers. 
He was also a friend of Lord Herbert. 
The Civil Law bent his thoughts to political 
philosophy, and he published De Give in 
1642, and began to write the Leviathan. 
His Behemoth was, at the King s request, 
withheld from publication until 1679. 
Living in a dangerous age, and timid by 
temperament, he protested against the 
charge of heterodoxy, which was based 
upon occasional passages of his writings, 
but it is admitted that he was at most 
a Deist (see J. M. Eobertson s Short 
History of Freethought, ii, 71-3). His 
psychology also suggests that he questioned 
or denied the immortality of the soul, 
which is inconsistent with it. His woi k 
greatly stimulated the growth of Eation- 
alism in Europe. D. Dec. 4, 1679. 

HOBHOUSE, Arthur, first Baron Hob- 
house of Hadspen, judge. B. Nov. 10, 
1819. Ed. Eton and Oxford (Balliol). 
He was called to the Bar in 1845, and 
became Q.C. in 1862. He was a Charity 
Commissioner 1866-72, law member of the 
Council of the Governor General of India 
1872-77, on the judicial committee of the 
Privy Council 1881-1901, and was created 
legal peer in 1885. A man of high charac 
ter and public feeling, he served as Vestry 
man of St. George s, member of the 
London School Board (1882-84), and 
Alderman of the L.C.C. (1888). He was 
a strong humanitarian and an advanced 
Eationalist, and his name appears in the 
list of benefactors of the E. P. A. His 
letters to Holyoake in his later years 
(Lord Hobhouse : A Memoir, by L. T. 
Hobhouse and J. L. Hammond, 1905) are 
drastically anti-ecclesiastical, and they 
show a belief only in a great ruling 
power of the universe." Shortly before 
his death he wrote to a clergyman that, 
the more he reflected, " the more my mind 
is led away from your objects and fixed 
upon others " (p. 258). D. Dec. 6, 1904. 

HOBHOUSE, Professor Leonard Tre- 
lawney, Litt.D., sociologist. B. 1864 


(son of the Yen. Archdeacon Hobhouse 
and nephew of Baron Hobhouse). Ed. 
Oxford (Merton). He was assistant tutor 
at Oxford (C. C. C.) for some years, and 
was then on the editorial staff of the 
Manchester Guardian (1897-1902) and the 
Tribune (1906-1907). He was secretary 
of the Free Trade Union 1903-1905, and 
was for some years editor of the Socio 
logical Review. In 1907 he was appointed 
professor of sociology at London Univer 
sity. Professor Hobhouse s chief works 
are Mind in Evolution (1901) and Morals 
in Evolution (2 vols., 1906). In his 
Development and Purpose (1913) he defines 
God as " that of which the highest known 
embodiment is the distinctive spirit of 
humanity" (p. 371). 

HOBSON, John Atkinson, M.A., econo 
mist. B. July 6, 1858. Ed. Derby School 
and Oxford (Lincoln). He was classical 
master at Faversham and Exeter from 
1880 to 1887, then University Extension 
Lecturer (Oxford and London) in English 
literature and economics from 1887 to 
1897. Besides his well-known economic 
and political works he has published 
several volumes of a literary character 
(John Buskin, 1898, etc.). Mr. Hobson is 
a regular lecturer for the South Place 
Ethical Society, and an influential writer 
in the Press (Manchester Guardian, etc.). 

HOCHART, Polydore, French historian. 
M. Hochart has made valuable studies of 
the alleged evidence in Eoman writers in 
favour of Christ and early Christianity. 
In 1885 he published Etudes au sujet de la 
persecution des Chretiens sous Neron and 
Etudes sur la vie de Seneque. In 1890 
and 1894 he issued learned researches into 
the authenticity of Tacitus. 

HODGSON, Brian Houghton, orien 
talist. B. Feb. 1, 1800. Ed. Macclesfield 
Grammar School, Eichmond, and East 
India Company s College, Haileybury. He 
reached India in 1818, and was appointed 
assistant commissioner at Kumaon. From 



1820 to 1843 he was assistant resident in 
Nepal. Hodgson, though a most conscien 
tious official, made so thorough a study of 
Hindu religion and literature, and collected 
so many manuscripts, that Burnouf called 
him " the founder of our Buddhist studies." 
He also contributed materially to zoology 
and ethnology. When importuned about 
his religious belief he said : " I do not care 
to talk about the unknowable " (Life of 
B. H. Hodgson, by Sir W. W. Hunter, 
1896, p. 332). D. May 23, 1894. 

HODGSON, Shadworth Hollway, philo 
sopher. B. 1832. Ed. Eugby and Oxford 
(Corpus Christi). His wife dying three 
years after marriage, Mr. Hodgson devoted 
his life to philosophy and attained an 
acknowledged mastery of it. He was 
President of the Aristotelian Society from 
1880 to 1894. His chief works were Time 
and Space (1865), The Philosophy of Reflec 
tion (2 vols., 1878), and The Metaphysic of 
Experience (1898). His religious views are 
expounded chiefly in The Philosophy of 
Reflection, ch. xi. He held that " the notion 
of a soul as an immaterial substance is 
exploded " (ii, 258), and he merely acknow 
ledged a God as " the Spirit of the Whole." 
The creeds he emphatically rejected. D. 
June 13, 1912. 

HODGSON, William, M.D., writer. B. 
1745. Ed. Holland. He was a practising 
physician who adopted advanced ideas, and 
suffered two years imprisonment (1793-95) 
for toasting "The French Eepublic." While 
n Newgate he wrote The Commonwealth 
of Reason (1795) and translated Mirabaud s 
(or d Holbach s) Systeme de la Nature. 
After his release he abandoned politics for 
science. D. Mar. 2, 1851. 

LIN, J. C. F. 

HOFFDING, Professor Harald, Ph.D., 
LL.D., D.Sc., Litt.D., Danish philosopher. 
B. Mar. 11, 1843. Ed. Copenhagen Metro 
politan School and University. He studied 


at first for the Church, but he abandoned 
theology and graduated in philosophy. He 
was appointed lecturer at Copenhagen 
University in 1880, and was professor of 
philosophy there from 1883 to 1915. He 
is a member of the Eoyal Danish Society 
of Science and Letters, corresponding 
member of the Institut de France and the 
Academia dei Lincei, corresponding fellow 
of the British Academy and Aristotelian 
Society, etc. In his numerous works 
Professor Hoffding expounds a spiritual 
Monism. He excludes a personal God, 
and he is Agnostic as to personal immor 
tality. The essential religious principle is 
"the conservation of values," moral and 
aesthetic, and " our greatest model is the 
Greek way of life " (The Philosophy of 
Religion, Eng. trans. 1906, pp. 379-80). 
See also his Pensee Humaine (1911). 

HOGG, Thomas Jefferson, writer. B. 
May 24, 1792. Ed. Durham Grammar 
School and Oxford (University College). 
He was an intimate friend of Shelley at 
Oxford, and was expelled with him, as he 
refused to disavow Shelley s Necessity of 
Atheism (1811). He studied law, and was 
called to the Bar in 1817, but practised 
little. In his later years he was a Eevising 
Barrister. He wrote an unfinished life of 
his friend Shelley (Life of Shelley, 2 vols., 
1858). D. Aug. 27, 1862. 

HOLBACH, Paul Heinrich Dietrich, 
Baron Yon, Encyclopaedist. B. 1723. Ed. 
Paris. He was a wealthy German, who 
settled in Paris and made his house one 
of the chief centres of the Encyclopaedists 
indeed, one of the chief social centres of 
culture in Europe. Holding that religion 
was one of the greatest hindrances to the 
happiness of the race, he wrote many 
articles for the Dictionnaire Encyclopedique, 
and under various pseudonyms he issued 
several drastically anti-Christian works (Le 
Christianisme devoile, La contagion sacree, 
De I imposture sacerdotale, etc.). He also 
procured translations of Deistic works from 
the German and English. They were 




generally printed in Amsterdam, and 
d Holbach s name did not appear, so that 
he continued the work for about ten years. 
His chief work, Le systeme de la nature 
(2 vols., 1770), which bore the name of 
Mirabaud, is Atheistic and Materialistic, 
and it scandalized even Voltaire and 
Frederic II. D Holbach was a man of 
very sober and fine life, very generous, and 
an enthusiast for liberty and enlighten 
ment. D. Jan. 21, 1789. 

HOLBERG, Ludwig, Baron von, Danish 
dramatist. B. Dec. 3, 1684. Ed. Copen 
hagen . He began to prepare for the Church , 
but he abandoned the idea and became a 
tutor in Norway. In 1714 the Copenhagen 
University nominated him professor and 
gave him a travelling pension. He studied 
French literature at Paris. In 1717 he was 
appointed professor of metaphysics, and in 
1720 of rhetoric, at Copenhagen University. 
Holberg published a great deal of satirical 
verse, and a number of brilliant comedies, 
which brought him the title of " the Moliere 
of Denmark." Others compare him to 
Voltaire. His Nicolai Klimii Her Subter- 
raneum (1741) is transparently Deistic (see 
the analysis of it in Eobertson s Short 
History of Freethought, ii, 356). The pious 
King checked his bold output by making 
him professor of history. He was created 
Baron in 1747. D. Jan. 28, 1754. 

HOLCROFT, Thomas, dramatist. B. 
Dec. 10, 1745. The son of poor parents, 
he became in succession a stable boy, shoe 
maker, teacher, prompter, and actor. In 
1778 he produced his first play, The Crisis, 
and gradually won some repute. He was 
indicted in 1794 on account of his sympathy 
with the French Ee volution, and lived some 
years in France. On his return to England 
he set up a printing business, wrote many 
works, and translated books from the 
French and German (including the works 
of Frederic the Great). He was aa Atheist 
(though passages in his later letters suggest 
that he ended a Deist), and denied a future 
life (see his poem Human Happiness, or 

The Sceptic, 1783). Lamb speaks of him 
as one of the most candid, most upright, 
and single-meaning men." D. Mar. 23, 

HOLDERLIN, Johann Christian Fried- 
rich, German poet. B. Mar. 20, 1770. 
Ed. Denkendorf Seminary and Tubingen 
University. He withdrew from clerical 
training and devoted himself to letters and 
philosophy, adopting Pantheistic views. 
He was a tutor from 1794 to 1801. In 
1797 he published his first romance, 
Hyperion, and in 1800 his Pantheistic 
drama Empedokles. The poems and stones 
that followed put Holderlin in a very high 
position, but his mind failed, and for nearly 
forty years he remained childlike and 
powerless. D. June 7, 1843. 

HOLLAND, Frederic May, American 
writer. B. May 2, 1836. Ed. Harvard. 
He was ordained Unitarian minister at 
Eockford in 1863, but he abandoned the 
Unitarian creed and contributed to the 
American Eationalist periodicals. He wrote 
The Reign of the Stoics (1879), The Else of 
Intellectual Liberty (1885), Sketches of the 
Progress of Freedom (1900), and other 

HOLLAND, first Baron. See Fox, 

HOLLAND, third Baron. See Fox, 
H. E. V. 

HOLLAND, Lady. See Fox, E. V. 

HOLLANDER, Bernard, M.D., M.E.C.S., 
L.E.C.P., physician. B. (Vienna) 1864. 
Ed. King s College, London. Dr. Hollander 
settled in London in 1883, and he was 
appointed Physician to the British Hospital 
for Mental Disorders and Brain Diseases. 
He was naturalized in 1894. He has 
devoted his attention particularly to ab 
normal mental phenomena, has founded 
a modified system of phrenology (Scientific 
Phrenology, 1902, etc.), and is one of the 
354 o 



leading exponents of psycho - therapy, 
founder of the Ethological Society, and 
editor of the Ethological Journal. His 
Eationalist views are best seen in his 
Positive Philosophy of the Mind (1891). 

HOLLICK, Frederick, M.D., Owenite. 
B. Dec. 22, 1813. Ed. Birmingham 
Mechanics Institute. He was a friend 
of Holyoake, and, like him, one of Eobert 
Owen s Eationalist missionaries. When 
Owenism failed, he emigrated to America 
and set up a medical practice at New York. 
He wrote a number of medical works of a 
popular character. D. 1900. 

HOLLIS, John, Deist writer. B. 1757. 
Hollis was a member of a wealthy Dis 
senting family who turned Deist, and wrote 
An Apology for the Disbelief of Revealed 
Religion (1799), Sober and Serious Reasons 
for Scepticism (1796), Free Thoughts (1812), 
and a few other small works. D. Nov. 26, 

HOLLIS, Thomas, F.E.S., writer. B. 
Apr. 14, 1720. Ed. Newport and St. 
Albans. He was a man of considerable 
wealth and of liberal views, who refused to 
enter Parliament on account of its corrupt 
procedure ; and he spread his principles by 
publishing and distributing books. He 
edited various works of Sidney, Locke, 
and Neville. He never attended church, 
and " gave his name to no religious society 
that could be discovered " (Memoes of 
T. Hollis, 1780, i, iv). He was a Deist of 
high character, a Fellow of the Eoyal 
Society and the Society of Antiquaries, 
and a member of the Society of Governors 
of Guy s and St. Thomas s Hospitals. D. 
Jan. 1, 1774. 

HOLMES, Edmund Gore Alexander, 

poet and educationist. B. July 17, 1850. 
Ed. Merchant Taylors School and Oxford 
(St. John s). He took first class in Classical 
Moderations and first class in the Final 
Classical School. In 1875 he became 
Inspector, later Chief Inspector, of Schools. 


Mr. Holmes has published several volumes 
of poems, and various works on education 
and philosophy. In A Confession of Faith 
(" by an Unorthodox Believer," 1895) he 
rejects Christian doctrines, though he 
retains Theism and the belief in immor 
tality. "I do not believe in the super 
natural," he says (p. 3). 

HOLMES, Oliver Wendell, M.D., Ameri 
can physician and author. B. Aug. 29, 
1809. Ed. Phillips Academy, Andover, 
and Harvard. He studied law, but changed 
to medicine, completing his education in 
Paris, and establishing a practice at Boston 
in 1836. He was professor of anatomy at 
Dartmouth College from 1838 to 1840. He 
then returned to Boston, and was Parkman 
professor of anatomy and physiology at the 
Harvard Medical School from 1847 to 1882. 
Holmes s first poems were published in 
1836, and his literary reputation was made 
by his Autocrat at the Breakfast Table 
(1858) and Professor at the Breakfast Table 
(1859). The genial Eationalism of the 
works greatly angered the orthodox. A 
deeper note is struck in his Mechanism 
in Thought and Morals (1871) and his 
biography of Emerson (1884). W. D. 
Howells (Literary Friends and Acquain 
tance, 1901, p. 45) tells us that, though 
a Theist, Holmes was sceptical about a 
future life. D. Oct. 7, 1894. 

HOLMES, Thomas Rice Edward, 

Litt.D., educationist, brother of E. G. A. 
Holmes. B. May 24, 1885. Ed. Merchant 
Taylors School and Oxford (Christ s 
Church). He was assistant master at 
Lincoln Grammar School 1878-80, at 
Blackheath Proprietary School 1880-85, 
and at St. Paul s School 1886-1909. Dr. 
Holmes was an original member of the 
Council of Classical Education (1903-1906) 
and a member of the Council of the Eoman 
Society (1910-14). He has written various 
historical works, and is a member of the 
Eationalist Press Association. 

HOLWELL, John Zephaniah, Governor 




of Bengal. B. Sep. 17, 1811. Ed. Rich- 
mond, Iselmond, and Guy s Hospital. He 
went to India in 1732, practising as a 
surgeon and studying the native languages. 
In 1751 he was Zemindar of the Twenty- 
four Parganas, and in 1756 he was one of 
the survivors of " the Black Hole of Cal 
cutta." In 1760-61 he was temporary 
Governor of Bengal. Besides various 
works on India he wrote A Dissertation on 
the Origin of Intelligent Beings and on a 
Divine Providence (1786), which is of a 
Rationalist character. D. Nov. 5, 1798. 

HOLYOAKE, Austin, Secularist, 
brother of G. J. Holyoake. B. Oct 27, 
1826. Like his elder brother, he came 
under the influence of the Owenites, and he 
devoted his life to the cause of progress and 
Rationalism. He co-operated in editing 
the Reasoner, and afterwards printed and 
sub-edited the National Reformer for Mr. 
Bradlaugh, of whom he was a life-long 
friend. He published various pamphlets 
on religion. D. Apr. 10, 1874. 

HOLYOAKE, George Jacob, writer and 
reformer. B. Apr. 13, 1817. As a boy he 
worked in a foundry and attended classes 
at the Birmingham Mechanics Institute, 
afterwards teaching mathematics there. 
He joined the Birmingham Reform League 
in 1831, the Chartists in 1832, and the 
Owenites in 1838. In 1840 he went as 
lecturer to the Worcester Hall of Science, 
and in 1841 to the Sheffield Owenite Hall. 
He edited the Oracle of Reason, and was 
imprisoned for six months for "blasphemy" 
in a lecture at Cheltenham (1842). He 
then settled in London, editing the Owenite 
Movement, which he and M. Q. Ryall had 
established, and selling advanced books. 
He presided at the opening of the Rochdale 
Co-operative Store in 1845, and became the 
leading champion of, and authority on, 
Co-operation in Europe. He founded and 
edited the Reasoner (1846-50), the Leader 
(1850), the Secular Review (1876), and 
other papers. In these successive enter 
prises he strained his slender resources, and 

used all his time to secure the freedom of 
the cheap Press and the triumph of 
advanced principles. In 1851 he began 
to use the word " Secularist " as a descrip 
tion of himself and his followers, and to 
organize societies in London and the 
provinces. For many years he was 
President of the British Secular Union. 
He denned Secularism as " a code of duty 
pertaining to this life, founded on con 
siderations purely human " (Origin and 
Nature of Secularism, 1896, p. 41). In his 
later years he took a zealous part in the 
founding of the R. P. A., of which he was 
the first Chairman. Holyoake s ideal was 
to direct Rationalists into positive, not 
merely destructive, humanitarian action, 
and there was hardly a reform in England 
that had not the aid of his effective pen. 
In combating the " taxes on knowledge " 
he incurred fines amounting to 600,000. 
Refugee democrats of all countries enlisted 
his services, and he fought for the rights 
of women, political reform, arbitration, 
education, labour-copartnership, and other 
reforms. His works and pamphlets 
number about 160. They cover the whole 
field of progress, and are not less marked 
by refinement of character than by literary 
skill. His advocacy of Rationalism ex 
tended over more than sixty years, and 
was as devoted as it was fruitful. D. Jan. 
22, 1906. 

HOME, Henry, Lord Kames, judge. 
B. 1696. Ed. private tutors. He was 
indentured to a writer, but he studied 
diligently, and was called to the Scottish 
Bar in 1724. In 1752 he was appointed 
Ordinary Lord of Session, taking the title 
Lord Kames from his birthplace, and in 
1763 Lord of the Justiciary Court. Besides 
several works on law, he wrote Essays on 
the Principles of Morality and Natural 
Religion (1751), for which he was charged 
with heresy before the Edinburgh Pres 
bytery. The charge lapsed because the 
petitioner died, not because it was refuted, 
as is sometimes said. Lord Kames clearly 
denies free-will in the book, and his later 



Sketches of the History of Man (1774) is 
Deistic. He says (bk. iii, sk. iii, ch. iii) : 
" The Being that made the world governs 
it by laws that are inflexible because they 
are the best ; and to imagine that he can 
be moved by prayers, oblations, or sacri 
fices, to vary his plan of government, is an 
impious thought." D. Dec. 27, 1782. 

HOOKER, Sir Joseph Dalton, O.M., 
G.S.G.I., M.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., botanist. 
B. June 30, 1817. Ed. Glasgow High 
School and University. He was assistant 
surgeon and naturalist on the Erebus in 
the Antarctic from 1839 to 1843, and he 
published the botanical results in his Flora 
Antarctica (1844-47). In 1845 he became 
botanist to the Geological Survey, and in 
1855, after three years in India, he was 
appointed assistant botanist at Kew. 
Hooker was an intimate friend of Darwin, 
and had given him great assistance in 
writing the Origin of Species. In 1865 he 
succeeded his father as Director at Kew. 
He was President of the British Associa 
tion in 1868, and of the Eoyal Society in 
1873. One of the first botanists of his 
time, he was honoured by no less than 
nineteen gold medals and the membership 
of one hundred learned societies. From 
the Life and Letters of Sir J. D. Hooker 
(1918), by L. Huxley, it is clear that his 
serious position in regard to religion was 
Spencerian. " I distrust all theologians 

their minds are those of women," he 

said (ii, 57). He held that the ultimate 
power of the universe was " inscrutable " 
(119), and that Jesus was an Essenian 
monk (336) ; and he looked forward to the 
founding of "a religion of pure reason " 
(337). He thought discussion futile, as 
" Theism and Atheism are just where they 
were in the days of Job " (ii, 67 and 106). 
D. Dec. 10, 1911. 

HOOPER, Charles Edward, philo 
sophical writer. B. Mar. 11, 1864. Ed. 
private schools. Mr. Hooper was brought 
up a " Friend," but he passed to Unitarian- 
16m, then to " an attitude of Agnosticism 


on religious subjects." In 1896 he began 
to contribute to the Literary Guide, and 
from 1899 to 1913 (when his health com 
pelled him to retire) he was secretary of 
the R. P. A. He seeks to provide Ration 
alism with a philosophy " to co-ordinate 
and supplement the outlooks of the various 
sciences " (The Anatomy of Knowledge, 
1906 ; Common Sense and the Rudiments of 
Philosophy, 1913). He contributes occa 
sionally to Mind, the Arbitrator, and other 

HOPE, Thomas, F.R.S., writer. B. 
about 1770. Son of an Amsterdam mer 
chant, he studied architecture in various 
countries, and settled in England in 1796, 
devoting himself to art collecting. He was 
a member of the Society of Antiquaries and 
Vice-President of the Society for the 
Encouragement of Arts. Besides some 
works on art, and a novel (Anastasius, 
1819), he wrote An Essay on the Origin and 
Prospects of Man (1831), which contains an 
early exposition of evolution. Carlyle 
called it " an apotheosis of Materialism." 
D. Feb. 3, 1831. 

HORNEFFER, Ernst, Ph.D., German 
writer. B. Sep. 7, 1871. Ed. Treptow 
Gymnasium, and Berlin and Gottingen 
Universities. Horneffer took up the study 
of Nietzsche, together with his brother 
August. They edited Nietzsche s literary 
remains (1895) for the Nietzsche Archiv, 
and Ernst delivered the funeral oration in 
1900. He is a Monist of Munich, editor of 
Die Tat, author of several Rationalist 
works (Die Kunftige Religion, 1909; Monis- 
mus und Freiheit, 1911; etc.), and an 
active promoter of Sunday lectures and the 
secular moral instruction of the young. 

HORSLEY, Sir Victor Alexander 
Haden, M.D., Sc.D., F.R.S., F.R.C.S., 
surgeon. B. Apr. 14, 1857. Ed. Gran- 
brook School and University College 
Hospital. He won the Gold Medal in 
Anatomy and Surgery and the Surgical 
Scholarship at the London University, and 



was appointed to the staff of the University 
Hospital. From 1884 to 1890 lie was 
Professor- Superintendent of the Brown 
Institution, and it was during these years 
that he carried out the important research, 
especially in localizing brain functions and 
investigating the thyroid gland, which gave 
him a European reputation. In 1885 lie 
was secretary to the Eoyal Commission on 
Hydrophobia. He was admitted to the 
Eoyal Society in 1886, and was elected 
Surgeon to the National Hospital for 
Paralysis and Epilepsy. In 1890 he gave 
the Croonian Lecture for the Eoyal 
Society; from 1891 to 1893 he was 
Fulleri an Professor at the Eoyal Institu 
tion ; in 1892 he was President of the 
Medical Section of the British Association ; 
and from 1893 to 1896 he was Professor of 
Pathology at University College. He was 
awarded the Cameron Prize of Edinburgh 
University in 1893, the Gold Medal of the 
Eoyal Society in 1894, and the Lanne- 
longue Prize in 1911. Horsley was, in 
fact, one of the most brilliant surgeons of 
his time, and his hundreds of scientific 
papers obtained for him the honorary 
membership of many learned bodies. At 
the same time he was an ardent reformer 
and idealist, especially working for tem 
perance and women suffrage. Mr. Stephen 
Paget records in his life (Sir Victor Horsley, 
1919) that he rejected the Christian creed 
in his boyhood, and remained an Agnostic 
until he died. " If he had cared to be 
labelled," Mr. Paget says, " he would have 

written the label himself, Agnostic 

Popular theology and sham metaphysics 
were utterly distasteful to him " (p. 261). 
Altruistic to the end, Horsley volunteered 
for arduous service during the war, and 
his brilliant career \vas closed by heat 
stroke in Mesopotamia on July 16, 1916. 


HOUTEN, Samuel van, Dutch states 
man. B. Feb. 17, 1837. Ed. Groningen. 
He studied and practised law, and was in 
1869 elected to the Second Chamber. In 

1893 he became Minister of the Interior, 
and he greatly liberalized the Dutch 
franchise. In the same year he began to 
edit Vragen des Tijds. He passed to the 
First Chamber in 1904. His Eationalist 
views are best expressed in his Bijdragen 
tot den strijt over God, eigendom, en familie 

HOUTIN, Albert, French writer. 
Houtin is one of the Modernist priests who 
quitted the Church, and he has since 
\vritten a number of important critical 
works (L Americanisme, 1903 ; La question 
biblique chez les Catholiques de France au 

XIX siecle, 1902; La, question biblique an 

XX siecle, 1906 ; etc.). He is a Eationalist, 
and is now a librarian in Paris. 

HOYELACQUE, Alexandre Abel, 

French philosopher. B. Nov. 14, 1843. 
He studied for eight years in a seminary, 
but he became a Eationalist and left the 
Church. He then studied law, comparative 
anatomy, and oriental languages. In 1867 
he founded La revue linguistique, and, with 
Asseline, Mortillet, and other Eationalists, 
he established the Bibliotheque des sciences 
anthropologiques and various other series of 
works. He was a high authority on Zend 
and Sanscrit (Grammaire de la langue 
Zende, 1869, etc.), a Socialist member of 
the Chambre, and an ardent Eationalist. 
He published extracts from Voltaire and 
Diderot, and contributed to the Bibliotheque 
Materialiste. D. Feb. 22, 1896. 

HOWE, Edgar Watson, American 
editor. B. May 3, 1854. Howe received 
only an elementary education, and entered 
a printing office at the age of twelve. 
Seven years later he owned and edited 
the Golden Globe. From 1877 to 1911 
he owned and edited the Atchison 
Daily Globe. He retired in 1911, but 
continues to issue a little monthly (E. W. 
Howe s Monthly) which is delightfully 
independent. He says : " Eeligion is like 
an oil well a promise of great happi 
ness and prosperity in the future. But 



our problems are not in the future ; they 
are of to-day" (Aug., 1919). Mr. Howe 
has written also a score of novels and 
literary works. 

HOWELLS, William Dean, American 
poet and novelist. B. Mar. 1, 1837 (of 
Welsh-Quaker ancestors). He began early 
to work in his father s printing office, and 
became in turn compositor, journalist, and 
editor. His Poems of Ttvo Friends (written 
with Piatt) attracted attention in 1860, 
and his Life of Lincoln in the same year 
got him the American Consulate at Venice, 
which occasioned his fine Venetian Life 
(1866). On his return to America he 
served on the editorial staff of, successively, 
the Tribune, Times, and Nation. He edited 
the Atlantic Monthly from J871 to 1881, 
and in 1886 he took charge of Harper s 
Magazine. His novels and other works 
give him a high position in American 
letters. Howells was brought up a 
Swedenborgian, but his poem, " Lost 
Beliefs " (Poems, 1886, p. 31), intimates 
that he had ceased to believe three decades 
ago. He was a Theist, and always tender 
about religion ; but various passages in his 
Literary Friends and Acquaintance (1901) 
show that he was an advanced Rationalist. 
He tells an Agnostic friend, Parton : " A 
new light had then lately come into my 
life by which I saw all things that somehow 
did not tell for human brotherhood dwarfish 
and ugly " (p. 143). D. May 11, 1920. 

HUART, Clement. 



HUBBARD, Alice, American writer. 
B. June 7, 1861. Ed State Normal School, 
Buffalo, and Emerson College of Oratory, 
Boston. Miss Moore, as she was originally, 
married Elbert Hubbard, and was general 
superintendent of his Eoycroft Shop, 
manager of the Eoycroft Inn, and principal 
of the Roycroft School for Boys. Among 
her books is An American Bible (1911), in 
which she says of her husband : " Content 
to live in one world at a time, he has the 

genuine faith which does not peep into the 
Unknown, but lives to the full to-day, 
assured that the power which cares for us 
here will not desert us there " (p. 34,). 
She went down on the Lusitania May 7, 

HUBBARD, Elbert, M.A., American 
writer. B. June 19, 1874. Ed. Tuft s 
College, Boston. He originated the Roy- 
croft Shop, East Aurora, for the revival of 
handicrafts, especially the production of 
fine books, and established the Philistine. 
! His lectures and very attractive writings 
! especially Little Journeys to Homes of Good 
| Men and Great gave him great influence 
i in the United States, much to the detriment 
i of the Churches. He and his wife were 
i drowned on the Lusitania May 7, 1915. 

HUBER, Marie, Swiss Deist. B. 1694. 
A most diligent reader, especially of the 
Bible and religious literature, from her 
early years, she wrote a number of works 
on religion (chiefly Monde Fol prefere au 
Monde Sage, 1731; and Systeme des Anciens 
et des Modernes, 1731) which attracted 
great attention. She was a beautiful 
woman of very strict character and reli 
gious feeling, and is commonly described 
as a Protestant ; but her express denial of 
the eternity of punishment and other 
heresies put her outside all Protestantism 
of her time. D. June 13, 1753. 

HUDSON, Professor William Henry, 

writer. B. May 2, 1862. Ed. private 
tutors. He was private secretary to Her 
bert Spencer from 1885 to 1889, Librarian 
at the National Liberal Club 1889-90, 
Librarian at Cornell University 1890-92, 
professor of English literature at Leland 
Stanford University 1892-1901, and pro-, 
fessorial lecturer at Chicago University 
1902-1903. In his later years he was 
Staff Lecturer on literature to the Univer 
sity Extension Board. He wrote, besides 
other works, An Introduction to the Study 
of Herbert Silencer (1894), Studies in Inter 
pretation (1896), The Satan of Theology 



(1901), and Bousseau and Naturalism in 
Life and Thought (1903). Hudson shared 
Mr. Spencer s Agnosticism. D. Aug. 12, 

HUEFFER, Francis, Ph.D., musical 
critic. B. May 22, 1845. Ed. Minister, 
Leipzig, and Berlin Universities. From 
Berlin, where he became a zealous Wag- 
nerite, he came to London in 1869, and 
devoted himself to literary work. In 1871 
he was appointed associate editor of the 
Academy, and in the same year he wrote 
a very appreciative notice of Swinburne s 
Songs Before Sunrise. In 1879 he became 
musical critic to the Times. He edited 
the New Quarterly Magazine, and wrote 
various libretti and works on music. 
Hueifer was naturalized in 1882. He 
was a great friend of W. M. Eossetti, and 
equally Eationalistic. D. Jan. 19, 1889. 

HUEFFER, Ford Madox, writer. B. 
1873. Mr. Hueffer is a son of the pre 
ceding and grandson of Ford Madox Brown 
[SEE] . In addition to his many novels, 
poems, and literary works, he has published 
a Life of Madox Brown (1896), in which 
he sympathetically records his grand 
father s Rationalism ; also Bossetti : A 
Critical Monograph (1902) and Henry 
James (1914). 

HUERTA, General Yictoriano, Mexi 
can soldier and statesman. B. Dec. 23, 
1854. Ed. Military College, Mexico City. 
Huerta was a full-blooded Indian, but his 
talent early attracted attention, and he 
was sent to College for seven years. 
When his education was completed, Presi 
dent Diaz offered him any position he 
cared to take, and he chose that of chief of 
the geographical and topographical bureau. 
He carried out very important surveying 
work in Mexico. Entering the regular 
army, he attained the rank of General in 
1901 and greatly distinguished himself. 
In 1913 he arrested President Madero and 
constituted himself Provisional President. 
It is untrue that he was in any way 

involved in the death of Madero, but the 
United States forced him to resign. He 
was a born orator and leader, and a 
thorough Rationalist. D. Jan. 13, 1916. 

HUET, Conrad Bushen, Dutch writer. 
B. Dec. 28, 1826. Ed. Leyden University. 
He studied theology, and was pastor in 
Haarlem until 1862, when his advanced 
views compelled him to leave the Church. 
He was joint editor of the Haarlemmer 
Courant 1862-68, editor of the Javabode 
(in Java) 1868-73, and editor of the 
Algemeen Dagblad van Nederlandisch Indie 
1873-76. He afterwards settled in Paris 
and issued literary criticisms which some 
French writers compare to the work of 
Ste. Beuve. His Rationalism is chiefly 
seen in his Brieven over den Bijbel (1857) 
and the posthumous Brieven van B. Huet 
(1890). D. May 6, 188G. 

HUGO, Victor Marie, French poet, 

novelist, and dramatist. B. Feb. 26, 1802. 

Ed. Ecole Polytechnique, Paris. His father, 

a general, had him trained in mathematics, 

but he turned early to literature. He 

competed for an Academy prize at fifteen, 

and at seventeen he won three prizes for 

poems at Toulouse. About the same time 

he wrote the novel, Bug Jargol, which was 

published long afterwards. His Odes et 

Poesies (1822) won for him a pension from 

the King. His first drama, Cromwell, 

appeared in 1827, and for the following 

sixteen years he wrote mainly for the 

stage. After 1843 he wrote chiefly fiction, 

and he took an active part in advanced 

politics. With so many other Rationalists, 

he had to fly to Belgium in 1852. His 

greatest novel, Les Miserables (10 vols., 

1862), appeared simultaneously in ten 

languages. In 1876 he entered the Senate. 

Hugo s Deistic Rationalism appears in 

many of his poems (" Le pape," " Religions 

et religion," etc.), but the last and most 

definite word may be read in Grant Duff s 

Ernest Benan (1901). He met Hugo in 

1881, a few years before his death, and 

Hugo said that Christianity would soon 



disappear and for it would be substituted 
" God, the Soul, ^Responsibility." D. 
May 22, 1885. 

HUMBOLDT, Baron Alexander von, 

German naturalist. B. Sep. 14, 1769. 
Ed. private tutors, and Frankfort and 
Gottingen Universities. He devoted him 
self early to science, publishing a geological 
work in 1790. In 1791 he entered the 
Academy of Mining, and he was Super 
intendent of Mines for Bayreuth and 
Anspach 1792-95. His famous travels in 
South America occupied the years 1799 
to 1804. He then settled in Paris, and 
published the results in thirty large 
volumes. His Ansichten dcr Natur (2 vols.) 
was published in 1808, and circulated all 
over Europe. In 1827 he returned to Ber 
lin and wrote his chief and most Eation- 
alistic work, Kosmos (4 vols., 1845-58), 
a naturalistic account of the universe. 
One of the most encyclopaedic scientists of 
the time, Humboldt was a Pantheist like 
his friend Goethe, and a contemptuous 
anti-clerical like his friend F. Arago. His 
letters (see, especially, Correspondancc d A. 
de Humboldt avec F. Arago, 1907) use very 
strong language about the Churches to the 
end of his life. He calls Luther " that 
diabolical reformer." D. May 6, 1859. 

HUMBOLDT, Baron Karl Wilhelm 
von, German statesman. B. June 22, 1767. 
Ed. private tutors, and Frankfort and 
Gottingen Universities. In 1790 he was ap 
pointed Referendary in the Berlin Supreme 
Court and Councillor of Legation. He 
lived at Jena, a close friend of Schiller 
and Goethe, from 1794 to 1797, and was 
Prussian minister at the Papal Court from 
1801 to 1808. He became Privy Councillor 
and Minister of Education in 1809, founded 
Berlin University in 1810, and was second 
Plenipotentiary of Prussia at the Vienna 
Congress in 1814. After discharging other 
State missions, he became 
oi of the Interior in 1819, but he 
was too progressive for the court and was 
compelled to resign. In 1830 he rejoined 


the State Council. Baron Wilhelm was a 
philologist of distinction and a generous 
patron of art and science. He was a Deist, 
though less outspoken than his brother. 
D. Apr. 8, 1835. 

HUME, David, historian and philo 
sopher. B. (Edinburgh) Apr. 26, 1711. It 
is said that he studied Greek at Edinburgh 
University at the age of thirteen, but his 
early life is obscure. He devoted himself 
to classical literature and philosophy. 
Living in France from 1734 to 1737, he 
seems to have developed his heresies there, 
and written most of his Treatise on Human 
Nature (2 vols., 1739; 3rd vol., 1740). 
This and his Essays, Moral and Political 
(1741 and 1742) received little attention, 
and he became tutor to the Marquis of 
Annandale, and then secretary to General 
St. Clair. The Essay Concerning the Human 
Understanding (1748) and Enquiry Con 
cerning the Principles of Morals (1751) 
attracted little more notice than their 
predecessors, and Hume in 1752 became 
librarian to the Faculty of Advocates and 
began to write his history. In 1757 he 
published his Four Dissertations (including 
the Natural History of Religion, which was 
heatedly attacked), which had been written 
earlier. In 1763 he was appointed secretary 
to the English ambassador at Paris. Hume 
professed Theism, though he dissolves into 
verbiage all the current arguments for it, 
and his philosophy of the mind is one of 
the chief bases of later Agnosticism. His 
argument against miracles, contrasting the 
unreliability of human testimony with the 
perceived uniformity of nature, had great 
influence ; and he had also considerable 
influence on political economy and on 
ethics. He was " the acutest thinker in 
Great Britain of the eighteenth century " 
(Diet. Nat. Biog.), and one of the most 
painstaking and conscientious of historians. 
Christians put out malicious legends about 
his condition in his last days. Sir L. 
Stephen shows (in the Diet. Nat. Biog.) 
that he died " with great composure," but 
genially admits that " a man dying of 



cancer may have been sometimes out of 
spirits." D. Aug. 25, 1776. 

HUNEKER, James Gibbons, American 
critic. B. Jan. 31, 1860. Ed. Eoth s 
Military Academy and Law Academy, 
Philadelphia, and Paris. He settled in 
New York in 1885, and taught music for 
ten years at the National Conservatory. 
He was musical editor of the Sun, then 
musical critic of the Recorder, and later 
of the Advertiser. Huneker has written, 
besides works on music, two volumes on 
modern advanced thinkers (iconoclasts, 
1905 ; Visionaries, 1905), in which his 
sympathies are not concealed. 

HUNT, James, anthropologist. B. 1833. 
He studied medicine, and took his father s 
place as a specialist in the cure of stammer 
ing. He was secretary of the Ethnological 
Society from 1859 to 1862, and, as it would 
not discuss man s origin and antiquity, he 
founded the Anthropological Society, of 
which he was president from 1863 to 1868. 
He also edited the Anthropological Beview, 
issued a translation of Vogt s Lectures on 
Man (1865), and rendered great service to 
his science. D. Aug. 29, 1869. 

HUNT, James Henry Leigh, poet and 
essayist. B. Oct. 19, 1784. Ed. Christ s 
Hospital School. He became a clerk, 
but a volume of poems he had written 
in boyhood (Juvenilia, 1801) was so 
successful that he turned to journalism 
and literature. From 1808 to 1821 he 
edited the Examiner, which raised the 
tone of London journalism. He was three 
times prosecuted for attacking abuses, and 
in 1812 he got two years in prison for 
criticizing the Prince Eegent. Shelley, a 
great friend, and Byron invited him to 
edit a new liberal magazine; but it soon 
failed owing to the death of Shelley. Hunt, 
who was a Deist, was very drastic in his 
conversations on religion with Keats and 
others. In The Religion of the Heart he 
severely criticizes Christianity (pp. viii-ix) 
and scouts opinions " dictated by theo- 


logians." He was a man of exceptionally 
simple and sober life ; and Dickens, who 
considered him " the very soul of honour 
and truth " (Diet. Nat. Biog.), warmly 
regretted that the more unpleasant features 
of his " Skimpole " in Bleak House were 
attributed to Hunt. D. Aug. 28, 1859. 

HUNT, Thornton Leigh, journalist, son 
of preceding. B. Sep. 10, 1810. Ed. 
privately. His father wished to make an 
artist of him, but he turned to art criticism, 
then to general journalism. He was, in 
succession, political editor of the Constitu 
tional and editor of the Cheshire Reformer 
and the Argus. He contributed to the 
Spectator for twenty years, and was on the 
staff of the Daily Telegraph from 1855 to 
1873. Hunt was associated with Lewes 
and Holyoake in founding the Leader in 
1849, and he shared their views (see 
Holyoake s Sixty Years, ch. xlii, for a 
sketch of him, and McCabe s Holyoake, i, 
161-69). D. June 25, 1873. 

HUNT, W. F., merchant. Mr. Hunt 
made a courageous protest against the oath 
as early as 1875 in a London Chancery 
Court, and Sir George Jessel permitted 
him to "swear by his word." He had 
some years previously deserted Spurgeon s 
chapel for Secularism, and he has been for 
years a zealous and generous member of 
the R. P. A. It was largely through his 
assistance that Mr. McCabe was able to 
make a Rationalist lecturing tour in Aus 
tralasia in 1910. 

HUNTER, Professor William Alex 
ander, M.A., LL.D., lawyer. B. May 8, 
1844. Ed. Aberdeen Grammar School and 
University. He was first prizeman in 
logic, moral philosophy, Christian evi 
dences, botany, and chemistry, and he 
gained the Ferguson, Murray, and Shaw 
scholarships. He was called to the English 
Bar in 1867, but he preferred teaching. 
Ho was professor of Roman Law at London 
University College 1869-78, and professor 
of jurisprudence 1878-82. From 1885 to 



1896 Hunter was M.P. for North Aberdeen, 
and he warmly supported Bradlaugh in the 
House of Commons. In a published lecture 
to the Sunday Society, The Past and Present 
of the Heresy Laws (1878), he expresses 
his very advanced Rationalism. D. July 21, 

HUTCHESON, Francis, philosopher. B. 
Aug. 8, 1694. Ed. private schools and 
Glasgow University. He obtained a license 
to preach in Ireland, where he was born, 
but he abandoned the idea of being a 
minister and opened a school. The success 
of his Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas 
of Beauty and Virtue, (1725) and his Essay 
on the Nature and Conduct of the Passions 
(1728) brought him offers of preferment, 
which he refused, as " his theology differed 
little from the optimistic Deism of his 
day" (Diet. Nat. Biog.). In 1729 he was 
appointed professor of moral philosophy at 
Glasgow University. Hutcheson was a 
Utilitarian, and he approached closely to 
the " greatest happiness " principle (E. 
Albee, Hist, of English Utilitarianism, 
1902, p. 62). D. 1746. 

HUTCHINSON, Professor Woods, M. A., 

M.D., American physician. B. (England) 
Jan. 3, 1862. Ed. Pennsylvania College 
and Michigan University. He began to 
practise medicine in 1884, was professor 
of anatomy at Iowa University 1891-96, 
of comparative pathology at Buffalo Uni 
versity 1896-1900, State Health Officer, 
Oregon, 1903-1905, clinical professor of 
medicine at New York Polyclinic 1907- 
1909, and lecturer on comparative pathology 
at the London Medical Graduates College 
1899-1900. He edited Vis Medicatrix 
(1890-91) and the Polyclinic (1899-1900). 
Professor Hutchinson has published, besides 
his medical works, The Gospel According to 
Darwin (1898) and We and our Children 
(1912 see especially pp. 346-47), in which 
his strong Eationalist views are given. 

BUTTON, James, M.D., geologist. B. 
June 3, 1726. Ed. Edinburgh High School 


and University, Paris, and Leyden. In 
1750 he forsook medicine and took to 
chemistry, agriculture, and geology, in each 
of which he distinguished himself. Settling 
in Edinburgh in 1768, he became " the first 
great British geologist " (Diet. Nat. Biog.), 
and he also made discoveries in chemistry. 
In 1794 he startled the orthodox by issuing, 
in three volumes, a Deistic Investigation of 
the Principles of Knowledge and of the 
Progress of Reason from Sense to Science 
and Philosophy. His Theory of the Earth 
(2 vols.), one of the foundations of modern 
geology, was published in 1795. D. Mar. 26, 

HUXLEY, Leonard, writer, son of T. H. 
Huxley. B. Dec. 11, 1860. Ed. Univer 
sity College School, St. Andrew s, and 
Oxford (Balliol). He was first class in 
Classical Moderations (1881) and in Litterae 
Humaniores (1883). After some years as 
assistant master at the Charterhouse, then 
as assistant to Prof. Campbell at St. 
Andrew s University, he devoted himself 
to letters, and became reader to Smith, 
Elder, and Co. He is now editor of the 
Cornhill. Among his works are Life and 
Letters of Huxley (2 vols., 1900), Scott s 
Last Expedition (1913), and Life and 
Letters of Sir J. Hooker (1918). Mr. 
Huxley shares his father s views and 
cordially supports the E. P. A., of which 
he is an Honorary Associate. 

HUXLEY, the Right Honourable 
Thomas Henry, M.D., Ph.D., LL.D., 
D.C.L., F.E.S., physiologist. B. (Ealing, 
London) May 4, 1825. Ed. private schools, 
London University, and Charing Cross 
Hospital. He was naval surgeon on the 
Rattlesnake 1846-50, and during its cruise 
he collected material for important papers 
on the Medusas and other Invertebrates. 
For these papers he was admitted to the 
Eoyal Society in 1851, and he received its 
medal in 1852. In 1854 he was appointed 
lecturer on Natural History at the Eoyal 
School of Mines, and naturalist to the 
Geological Survey. His zoological and 



anatomical work from 1850 to 1860 gave 
him a high position in science, and at the 
appearance of Darwin s Origin of Species 
in 1859 his powerful and fearless advocacy 
beat down its opponents. He routed Sir 
E. Owen, who urged imaginary differences 
between man and the apes, and by a series 
of essays and addresses, of great lucidity 
and charm of style, he imposed the truth 
upon England. In 1863 his Evidence as 
to Man s Place in Nature made the first 
serious application of evolution to man. 
At the same time he enriched science by 
his hundreds of able memoirs, sat on many 
Koyal Commissions, and was Hunterian 
Professor at the Koyal College of Surgeons 
(1863-69) and Fullerian Professor at the 
Eoyal Institution (1863-67). In 1870 he 
was elected to the London School Board, 
in 1871 he became secretary to the Eoyal 
Society, in 1888 he received the Copley 
Medal, and in 1894 the Darwin Medal. 
He had also the Wollaston medal, and was 
an honorary member of forty-three foreign 
societies. In 1890 he retired from his 
splendid and successful work and went to 
live at Eastbourne. He was made Privy 
Councillor in 1892. Following Hume s 
metaphysic, Huxley held that we know 
nothing of " the nature of either matter or 
spirit," so he condemned both Materialism 
and Theism, and defined his position as 
" Agnostic." He had begun early to doubt 
the creeds, and his well-known letter to 
Kingsley in 1860 (Life, i, 217-22), at the 
death of his son, shows that he had by 
that time discarded all religious ideas. 
There is a legend still current in clerical 
literature that he in later life told a 
Christian friend that he " wished he could 
believe." The letters of his last three 
years show that this is ludicrous. He 
writes to Eomanes in 1892 : "I have a 
great respect for the Nazarenism of Jesus 
very little for later Christianity " (ii, 
339). Five months before he died he had 
a conversation on religion with his son, 
and was cheerfully contemptuous of Chris 
tianity. "The most remarkable achieve 
ment of the Jew," he said, " was to impose 

on Europe for eighteen centuries his own 
superstitions " (ii, 427). The three lines 
carved on his tombstone were put there 
only because they were composed by Mrs. 
Huxley, who was a Theist. They are 
Agnostic as to a future life. See Life and 
Letters of T. H. Huxley (2 vols., 1900), by 
Leonard Huxley. D. June 29, 1895. 

HYNDMAN, Henry Mayers, B.A., 
Socialist leader. B. Mar. 7, 1842. Ed. 
privately and Cambridge (Trinity College). 
He was war correspondent of the Pall Mall 
Gazette in 1866, and he continued at 
journalism for some years. A friend of 
Mazzini, Garibaldi, and other stragglers 
against oppression, he adopted Socialist 
views, founded the Social Democratic 
Federation (1881), and took an active part 
in the creation of the International. He 
was a member of the International Socialist 
Bureau 1900-1910, and there are few 
reforms that have not had his spirited 
assistance. In his Future of Democracy 
(1915) he remarks that " the hope of 
another world, with its sempiternal happi 
ness for disembodied spirits," is " a popular 
delusion" (p. 34); and his frank Agnos 
ticism appears in his Record of an Adven 
turous Life (1911), Further Reminiscences 
(1912), and Clemenceau (1919). 

HYSLOP, Professor James Hervey, 

Ph.D., LL.D., psychologist. B. Aug. 18, 
1854. Ed. Leipzig and John Hopkins 
Universities. He was instructor in philo 
sophy at Lake Forest 1880-82 and 1884-85, 
at Smith College 1885-86, and at Bucknell 
University 1888-89 ; tutor of philosophy, 
ethics, and psychology 1889-91, instructor 
in ethics 1891-95, and professor of logic 
and ethics at Columbia University 1895- 
1902. Since 1903 he has been secretary of 
the American Institute for Scientific Ee- 
search, and he is editor of the Journal of 
the American Society for Psychical Ee- 
search. Professor Hyslop thinks that the 
psychic evidence is in favour of survival, 
but he stands apart entirely from the 
creeds (Science and a Future Life, 1905, 



and article in the Hibbert Journal, Oct., 
1916, p. 152). 

IBSEN, Henrik, Norwegian dramatist. 
B. Mar. 20. 1828. Ed. private school 
Skein. Ibsen was an apothecary s appren 
tice for six years (1843-49), and he then 
went to Christiania "University to study 
medicine. A play which he wrote, The 
Warrior s Mound, was so well received that 
he turned from medicine to the stage, and 
after a short period as stage-manager at 
Bergen he was in 1857 appointed Director 
of the Norwegian Theatre at Christiania. 
Five years later he was awarded a travel 
ling scholarship, and he went to Italy, 
where he wrote Brand (1866), Peer Gynt 
(1867), and several other of his great 
dramas. He was in Dresden from 1868 to 
1874, but most of his more famous plays 
were written after his return to Norway. 
Professor Aall (Henrik Ibsen, 1906) shows 
that he had become a Eationalist before he 
was twenty, but he maintained a lenient 
and sympathetic attitude towards religion 
until 1871, when Georg Brandes inspired 
him with militant sentiments. His great 
play, The Emperor and the Galilaan (Eng. 
trans., 1876), is an outcome of this mood. 
It depicts the superiority of the Pagan to 
the Christian. " Bigger things than the 
State will fall," he wrote to Brandes in 
1871 ; " all religion will fall " (Aall s Ibsen, 
p. 215). He remained Agnostic to the end, 
a stern enemy of all illusions, employing 
his severe art to bring home to people the 
realities of life. D. May 23, 1906. 

IGNELL, Nils, Swedish writer. B. 
July 18, 1806. Ignell was ordained priest 
in 1830, and he remained a preacher for 
many years, though a strong suspicion of 
heterodoxy kept his superiors from recog 
nizing his great ability. In time he put 
himself entirely outside the Church by 
translating Eenan s Vie de Jesus ; and he 
published an Examination of the Principal 
Doctrines of Lutheranism (1843), The 
Teaching of Jesus Christ (1844), and other 
Eationalist works. D. June 3, 1864. 

IHERING, Professor Hermann von, 

M.D., Ph.D., German zoologist. B. Oct. 9, 
1850. Ed. Giessen Gymnasium, and 
Giessen, Leipzig, Berlin, and Gottingen 
Universities. Until 1880 Ihering was a 
private teacher of zoology at Erlangen and 
Leipzig Universities. He then went to 
Brazil, and was appointed naturalist to the 
Eio de Janeiro National Museum. He is 
now Director of the Sao Paolo Museum. 
Professor Ihering writes in English, French, 
| German, and Portuguese, and has made 
j important contributions to his science. 
He is a special authority on the Mollusca, 
and is editor of the Rivista do Museu 
Paulista (since 1895). In Was Wir Ernst 
Haeckcl Vcrdanken (i, 402) he records his 
very high appreciation of Professor Haeckel 
and his Riddle of the Universe. 

ILES, George, American writer. B. 
(Gibraltar) June 20, 1852. Ed. Montreal 
Common School. From 1857 to 1887 Mr. 
lies was engaged in business in Montreal, 
and he has a considerable number of inven 
tions to his credit. Since 1887 he has 
lived in New York, where he has taken a 
keen interest in education, both for the 
child and the adult. He has for twenty 
years urged " the appraisal of literature," 
or the selection of books by competent 
authorities, and the provision of guidance 
for readers ; and he gave $10,000 to the 
American Literary Association to defray 
the cost of a Guide to American History. 
For the Society of Political Education he 
edited The Reader s Guide on Economic, 
Social, and Political Science (1891) ; and 
he has also edited Little Masterpieces of 
\ Science (6 vols., 1902), Little Masterpieces 
of Autobiography (6 vols., 1908), and other 
works. Mr. lies is an Agnostic and a 
great admirer of Ingersoll (personal know 
ledge, and see his Voices of Doubt and 
Trust, 1897). 

ILIYE, Jacob, printer and writer. B. 

1705. Son of a London printer, he set up 

in business as a type-founder and printer 

in 1730, and published various works of his 




own. His Layman s Vindication of the 
Christian Religion (1730) purported to be 
a reply to Anthony Collins, but it was 
heterodox, and Hive soon became widely 
known as a bold "infidel." In 1733 he 
delivered and published an address in 
which he denied the doctrine of eternal 
torment, and he followed it up with A Dia 
logue between a Doctor of the Church of 
England and Mr. Jacob Hive upon the 
subject of the Oration spoke at Joyner s 
Hall, wherein is proved that the miracles 
said to be wrought by Moses were artificial 
acts only. In 1738 he wrote a criticism of 
Felton s True Discourses, and rejected the 
idea of personal resurrection. When he 
went on in 1756 to attack the Bishop of 
London s sermons, and rejected the divinity 
of Christ and " all revelation," he was sent 
to jail for three years. In prison he wrote 
a number of humanitarian pamphlets on 
the reform of the penal system. Hive was 
one of the bravest of the Deists. He used 
to lecture in London halls on " The Eeligion 
of Nature." D. 1768. 

Clement, French Orientalist. B. Feb. 15, 
1854. Ed. Ecole des langues orientales 
vivantes, Ecole pratique des hautes 6tudes, 
and College de France. As he had 
acquired a thorough knowledge of Arabic, 
Turkish, Persian, and modern Greek, he 
was appointed to the French embassies at 
Damascus and Constantinople. In 1898 
he was recalled to France and nominated 
professor at the Special School of Oriental 
Languages and First Secretary for foreign 
languages to the Government. Writing in 
the name of Clement Huart, he has issued 
a large number of works on oriental litera 
ture and history, including a very useful 
study of Behaism (La Eeligion du Bab, 

IMMERMANN, Karl Leberecht, Ger 
man poet and dramatist. B. Apr. 24, 1796. 
Ed. Magdeburg Gymnasium and Halle 
University. At the close of his academic 
career he took a commission in the army 

against Napoleon, and fought at Ligny and 
Waterloo. In 1817 he entered the State 
service and rose to a distinguished position. 
He was Eeferendary from 1817 to 1819, 
Auditor at Munster from 1819 to 1824, 
Criminal Judge at Magdeburg from 1824 
to 1827, and Legal Councillor at Diissel- 
dorf from 1827 to 1835. During nearly 
all this time Immermann was writing 
enthusiastically for the stage. His early 
plays (Die Prinzen von Syrakus, 1821, etc.) 
did not please the public, but he presently 
proved his power and was much esteemed. 
For three years (1835-38) he was Director 
of the Diisseldorf Theatre, which he raised 
to a high level of art. He also wrote 
various novels, and translated Scott s 
Ivanhoe. Immermann was a Pantheist of 
Goethe s school (see his mystic poem 
Merlin, 1832 ; his novel Die Epigonen, 
1835, etc.). D. Aug. 25, 1840. 

INGERSOLL, Robert Green, American 
orator. B. Aug. 11, 1833, son of a Congre- 
gationalist minister. Ed. private schools 
and Princeton. In 1852 Ingersoll taught 
for a few months in a private school, and 
he seems already, in spite of his rigorous 
upbringing, to have developed germs of 
Kationalism. Pressed one day by a group 
of ministers to say if he thought baptism 
useful, he replied : " Yes with soap." 
In 1853 he began the study of law, and in 
the following year he was admitted to the 
Bar. He entered the office of a clerk of 
the county court at Shawneetown, but 
presently set up a legal firm with his 
brother, and in 1857 removed to Peoria. 
He was quickly recognized as one of the 
most promising barristers in the States. 
In 1862 he married Eva A. Parker, an 
Agnostic like himself, who still survives 
and maintains her thorough Eationalism. 
The Civil War withdrew Ingersoll from 
the law for a time, and he served as 
Colonel of the Eleventh Illinois Cavalry 
Volunteers, which he had organized. He 
had delivered his first Eationalist lecture, 
at Pekin (Illinois), in 1860 ; and from 1869 
onward he lectured regularly. There was 



not a town of any size in the States that 
he did not visit in the course of his great 
thirty years campaign. He was admit 
tedly the foremost orator of the United 
States, and he is probably second to 
Voltaire in the record of enlightenment. 
His complete works were published in 
twelve volumes in 1900 ; and an admirable 
selection was published by Messrs. Watts 
(Lectures and Essays, 3 vols., 1904-1905). 
The best biographies of him are those of 
E. G. Smith (1904) and H. E. Kittredge 
(1911). In person Ingersoll was a man of 
exceptional fineness and tenderness of 
feeling, his private letters faithfully repro 
ducing the glow of humane sentiment 
which adorns his public orations. D. 
July 21, 1899. 

social worker, daughter of Eobert G. Inger 
soll. Ed. by private tutors. She married 
the contractor Walston Hill Brown [SEE] 
in 1889, and she is prominent among the 
humanitarians and social workers of New 
York. She is President of the Child 
Welfare League, member of the Advisory 
Board of the New York Peace Society, 
and member of the Consumers League, 
the Women s Trade Union League, the 
National Child Labour Committee, the 
New York Child Labour Committee, the 
New York Society for the Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, the Society for the 
Advancement of the Coloured People, and 
about a score of other beneficent organiza 
tions. Her younger sister, aunt, and 
mother, who live with her, share this 
large humanitarian activity > and all four 
are outspoken champions of the Agnostic 
ideals of Colonel Ingersoll. 

INGRAM, Professor John Kells, B.A., 

D.Litt., LL.D., economist. B. July 7, 
1823. Ed. Trinity College, Dublin. In 
the course of his brilliant and precocious 
studentship Ingram occasionally wrote 
verse, and in 1843 he produced the famous 
Irish song, " The Memory of the Dead " 
(popularly called " Who Fears to Speak of 


Ninety-Eight ? ") He was not then a 
Unionist, as he afterwards became. Trinity 
College dispensed him from taking orders, 
and made him a Fellow ; and he was also 
a Fellow of the Eoyal Irish Academy. He 
was appointed professor of oratory at 
Trinity in 1852, regius professor of Greek 
in 1866, and librarian in 1879. A very 
able economist, he helped to found the 
Dublin Statistical Society ; and he wrote 
many volumes on economic, social, and 
ethical questions. His History of Political 
Economy (1888) was translated into eight 
languages, and his History of Slavery and 
Serfdom (1895) is the most useful work on 
its subject in English. Dr. Ingram joined 
the Positivist Society about 1851. He 
was always outspoken (see his Outlines of 
the History of Beligion, 1900, etc.), and 
the influence of the Positivist ideal is 
found in all his work. D. May 1, 1907. 

INMAN, Thomas, M.D., writer. B. 
Jan. 27, 1820. Ed. Wakefield, and King s 
College, London. After a brilliant medical 
course Inman was appointed house-surgeon 
to the Liverpool Eoyal Infirmary, and he 
also practised privately in Liverpool. 
Stimulated by the work of Godfrey Higgins, 
he devoted his leisure to the study of 
the evolution of religion, mainly on phallic 
lines, and published his conclusions in his 
Ancient Faiths (3 vols., 1868-76). He 
was a Theist, but he dissolved Christianity 
and all other religions into ancient myths, 
the key to which he found in the phallic 
cult. Inman was a learned and esteemed 
member of the Liverpool Literary and 
Philosophical Society, and he wrote a 
number of excellent works on hygiene. 
D. May 3, 1876. 

IRELAND, Alexander, journalist. B. 
May 9, 1810. Ireland was a business man 
of Edinburgh, who met Emerson in 1833 
and became a life-long friend and dis 
ciple. In 1847 he was appointed publisher 
and business-manager of the Manchester 
Examiner, and he was one of the founders 
of the Manchester Free Library. Erner- 




son s English tour in 1847-48 was arranged 
by him, and he wrote a biography of 
Emerson which confesses his ethical faith. 
An admirable little anthology, which is 
known to many as The Book-Lover s 
Enchiridion (1883), was compiled by Ire 
land. D. Dec. 7, 1894. 

"IRON, Ralph." See SCHEEINER, 

ISOARD DELISLE, Jean Baptiste 
Claude, French writer. B. 1743. He 
was an Oratorian priest, who accepted the 
ideas of the philosophers and quitted the 
Church to join them. A very learned but 
inelegant writer, he published more than 
a hundred books, for one of which, his 
Deistic Philosophic de la nature (1769), he 
was condemned to perpetual exile. Public 
indignation in Paris was so great that he 
was pardoned, and he continued his educa 
tional and Rationalist activity. His His- 
toire des homines (1781) runs to forty-one 
volumes, and is the most readable of his 
works. Delisle as he was generally called 
was one of the most fertile writers of the 
time, and a man of immense erudition and 
of original ideas. He remained until death 
a Deist, and somewhat amused his Atheistic 
colleagues by writing a Memoire en faveur 
de Dieu (1802). D. Sep. 22, 1816. 

JACOB, General John, soldier and 
author. B. Jan. 11, 1812. Ed. Addis- 
combe College. In 1828 he obtained a 
commission in the Bombay Artillery, and 
during the Mutiny he commanded " Jacob s 
Irregular Horse," which rendered splendid 
service. In 1843 he was appointed political 
superintendent of the frontier of Upper 
Sind, and he was made Brigadier- General 
during the Persian War in 1857. In addi 
tion to a few works on his campaigns and 
on army reform, General Jacob issued for 
private circulation in 1855 a thoughtful 
work on religious questions, entitled Letters 
to a Lady on the Progress of Being in the 
Universe. He dismisses the teaching of 
Christianity as "nursery tales" (p. 17), 

and professes a high-minded Theism. D. 
Dec. 5, 1858. 

JACOBSEN, Jens Peter, Danish 
botanist and novelist. B. Apr. 7, 1847. 
Ed. Copenhagen University. Jacobsen won 
the university gold medal for a botanical 
essay, and had a sound knowledge of that 
science, but he was more attracted to litera 
ture. His novel Mogcns (1872) opened a 
career of distinction in fiction, and his 
Marie Grubbe (1876) and NielsLyhne (1880) 
and other stories gave him the first place 
among the novelists of Denmark. His 
Rationalism is apparent in the most popular 
of his novels ; but, apart from them, he did 
much for the popularization of Darwinism 
in his country. He translated into Danish 
Darwin s Origin of Species and Descent of 
Man, and was associate-editor of the Neio 
Danish Monthly. Danish Rationalists 
regard him as one of the leading champions 
of enlightenment as well as one of their 
most brilliant literary men. D. Apr. 30, 

JACOLLIOT, Louis, French writer. 
B. 1806. He studied law, and entered the 
French rnagistrature. For twenty years 
(1843-63) he was President of the Court 
at Chandernagor, in the French Indies, and 
he devoted his leisure to a thorough study 
of native languages and religions. After 
his return to France he embodied his 
Rationalist conclusions in La bible dans 
VInde (1868), which set up a great con 
troversy. This was followed by Fetichisme, 
polijtheisme, monotheisme (1875), Histoire 
naturelle et sociale de I humanite (1884), 
and other Rationalistic works, besides a 
few novels and volumes of travel. D. 1890. 

JAMES, Henry, O.M., novelist. B. 
(America) Apr. 15, 1843. Ed. New York, 
Switzerland, France, London, and Harvard 
Law School. James was educated for the 
law, but in 1869 he abandoned it for letters, 
producing his first story, Watch and Ward, 
in 1871. From that time until the end of the 
century he issued about forty books, mostly 



novels which were distinguished for their 
severe art and remarkahle psychological 
penetration and realism. He settled in 
England in 1880, was naturalized in 1915 
to show his admiration of England s share 
in the War, and received the Order of 
Merit on January 1, 1916. James had 
been brought up a Swedenborgian, his 
father being an American clergyman of 
that sect, and he remained throughout life 
somewhat mystic, though quite outside 
Christianity. His friend W. D. Howells 
says that his " piety " was " too large for 
any ecclesiastical limits" (Literary Friends 
and Acquaintance, p. 266). He rejected 
the Swedenborgian and every other creed, 
and had no sympathy with Spiritualism ; 
but he " liked to think " (as he put it) that 
there was some ground for the belief in 
immortality (see his paper in the American 
symposium, In After Days, ch. ix). D. 
Feb. 28, 1916. 

JAMES, Professor William, M.D., 
LL.D., Ph.D., Litt.D., American psycho 
logist; brother of preceding. B. Jan. 11, 
1842. Ed. private tutors in America and 
Europe, Law r rence Scientific School, and 
Harvard University. James was appointed 
teacher of physiology and anatomy at 
Harvard in 1872, and of psychology and 
philosophy in 1878. From 1880 to 1907 
he was professor at Harvard, at first of 
psychology, later of philosophy. His 
thorough training in physiology had a 
most useful effect upon his psychology 
(Principles of Psychology, 1890 ; Text-Book 
of Psychology, 1892), and he did great 
service in stressing the empirical element 
in his science ; but w r hen he confronted 
religious questions he advocated Prag 
matism (The Will to Believe, 1897). His 
early Swedenborgian training clung to him, 
yet he was bold and very heterodox. His 
conception of God was so vague that he 
expressly called himself Polytheistic rather 
than Theistic (in the last section of Varieties 
of Religious Experience, 1902, and in his 
Hibbert Lectures, A Pluralistic Universe, 
1907), and he wrote very disdainfully about 

the Christian idea of God. He dabbled 
much in the more refined forms of Spiritu 
alism, but he is inaccurately quoted as a 
Spiritualist, though he believed in the 
existence of spiritual beings. Most of his 
Spiritualist inquiries excited his contempt, 
and to the end he never attained a clear 
conviction of personal immortality. In 
his Ingersoll Lecture, Human Immortality 
(1908), he makes no plain profession of 
belief in it, and he says : " I have to confess 
that my own personal feeling about immor 
tality has never been of the keenest order " 
(p. 13). He was, in short, very sceptical 
and quite outside Christianity, though his 
Pragmatism dissociated him from Eation- 
alism in the ordinary sense. He was a 
member of the National Academy of 
Sciences and the Koyal Danish Academy 
of Sciences, and a corresponding member 
of the French Institute and the Eoyal 
Prussian Academy of Sciences. D. Aug. 27, 

JAMESON, The Right Honourable Sir 
Leander Starr, M.D., C.B., P.C., physician 
and soldier. B. 1853. Ed. London Uni 
versity. He was for a time house surgeon 
and demonstrator of anatomy, but the state 
of his health compelled him to go to South 
Africa, and he settled in practice at Kirn- 
berley. Becoming an intimate friend of 
Cecil Ehodes, he was in 1891 appointed 
Administrator of Ehodesia, and he organized 
the campaign against the Matabele in 1893. 
On Dec. 29, 1895, he invaded the Transvaal 
with six hundred men, and he was im 
prisoned for ten months. He afterwards 
fought in the South African War. Elected 
to the Cape Colony Assembly in 1902, he 
took a commanding position in it, and was 
Premier from 1904 to 1908. He was called 
to the Privy Council in 1907, and created 
baronet in 1911. Jameson was an Agnostic. 
His biographer, G. Seymour Fort, says: 
" With his natural, fine ethical character, 
and his clear practical reasoning, he early 
divorced himself from any theological or 
metaphysical leanings, and devoted his 
energy to the scientific study of his pro- 



fession and of the actual processes of human 
life" (Dr. Jameson, 1908, p. 54). D. Nov. 26, 

JASTROW, Professor Joseph, M.A., 
Ph.D., American psychologist. B. Jan. 30, 
1863. Ed. Pennsylvania University. Jas- 
trow was fellow in psychology at John 
Hopkins University in 1885-86, and he 
has been since 1888 professor of psychology 
at Wisconsin University. He was head of 
the Psychological Section of the Chicago 
Exhibition in 1893, and President of the 
American Psychological Association in 
1900 ; and he was for some years asso 
ciate-editor of the Psychological Beview. 
Among his many works on psychology is a 
Psychology of Conviction (1918), in which 
his Eationalism finds expression. He 
resents " the mist with which dogma has 
enveloped the atmosphere " (p. 42). 

JASTROW, Professor Morris, Ph.D., 
American orientalist, brother of preceding. 
B. Aug. 13, 1861. Ed. Pennsylvania Uni 
versity. The Jastrows are sons of a Polish 
rabbi, and were brought to America in 
1866. After graduating at Pennsylvania, 
Morris went to study oriental languages 
and religions at Leipzig and Paris, and on 
his return to America he was appointed 
professor of Semitic languages at Penn 
sylvania University. He edited James 
Darmesteter s Selected Essays (1895) and 
a number of important oriental works. 
His Study of Religion (1901, in the "Con 
temporary Science Series ") best shows his 
independence of the creeds, Jewish or 
Christian, and contains a fine bibliography 
of the subject. He scouts the idea that 
one religion is superior to another (p. 127), 
or that any is more than a purely natural 
development. Professor Jastrow was Presi 
dent of the American Oriental Society in 

JAUCOURT, Louis de, F.E.S., French 
Encyclopedist. B. Sep. 27, 1704. Ed. 
Geneva, Cambridge, and Leyden Univer 
sities. Jaucourt studied nearly every branch 

of learning of his time, under the most 
eminent professors in Europe. He settled 
at Paris in 1736, and worked with Diderot 
and D Alembert, contributing a remarkable 
series of articles to the Dictionnaire En- 
cyclopedique. Jaucourt was less aggressive 
than his colleagues, but he admitted no 
creed. He was a member of the English 
Eoyal Society, and of the Academies of 
Berlin and Stockholm. He spoke nearly 
every language in Europe, and was equally 
acquainted with ancient and modern litera 
ture ; and he had a thorough knowledge of 
medical science. In religious philosophy 
he agreed with Leibnitz rather than with 
the French Deists. D. Feb. 3, 1779. 

JAURES, Professor Jean Leon, D. es L. f 

French Socialist leader. B. Sep. 3, 1859. 
Ed. Lycee Louis le Grand and Ecole 
Normale Superieure. Jaures, who came 
of a well-to-do middle-class family, took a 
diploma in philosophy and graduated in 
letters, and from 1880 to 1885 he taught 
philosophy at the Albi Lycee. He was 
then professor of philosophy at Toulouse 
University for four years and Eepublican 
deputy in the Chambre. In 1892 he first 
entered the Chambre as a Socialist, and he 
led his party there almost uninterruptedly 
until his death. In 1903-1904 he was 
Vice-President of the Chambre. His 
moderation, in his speeches and journal 
L Humanite (which he founded in 1904), 
led him into conflict with the extreme 
Socialists under Jules Guesde, but he was 
a firm and sober anti-clerical. He and 
his party steadily supported the Eadical- 
Eepublican bloc in the disestablishment of 
the Church and the secularization of 
France. Like most of his Socialist col 
leagues, Jaures was an Agnostic. He was 
a highly cultivated man, a serious thinker, 
a speaker of rare eloquence, and an idealist 
of the purest character. Five volumes of 
the Histoire Socialiste (12 vols., 1901-1908) 
were written by him. He was assassinated 
by a patriotic fanatic on July 31, 1914. 

JEFFERIES, Richard, naturalist and 
386 p 



novelist. B. Nov. 6, 1848. Ed. village 
school. As a boy Jefferies ran away from 
home with the intention of walking to 
Moscow. The proprietor of the North 
Wiltshire Herald then adopted him into 
provincial journalism, and he also tried 
experiments in fiction. His early novels 
(The Scarlet Shawl, 1874, etc.) had little 
success. In 1877 his Gamekeeper at Home 
attracted attention, and he wrote a series 
of nature books which endeared him to all 
lovers of nature. He wrote further and 
more successful novels, but his chief work 
is his autobiographical Story of my Heart 
(1883), in which he gives expression to his 
Pantheistic philosophy, and sheds the 
last traces and relics of superstition," as he 
says. From early years he had been a 
great admirer of Goethe. In an article in 
Knowledge, (Jan. 5, 1883) he says : "In our 
age nothing is holy but humanity." Sir 
Walter Besant stated in his Eulogy of 
Bichard Jefferies (1888) that he returned 
to Christianity before he died, but Mr. 
H. S. Salt has shown, in his Faith of 
Bichard Jefferies (1905), that there is no 
truth in the story. He was a very liberal 
Pantheist and ardent humanitarian. D. 
Aug. 14, 1887. 

JEFFERSON, Thomas, third President 
of the United States. B. Apr. 2, 1743. 
Ed. privately, and at William and Mary s 
College. He was admitted to the Bar in 
1767, and was in 1769 elected to the House 
of Burgesses, where he led the opposition 
to the British authorities. In 1774 he 
published A Summary View of the Eights 
of British America. Elected to the 
Continental Congress in 1775, he drew up 
its reply to Lord North, and this, adopted 
on July 4, is known as the Declaration of 
Independence. Jefferson then spent two 
years in revising the whole code of laws of 
Virginia, and he was elected Governor of 
Virginia in 1779. In 1784 he went to 
Europe with Franklin and Adams (both 
Kationalists), and, remaining until 1789 as 
American representative at Paris, he asso 
ciated intimately with D Alembert and the 


French Eationalists. In 1789 he became 
First Secretary of State, in 1796 Vice- 
President of the Eepublic, and in 1800 
President. He was re-elected in 1804. In 
the Memoir and Correspondence of T. 
Jefferson (1829) there are many letters, 
written in his later years, which show that 
he lived and died a very heterodox Deist. 
Though he believed in God and a future 
life, he called himself a Materialist. In a 
letter to Adams in 1820 he says : " To talk 
of immaterial existences is to talk of 
nothings " (iv, 331). He describes the 
Christian God as " a hocus-pocus phantasm 
of a God, like another Cerberus, with one 
body and three heads " (Dec. 8, 1822) ; and 
he entirely rejects the idea of revelation 
(Apr. 11, 1823). D. July 4, 1826. 

JEFFREY, Lord Francis, judge. B. 
Oct 23. 1773. Ed. Glasgow High School 
and University, and Oxford (Queen s 
College). He was admitted to the Bar in 
1794. Making little progress, however, he 
cultivated letters, and helped to found, and 
later edited, the Edinburgh Beview. In 
1829 he became Dean of the Faculty of 
Advocates, in 1830 Lord Advocate, and in 
1834 Judge of the Court of Session. He 
was Lord Eector of Glasgow University in 
1820. Hugh Miller says (in The Treasury 
of Modern Biography) that, although 
Jeffrey was " infected in youth and middle 
age by the widespread infidelity of the first 
French Kevolution," he was later " of a 
different spirit." There is no trace of such 
a change in Lord Cockburn s Life and 
Letters of Lord Jeffrey (1852). D. Jan. 26, 

JENSEN, Professor Peter Christian 
Albrecht, Ph.D., German orientalist. B. 
Aug. 16, 1861. Ed. Schleswig Domschule, 
and Leipzig and Berlin Universities. He 
was appointed extraordinary professor of 
Semitic languages at Marburg University 
in 1892, and he has been ordinary pro 
fessor there since 1895. Professor Jensen 
is one of the chief living authorities on the 
Hittites, Babylonians, and Assyrians, and 



he has written many valuable works on 
them. His thorough Rationalism is best 
seen in his Moses, Jesus, Paulus (2 vols., 
1909-1910), and Hat der Jesus der Evan- 
gelien wirklich gelebt ? (1910). He holds 
that Jesus is a mythic derivation from the 
Babylonian Gilgamesch. 

JERYAS, Charles, painter. B. (Ireland) 
about 1675. He studied painting under 
Sir Godfrey Kneller at London, and after 
wards in Rome, and he was so successful 
with portraits that he was appointed 
principal painter to George I and 
George II. Jervas married a wealthy 
widow, and their house, which was rich in 
Art treasures, was much frequented by the 
brilliant Deists of the day. Pope took 
lessons from him, and was several times 
painted by him ; and he was also a close 
friend of Lady Mary Montagu and other 
eminent heretics. Horace Walpole tells us 
that he " piqued himself on total infidelity" 
{Letters, xi, 335). Jervas translated or 
revised the translation of Don Quixote. 
D. Nov. 2, 1739. 

JODL, Professor Friedrich, Ph.D., 
German philosopher. B. Aug. 23, 1849. 
Ed. Munich Humanist Gymnasium and 
University. In 1873 he became a teacher 
of general history at the Royal Military 
Academy, in 1880 teacher at Munich Uni 
versity, in 1885 professor at Prague Uni 
versity, and in 1896 professor of philosophy 
at Vienna University. He is a member of 
the Vienna Royal Academy of Sciences, 
and has written very sympathetic studies 
of Hume (Leben und Philosophie David 
Hume s, 1872) and Feuerbach, as well as 
various works on psychology and ethics. 
In 1890 he joined the editorial board of the 
International Journal of Ethics, and he 
contributes to the Monistische Jahrhundert, 
the organ of the German Monist League. 
Much influenced by Mill and Comte and 
Spencer in his earlier years, he has re 
mained faithful to the positive conception 
of knowledge, and dissociates ethics from 
religion. He is Agnostic in regard to the 

existence of higher powers, and regards the 
mind as the activity of the organism, not 
an immaterial entity. See his Geschichte 
der Ethik in der neueren Philosophie 
(2 vols., 1882 and 1889) and Moral, 
Religion, und Schule (1892). Professor 
Jodl is one of the most distinguished 
supporters of the Ethical Movement in 
Germany and Austria. 

JOHNSON, Richard Mentor, Vice- 
President of the United States. B. Oct. 17, 
1780. Ed. Transylvania University. John 
son was a Kentucky lawyer who entered 
politics, and was elected to the Lower 
House in 1805. He was a member of 
Congress from 1807 to 1813, when he took 
command of a regiment in the war against 
England. He was again in Congress from 
1814 to 1818, and in the Senate from 1819 
to 1829. Colonel Johnson was a strong 
supporter of General Jackson, through 
whose influence he was elected Vice-Presi- 
dent (1837-41). He was, however, un 
successful as Democratic candidate for the 
Presidentship. He wrote nothing about 
religion, but whenever it became a practical 
question, as when the Sabbatarians wanted 
to suppress postal service on Sundays and 
when religious liberty was threatened, he 
spoke boldly and effectively on the Ration 
alist side. D. Nov. 19, 1850. 

JOHNSON, Samuel, D.D., American 
writer. B. Oct. 10, 1822. Ed. Harvard 
University and Divinity School. Johnson 
was a Unitarian minister at Dorchester, 
but he was compelled to resign his chapel 
on account of his opposition to slavery. 
He developed out of Unitarian theology, 
and in 1851 he opened a "free" (or 
Theistic) church at Lynn. His views are 
given in his Worship of Jesus (1868), 
Oriental Religions (3 vols., 1872-85), etc. 
See also Samuel Longfellow s Memoir of 
Samuel Johnson (1883). D. Feb. 19, 1882. 

JOHNSTON, Sir Harry Hamilton, 

K.C.B., G.C.M.G., ethnologist. B. June 12, 

1858. Ed. Stockwell Grammar School 




and King s College, London. He studied 
painting at the Eoyal Academy of Arts 
(1876-80), and exhibited at the Academy 
and elsewhere. He also studied zoology 
and anatomy at the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons. In 1884 he directed a scientific 
expedition, on behalf of the Eoyal Geo 
graphical Society, to Mount Kilimanjaro. 
He became Vice-Consul for the Cameroons 
in 1885, Acting Consul for the Bights of 
Benin and Biafra in 1887, Consul for 
Portuguese East Africa in 1889, Com 
missioner and Consul- General in British 
Central Africa in 1891, Consul-General 
for the Eegency of Tunis in 1897, and 
Special Commissioner to Uganda in 1899. 
He was created K.C.B. in 1896, and 
received the Gold Medal of the Eoyal 
Geographical Society in 1902 ; and he 
belongs to many learned bodies. In 1918 
Sir Harry gave the Conway Memorial 
Lecture (On the Urgent Need for Reform in 
Our National and Class Education). He 
concludes his chapter on " Science and 
Eeligion" in the Ethical symposium, A 
Generation of Religious Progress (1916), 

with the words: "Let us serve Man 

before we waste our time in genuflections 
and sacrifices to any force outside this 
planet" (p. 29). 

JONES, Ernest Charles, Chartist 
orator. B. Jan. 25, 1819. His father 
being equerry to the Duke of Cumberland, 
he was born and educated in Germany. 
On settling in England, he studied law, 
and was called to the Bar in 1844 ; but he 
did not practise. He joined the Chartists, 
and was one of their leading orators and 
writers. In 1848 he suffered two years in 
prison for a " seditious " speech, and he 
afterwards edited The People s Paper. In 
1853, when the movement collapsed, he 
took to law practice and literature. D. 
Jan. 26, 1869. 

JORDAN, David Starr, M.D., Ph.D., 
LL.D., Chancellor of Leland Stanford 
University. B. Jan. 19, 1851. Ed. Cor 
nell University. He was instructor of 

botany at Cornell from 1871 to 1872,. 
professor of natural history at Lombard 
University in 1872-73, principal of Apple- 
ton Collegiate Institute in 1873-74, teacher 
at Indianapolis High School in 1874-75,, 
professor of biology at Butler University 
from 1875 to 1879, professor of zoology 
from 1879 to 1885, president from 1885 to 
1891, and president of Leland Stanford 
University from 1891 to 1913. He has 
been Chancellor since 1913. He has 
written many ethical and social as well as 
zoological works, and is one of the fore 
most champions of peace in America. He 
was Chief Director of the World s Peace 
Foundation from 1910 to 1914, and Presi 
dent of the World s Peace Congress in 
1915. Dr. Jordan has sat on many 
Government Commissions, and belongs to 
a large number of learned societies. He 
is a Theist, but he believes that " the 
creeds have no permanence in human 
history" (The Stability of Truth, 1911, 
p. 44). See also his Religion of a Sensible 
American (1909). In 1909 he was Presi 
dent of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science. 

JOUFFROY, Professor Theodore 
Simon, French philosopher. B. July 7, 
1796. Ed. Pontarlier, Dijon, and Ecole 
Normale. He followed Cousin, his master, 
in philosophy, and after the 1830 Eeyolu- 
tion was appointed professor at the Ecole 
Normale. From 1832 to 1837 he was 
professor at the College de France. One 
of the most distinguished members of the- 
Eclectic School, a member of the Academy 
of Moral and Political Science and the 
Educational Council, he edited various 
works by representatives of the Scottish 
School, and wrote Melanges Philosophiques,. 
etc., in which his Pantheism is expounded.. 
D. Mar. 1, 1842. 

JOWETT, Benjamin, M.A., LL.D., 
Hellenist. B. Apr. 15, 1817. Ed. St. 
Paul s School and Oxford (Balliol). He 
was, on account of his brilliant work,, 
elected a fellow of Balliol while he. 



was still an undergraduate. He became 
a tutor, and had a deep liberalizing 
influence on two generations of Oxford 
men. Keenly interested in theology, he 
issued in 1855 an edition of Paul s Epistles, 
the heterodox notes of which gave great 
offence ; and there was strong opposition 
when he was appointed Regius Professor 
of Greek in the same year. Another 
agitation occurred when he contributed to 
Essays and Reviews in 1859, and he pub 
lished nothing further on theology. He 
became Master of Balliol in 1870, and he 
was Vice-Chancellor of the University 
from 1882 to 1886. His chief work is his 
magnificent translation of Plato (1871). 
Jowett s letters show that he not only 
discarded all ideas of the supernatural, but 
did not even believe in a personal God or 
personal immortality. In the Life and 
Letters he says that " Voltaire has done 
more good than all the Fathers of the 
Church put together" (ii, 38), and "whether 
we shall recognize others in another life 
we cannot tell" (ii, 91). In Letters of 
B. Joivett he writes, a year before his 
death, to Sir R. Morier [SEE] : " I fear 
that we are both rather tending to some 
sort of Agnosticism " (p. 236). D. Oct. 1, 

JUAREZ, Benito Pablo, President of 
the Republic of Mexico. B. (of Indian 
parents) Mar. 21, 1806. Ed. Guelatao 
Seminary. Juarez was admitted to the 
Mexican Bar in 1834, and was appointed 
Judge of the Civil Court in 1842. When 
the Provisional Government was set up in 
1845 he became its secretary, and two 
years later he was appointed Governor of 
Oajaca. Under his able and enlightened 
administration Oajaca made such progress 
that Juarez came to be regarded as one of 
the leading statesmen of the country. In 
1855 he was chosen Minister of Justice 
and Ecclesiastical Affairs, and the corrupt 
clergy felt the heavy hand of their former 
brilliant pupil. He suppressed all the 
reactionary privileges of the Army and the 
Church. In 1857 he became Secretary of 

the Interior and Chief Justice, and he was 
President of the Republic from 1858 to 
1862 and from 1867 to 1872. Juarez was 
a sincere and effective reformer and a 
deadly enemy of the vicious Mexican 
Church. D. July 18, 1872. 

JUDGE, Mark Hayler, architect. B. 
Feb. 26, 1847. Ed. St. Mary s National 
School and Parker s Endowed School, 
Hastings. His family name was Hayler, 
and he adopted the name of Judge in 1861. 
He was a member of the Paddington 
Vestry from 1886 to 1892, Chairman of 
the Metropolitan Board of Works Inquiry 
Committee from 1886 to 1889, Curator of 
the Parkes Museum of Hygiene from 1878 
to 1882, and for some time Chief Surveyor 
to the Sanitary Assurance Association. 
Mr. Judge found time to work in numbers 
of educational movements. He was one 
of the founders of the Hampstead Ethical 
Society, and wrote The Ethical Movement in 
England (1902). He also helped to found 
the Shakespeare Society (1873), the Lon 
don Sunday Society (1875), the Sunday 
Philharmonic Union (1894), the Ruskin 
Union (1900), and various others. 

JUNGHUHN, Franz Wilhelm, German 
naturalist. B. Oct. 29, 1812. Ed. Halle 
and Berlin Universities. Junghuhn was 
a surgeon in the Prussian Army, but was 
condemned to twenty years imprisonment 
on account of a duel. He escaped, and 
fled to Algiers, where he joined the Foreign 
Legion. In 1834 he took military service 
in the Dutch Indies, and he was appointed 
sanitary officer in Batavia. He wrote 
several scientific works on the Dutch 
islands, especially Licht en Schaduwbilden 
uit de binnenlanden van Java (1854), in 
which he freely expresses his Agnostic 
convictions. On his retirement to Holland 
he took an active part in propaganda, and 
helped to establish the Dageraad, the 
organ of the Dutch Rationalists. D. 
Apr. 20, 1864. 

KADISON, Alexander, M.A., American 




writer. B. Feb. 23, 1895. At college Mr. 
Kadison won medals for Greek and logic ; 
he was Class Orator at Graduation ; and 
he took a post-graduate course in Latin 
philology and literature. Declining the 
post of university instructor in German, 
he entered the business world ; but he 
occasionally publishes poems and essays in 
the American and English periodicals. His 
chief work, Through Agnostic Spectacles 
(1919), tells his position in its title. It 
includes a caustic and valuable account of 
"Billy Sunday s" plagiarisms. Mr. Kadison 
is a member of the E. P. A., and writes at 
times in the Literary Guide. 

KALISCH, Marcus, Ph.D., Jewish 
biblical critic. B. May 16, 1825. Ed. 
Berlin and Halle Universities. Kalisch 
took part in the revolutionary movement 
of 1848 in Germany, and at its failure he 
took refuge in England. He was secretary 
to the chief rabbi, Dr. Adler, until 1853, 
when he was appointed tutor to the children 
of Baron Lionel Eothschild. The Eoths- 
childs gave him assistance in publishing a 
commentary on the Pentateuch, which was 
of value in the early days of Biblical criti 
cism. Exodus appeared in 1855, Genesis 
in 1858, and Leviticus (2 vols.) in 1867 
and 1872. He wrote also a Hebrew 
Grammar (2 vols., 1862-63), a volume 
of poems (Leben und Kunst, 1868), and 
other works. Kalisch was a moderate 
Eationalist. D. Aug. 23, 1885. 

KALTHOFF, Albert, German writer. 
B. 1850. Kalthoff was a Lutheran pastor 
at Bremen who grew too broad for his 
Church. For some years he tried to blend 
liberal Christianity and evolution, but in 
time he outgrew all theology. His Rise of 
Christianity (Eng. trans., 1907) is an excel 
lent and scholarly study of the world in 
which Christianity grew up. His mature 
views are given in his Religiose Weltan 
schauung (1903) and Die Religion der 
Modernen (1905). He joined Haeckel s 
1 Monist League, and was its first President. 
D. 1906. 



KANT, Immanuel, German philosopher, 
B. Apr. 22, 1724. Ed. Konigsberg University, 
After a few years as private tutor, he began 
to teach at the university in 1755, and he 
became professor of logic and metaphysics 
in 1770. Kant s early writings are mainly 
physical and mathematical. His Allgemeine 
Naturgeschichte des Himmels (containing an 
early form of a sort of nebular hypothesis) 
was published in 1755. His philosophical 
views, which were largely inspired by 
reading Home and Hutcheson, developed 
slowly ; and it was not until 1781 that he 
wrote (in four months) his famous Kritik 
der reinen Vernunft. Although his later 
Kritik der praktischen Vernunft (1788) 
seemed to undo the destructive effect of 
this, by deducing a personal God and 
personal immortality from the moral sense, 
the work has had enormous influence in 
dissolving the old metaphysical bases of 
Theism. He explained away the ideas of 
cause and effect, contingency and necessity, 
etc., as purely subjective forms of thought. 
In his third great work, Die Religion- 
innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft 
(1793), he at least discards all super- 
naturalism. D. Feb. 12, 1804. 

KARMIN, Otto, Ph.D., Swiss writer. 
B. (Courland) Mar. 28, 1882. After gradu 
ating in philosophy, Dr. Karmin settled in 
Switzerland, where he was naturalized ; 
and he taught at Geneva University. He 
wrote a number of sociological works and 
a pamphlet (Can One Remain a Chris 
tian ?} which has had a large circulation. 
He was secretary of the International Swiss 
Federation of Freethinkers and President 
of the Geneva Circle of Monists. He 
was zealous and active at the annual 
Congresses, and to his efforts was largely 
due the raising of a monument to Servetus 
in Switzerland. D. Apr. 7, 1920. 

KAUTSKY, Karl Johann, Austrian 

Socialist leader. B. Oct. 16, 1854. Ed. 

Vienna Gymnasium and University. He 




began in 1875 to contribute to the Socialist 
press, and in 1883 he established the Neue 
Zcit, the weekly organ of his school, at 
Stuttgart. Like all the other continental 
Socialist leaders, Kautsky has no religion 
but Socialism. His opinion of religion may 
be read in his Sozial Demokratie und die 
Katholische Kirche (1902) and Der Ursprung 
des Christenthums (1908). He has written a 
number of works on politics and economics. 

KEANE, Professor Augustus Henry, 

LL.D., F.R.G.S., anthropologist. B. (Cork) 
June 1, 1833. Ed. Jersey, Italy, Dublin, 
and Hanover. Keane was educated for the 
Catholic priesthood, but he discarded his 
orders and his creed, and took to travel 
and the study of ethnology. He joined the 
Anthropological Institute in 1879, and he 
was put on the council in the following 
year. In 1886 he was elected Vice-Presi 
dent of the Institute. In 1883 he was 
appointed professor of Hindustani at Uni 
versity College, and in 1897 he was put on 
the Civil List " for his labours in the field 
of ethnology." His Man: Past and Present 
(1899) and Ethnology (1901) are authori 
tative manuals ; and his World s Peoples 
(1908) and other ethnological and geo 
graphical works had a wide circulation. 
Keane was a corresponding member of the 
Anthropological Societies of Italy and 
Washington, and he had several academic 
honours in recognition of his numerous and 
learned papers. D. Feb. 3, 1912. 

KEARY, Charles Francis, M.A., writer. 
B. 1848. Ed. Marlborough School and 
Cambridge (Trinity College). Mr. Keary 
was on the staff of the British Museum, 
and he wrote several novels and a number 
of esteemed works on Norway, comparative 
religion, and various other subjects (Outlines 
of Primitive Belief, 1882 ; The Vikings of 
Christendom, 1890, etc.). His Rationalist 
views are set forth in his Pursuit of Reason 
(1910). He puts Christian doctrines dis 
dainfully aside, and believes only in the 
existence of the Absolute. D. Oct. 26, 


KEATS, John, poet. B. (London) 
Oct. 31, 1795. Ed. Enfield. He was 
apprenticed to a surgeon in 1810, but he 
broke off the apprenticeship in 1814 and 
studied at St. Thomas s and Guy s Hos 
pitals. In 1816 he became a dresser at 
Guy s Hospital, and passed as licentiate. 
Encouraged by Leigh Hunt, he abandoned 
surgery for poetry, which he had long culti 
vated, and published Poems of John Keats 
(1817). Endymion (1818) had little more 
success with the public, but Hyperion 
(1820) convinced the world of his power. 
He was, however, already in consumption. 
Leigh Hunt, his chief friend, and Shelley, 
Dilke, and other Rationalists, persuaded 
him that " nothing in the world is prove- 
able." Endymion is " a very pretty piece of 
Paganism " (Wordsworth), and the sonnet, 
"Written in Disgust of Vulgar Super 
stition" (1901 ed., ii, 174), could hardly 
reject Christianity more drastically : 

The church bells toll a melancholy round 

Still, still they toll, and I should feel a damp, 
A chill as from a tomb, did I not know 

That they are dying like an outburnt lamp ; 
That tis their sighing, wailing ere they go 
Into oblivion ; that fresh flowers will grow, 

And many glories of immortal stamp. 

W. Sharp relates in his Life of Severn 
(1892, p. 85), which is authoritative, that 
Keats persevered in Rationalism to the 
end, and died without any belief in a future 
life. D. Feb. 23, 1821. 

KEENE, Charles Samuel, artist. B. 
Aug. 10, 1823. Ed. Ipswich Grammar 
School. Disliking the work of his father s 
(a solicitor) office, he was apprenticed to 
architecture, and later to wood engraving. 
After serving his time he devoted himself 
to the illustration of books and periodicals, 
some of his work winning the Gold Medal 
of the Paris Exhibition in 1890. His con 
nection with Punch began in 1854. Keene 
was a man of high and modest character, 
and a thorough Rationalist. When Holman 
Hunt tried to persuade him, in his last 
illness, of a future life, he said : " Do you 
really believe this ? I can t think so " 



(Life and Letters of C. S. Keene, 1893, by 
G. S. Layard, p. 423). D. Jan. 4, 1891. 

KEITH, George, tenth Earl Marischal. 
JB. about 1693. Ed. private tutors. He 
succeeded his father in the earldom in 
1712, and held a commission in the army. 
Having joined the Pretender, he fled to 
France, then to Spain, and commanded the 
Spanish expedition to Scotland in 1719. 
Keith then went to Prussia, and he was 
appointed Prussian ambassador to Paris 
(1751-52). In 1759 he was Prussian 
ambassador in Spain. George II pardoned 
him, and he went back to Scotland ; but 
Frederick the Great induced him to return 
to Potsdam, where " neither priests nor 
attorneys " would trouble him (as Frederick 
wrote). The Earl was highly cultivated 
and a drastic Deist, a friend of Voltaire, 
Rousseau, and D Alembert. His recent 
biographer, Mrs. E. E. Cuthell, observes 
that " in almost every letter he writes 
there is a gibe against some sort or other 
of ecclesiastical lamas, as he called them " 
(The Scottish Friend of Frederick the Great, 
2 vols., 1915). D Alembert, in an eloquent 
oration before the Berlin Academy, said 
that he was " a man of pure and classic 
morals, whom the best ages of Eoman 
probity might have envied of our time." 
D. May 28, 1778. 

KEITH, James Francis Edward, 

Marshal Keith, brother of the preceding. 
B. June 11, 1696. Ed. Aberdeen and 
Edinburgh. He studied law, but joined 
the army, and was, like George, exiled for 
aiding the Pretender. After some years of 
study in Paris, he served in the Spanish 
army (1719-26), then "in the Eussian 
army (1728-47), becoming a General and 
Governor of the Ukraine. From 1747 to 
1758 he was a Field Marshal in the 
Prussian army, and one of Frederick s best 
generals. From the letters of Frederick 
and of Earl Marischal, and a poem addressed 
to Keith by Frederick, it is clear that he 
was a Deist like his brother. D. Oct. 14, 


KELLGREN, Johann Henrik, Swedish 
poet. B. Dec. 1, 1751. Ed. Abo Univer 
sity, Finland. Kellgren was literary colla 
borator for many years to the poet-king 
Gustav III. He then developed advanced 
ideas and joined the staff of the Stockholms 
Posten, the organ of the " Young Swedes " 
of the time. He had a passion for religious 
and political freedom, and published in the 
Posten some very fine poems of revolt. 
D. Apr. 20, 1795. 

KENRICK, William, LL.D., writer. B. 
about 1725. He was brought up as a 
manual labourer, but he had ability, and 
became a hack writer in London. In 
1751 he published, under the pseudonym 
" Ontologos," a tract in which he proved 
that the soul is not immortal ; and in the 
following year he cynically published a 
refutation of it. His Epistles, Philosophical 
and Moral (1756) is an openly sceptical 
poem. Kenrick translated several works 
of Eousseau, Voltaire, and Buffon. D. 
June 10, 1779. 

KEY, Ellen Karolina Sofia, Swedish 
writer. B. Dec. 11, 1849. Ed. privately. 
Miss Key is a daughter of the Countess 
S. Posse, but her father lost his fortune 
and she became a teacher. She taught in 
a school at Stockholm from 1880 to 1900, 
and lectured at the Workers Institute 
from 1883 to 1903. Her numerous works 
on social questions have won for her a 
remarkable influence in Scandinavia and 
a high reputation in other lands. Of her 
thirty volumes seven have been translated 
into English between 1909 and 1914. She 
is a Monist, and writes for the organ of 
Prof. Haeckel s League. L. Nystrom s 
Ellen Key (1913) gives a good account of 
her work and career. 

KEYSER, Professor Cassius Jackson, 

A.M., Ph.D., American mathematician. B. 
May 15, 1862. Ed. Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Kenton, and Columbia Universities. He 
was the principal of various schools from 
1885 to 1890, instructor in mathematics at 



Minnesota University 1891-92, professor 
of mathematics at the State Normal School, 
NewPaltz, from 1892 to 1894, and instruc 
tor in mathematics until 1911, when he 
became professor at California University. 
Professor Keyser, who is a member of the 
American Board of the Hibbert Journal, is 
a Theist, but he rejects personal immor 
tality (see a fine article on " The Signi 
ficance of Death " in the Hibbert, July, 
1914 ; his Science and Religion, 1914 ; and 
The New Infinite and the Old Theology, 
1915). He is a mathematical writer of 
distinction, and belongs to many learned 

KIELLAND, Alexandr Lange, Nor 
wegian novelist. B. Feb. 18, 1849. Ed. 
Christiania University. He studied law, 
but preferred to lead a quiet literary life at 
Stavanger, his native town, of which he 
was Mayor in 1891. After 1879, when his 
first Novellets appeared, he produced a long 
series of novels, of the realistic school, in 
which he attacks conservatism and reaction 
in all forms. Two have appeared in English. 
He wrote also several dramas, and stood 
next to Bjdrnson in Norwegian letters. 
His thorough Eationalism peeps out even 
in his Napoleon s Men and Methods (Eng. 
trans, by J. McCabe, 1907, p. 348, etc.). 
D. Apr. 7, 1906. 

KIERKEGAARD, Sdren Aaby, Danish 
writer. B. May 5, 1813. Ed. Copenhagen 
University. After completing his studies, 
Kierkegaard devoted himself to the study 
of religion. Always profoundly religious 
in a liberal sense, he developed a fierce 
hostility to what he called " existing " 

Christianity. His Either Or (1843), 

Stages on Life s Journey (1845), and later 
works, stirred Scandinavia and Denmark. 
Ibsen, who partly dramatizes him in Brand, 
felt his influence. He has been called the 
Feuerbach of the north, but he pleaded for 
an Eesthetic and moral Christianity, though 
in the doctrinal sense he weakened the 
Churches hardly less than Feuerbach did 
in Germany. D. Nov. 11, 1855. 


KING, The Right Honourable Peter, 

seventh Baron King. B. Aug. 31, 1776. 
Ed. Eton and Cambridge (Trinity College). 
He succeeded to the title in 1793, and, 
being of a Whig family, he supported Lord 
Holland [SEE] in the House of Lords. 
Baron King was a high authority on 
questions of currency, of which he made 
a profound study ; and in 1803 he took an 
active part in stopping money payments 
at the Bank of England. He supported 
Catholic Emancipation, and opposed Govern 
ment grants to the Society for the Propa 
gation of the Gospel. In 1829 he published 
a valuable Life of John Locke, from material 
in the possession of his family. He seems 
to have been a Deist. " Of late years," 
said the Gentleman s Magazine in its 
obituary notice (1833, ii, 80), " Lord King 
had chiefly signalized himself as the bitter 
enemy of the Church, and particularly of 
the Episcopal bench." He was a man of 
great learning and high character (see the 
memoir by Earl Fortescue prefixed to 
Selections from the Speeches and Writings 
of Lord King, 1844). D. June 4, 1833. 

KINGLAKE, Alexander William, M.A., 

historian. B. Aug. 5, 1809. Ed. Eton 
and Cambridge (Trinity College). He was 
called to the Bar in 1837. In 1844 he won 
a high literary reputation by his Eothen, 
a beautiful record of a tour in the East ; 
and, having been in the Crimea during the 
war, he was requested to write the official 
history of it (Invasion of the Crimea, 8 vols., 
1863-87). From 1857 to 1868 he was 
M.P. for Bridgewater. His heterodoxy 
appears in Eothen, and more plainly in an 
unpublished letter to Grant-Duff (Spectator, 
May 10, 1919, p. 590). He says approvingly, 
speaking of Hayward s death, " No clergy 
man invaded his peace," and he seems to 
share the Agnostic sentiments he quotes. 
D. Jan. 2, 1891. 

KINGSLEY, George Henry, M.D., 

F.L.S., traveller and writer. B. Feb. 14, 

1827. Ed. King s College, London, and 

Edinburgh, Paris, and Heidelberg Univer- 




sities. Son of the elder Eev. Charles 
Kingsley, and brother of the more famous 
Canon Kingsley, he showed from his youth 
a strong and adventurous character which 
had little affinity with Church ideals. He 
was at Paris during the Revolution of 1848, 
and he enthusiastically lent a hand at the 
barricades and received a musket-ball. At 
the close of his very thorough medical 
training he chose to travel with private 
patients, and he thus visited most parts of 
the world. From 1867 to 1870 he was in 
Polynesia with the Earl of Pembroke, and 
they described their experiences in South 
Sea Bubbles (1872). Kingsley was a keen 
sportsman as well as a naturalist, a man of 
wide culture and strong personality. In 
an excellent memoir one of her best pieces 
of work prefixed to his Notes on Sport and 
Travel (1900), his daughter, Mary Kingsley, 
gives a fine sketch of his character, and the 
letters she includes have constant expres 
sions of his Rationalism. Chapter iii 
(" Musings on Manning s Old New Zea 
land ") is severe on the Churches, espe 
cially the " foul brutality and baseness " of 
the Roman Church (p. 326). He seems 
from her description to have been an 
Agnostic and the first inspirer of her own 
scepticism. D. Feb. 5, 1892. 

KINGSLEY, Mary Henrietta, traveller 
and writer, daughter of the preceding. B. 
Oct. 13, 1862. Ed. " mostly by herself " 
(she says). Miss Kingsley was from her 
early years an omnivorous reader, and she 
attained a very wide knowledge of science 
and literature. She lived at Cambridge 
after 1886, and found herself in the large 
and stimulating circle of her father s 
friends. Travel especially interested her, 
on account of his rich experience, and she 
began with him the study of comparative 
religion. After his death she got commis 
sions from Cambridge University and the 
British Museum, and made adventurous 
journeys through Africa (1893 and 1895). 
She passed through a good deal of country 
in which no European had yet set foot, 
but her relations with the natives were 

made easy by mutual respect. In part 
she paid her way by trading in rubber and 
oil, and her collections proved very useful 
to science. Her works and lectures on 
Africa were greatly esteemed, and did 
much for the cultivation of proper feeling 
towards the natives. Miss Kingsley was 
a woman of great tenderness and refine 
ment, as well as virile intelligence and 
healthy humour. In a letter which 
Mr. Clodd reproduces in his Memories 
(p. 79) she tells him that she is, like him, 
an Agnostic. She went to South Africa 
to nurse the wounded Boers in 1900, and 
she contracted enteric fever. D. June 3, 

KLAATSCH, Professor Hermann, M.D., 

German anthropologist. B. Mar. 10, 1863. 
Ed. Heidelberg and Berlin Universities. 
He was appointed assistant to Waldeyer 
in 1885, teacher in 1890, and professor of 
anatomy at Heidelberg in 1895. From 
1904 to 1907 he travelled in Australia on 
behalf of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, 
and on his return he was appointed pro 
fessor of anatomy and anthropology at the 
Berlin Medical Faculty and Curator of the 
Royal Anatomical Institute. Klaatsch was 
one of the leading German authorities on 
primitive man and a distinguished anthro 
pologist generally. He was a Monist, and 
contributed occasionally to the organ of 
the League, Das Monistische Jahrhundert. 
D. Jan. 5, 1916. 

KLEIST, Heinrich von, German poet 
and dramatist. B. Oct. 18, 1777. Kleist 
served in the army against the French 
from 1795 to 1799, but the military life 
was distasteful to him, and he got per 
mission to retire to Frankfort University, 
where for two years he studied mathematics 
and philosophy. He again discovered that 
he had chosen a wrong course, and he 
buried himself in Switzerland for two 
years (1801-1802) and began to compose 
tragedies. They were of high quality, but 
unsuccessful, and he tried story-writing, 
returning later to tragedy. It is now 



recognized that his Zerbrochene Krug and 
other dramas are of a very high artistic 
order, but Kleist enjoyed little appreciation 
until near the close of his brief and pathetic 
life. Goethe and Schiller, with whom he 
was friendly, warmly recognized his great 
power, and his work now stands high 
in German literature. He adopted the 
Kantist philosophy and dissented from all 
creeds. Z>. Nov. 21, 1811. 

KNEELAND, Abner, American journa 
list. B. Apr. 7, 1774. Kneeland was 
a carpenter until 1801, when he joined the 
Baptist Church and worked as a preacher. 
In 1803 he passed to the Universalists, 
and became a minister in that liberal 
school (1811). Some years later he aban 
doned every shade of Christianity, and 
adopted journalism as his profession. He 
edited the Philadelphia University Magazine 
(1821-23) and the Olive Branch (1828); 
and in 1831 he settled at Boston and 
founded the Investigator, the oldest Ration- 
alist periodical in America. In 1833 he 
was sentenced to two months in prison for 
saying that he did not believe in God. 
He learned Hebrew, Greek, and Latin in 
order to make a thorough study of the 
Bible, and published the New Testament, 
with notes, in Greek and English. He 
edited Voltaire s Philosophical Dictionary 
(2 vols., 1852), and wrote The Deist (2 vols., 
1822), Review of the Evidences for Chris 
tianity (1829), and other works. He also 
lectured constantly on Rationalism. D. 
Apr. 27, 1844. 

KNOPF, Professor Otto Heinrich 
Julius, German astronomer. B. Sep. 24, 
1856. Ed. Hildburghausen Gymnasium, 
and Jena and Berlin Universities. He 
was assistant at the Wilhelm Gymnasium 
at Berlin in 1880-81, calculator at Cordoba 
Observatory (Argentina) from 1881 to 
1883, and assistant at the Berlin Reden 
Institute from 1884 to 1889 ; and he has 
been Director of the Jena University 
Observatory since 1889, and professor of 
astronomy at Jena since 1897. Professor 

Knopf has written many works on 
astronomy, and he is also an active worker 
in the Monist League. In the tribute to 
Professor Haeckel (Was Wir Ernst Haeckel 
Verdanken, ii, 298-303) he expresses his 
thorough Rationalism. He sees no " plan" 
in nature, and he thinks that the old 
psychology, which taught a soul capable 
of living apart from the body, is " struck 
out of the list of sciences." 

KNOX, Robert, M.D., anatomist. B. 
Sep. 4, 1791. Ed. Edinburgh High School 
and University. In 1815 he was appointed 
assistant surgeon in the army. Two years 
later his regiment was sent to the Cape, 
and Knox made valuable scientific research 
there in ethnology and zoology. Returning 
to Europe in 1821, he completed his 
studies under the great French masters 
of zoology, and he then settled in Edin 
burgh, contributing to the scientific jour 
nals. In 1825 he entered into partnership 
with Barclay in his school of anatomy, 
and in the following year he became sole 
proprietor and was recognized as one of 
the ablest anatomical teachers in Britain 
for many years. He was an outspoken 
Deist (see Lonsdale s Life of Knox, 1870), 
and seems at times in his letters to be near 
Agnosticism. His heresies contributed to 
the ruin of his school, and in 1846 he 
removed to London and engaged in the 
popularization of science. In 1856 he was 
appointed pathological anatomist to the 
Brompton Cancer Hospital, and in 1861 
he was made a member of the Anthropo 
logical Society of Paris. D. Dec. 20, 1862. 

KNOWLES, Sir James, F.R.I.B.A., 
K.C.V.O., editor. B. 1831. Ed. Univer 
sity College, London, and Italy. Although 
he was trained as an architect and practised 
for some years, Knowles began early to 
take an interest in literature, and contri 
buted to the magazines. In 1860 he 
published his only work, The Story of King 
Arthur. In 1870 he succeeded Dean 
Alford as editor of the Contemporary 
Review. Seven years later, desiring a 



greater liberty of expression for the brilliant 
group of Victorian Eationalists who worked 
with him, he established the Nineteenth 
Century, which he edited and owned until 
his death. Sir James suggested the 
Metaphysical Society, which was founded 
in 1869 ; and he was intimate with all the 
great writers of his time. He wrote very 
little, but his Eationalism may easily be 
gathered from Huxley s lively corres 
pondence with him (Life and Letters of 
T. H. Huxley, 2 vols., 1900). D. Feb. 13, 

KNUTZEN, Matthias, German Atheist 
lecturer. B. 1645. Ed. Konigsberg. After 
studying philosophy at Konigsberg he 
discarded all religion, and went about 
Germany teaching the authority of the 
human reason and conscience only. He 
explicitly rejected Theism as well as Chris 
tianity in a Latin letter (reproduced in 
Thomasius s Historia Atheismi, 1692). He 
had a few followers, but he and his 
movement ended in obscurity. See Eobert- 
son s Short History of Freethought, ii, 296. 
The year of his death is unknown. 

KOLBE, Professor Hermann, German 
chemist. B. Sep. 27, 1818. Ed. Gottingen 
University. In 1842 he became Bunsen s 
assistant at Marburg, and in 1845 Play- 
fair s assistant at London. He returned 
to Marburg, where he worked with Frank- 
land, and in 1852 he was appointed 
professor of chemistry. In 1865 he passed 
to Leipzig. Kolbe was one of the leading 
organic chemists of Germany and made 
numerous discoveries. E. Frankland, 
who knew him well and often discussed 
religion with him, tells us that he was " an 
Agnostic" (Sketches from the Life of E. 
Frankland, p. 50). He edited (after 1870) 
the Journal fur Praktische Chemie and 
wrote a number of works, which are 
regarded as foundations of his science. 
D. Nov. 25, 1884. 

KORN, Selig, German-Jewish orien 
talist. B. Apr. 26. 1804. Under the 


pseudonym of " F. Nork " he wrote a 
number of works (Mythen der alien Perser 
als Quellen christlicher Glaubenslehren, 
1835 ; Biblische Mythologie des alien und 
neuen Testaments, 1842, etc.), which had 
considerable value at the time in tracing 
mythical ingredients of the Christian 
system. His similar treatment of the Old 
Testament shows that he had completely 
abandoned orthodox Judaism. D. Oct. 16, 

KRAUSE, Ernst Ludwig, German 
writer (" Carus Sterne"). B. Nov. 22, 
1839. He studied chemistry, but the 
emergence of evolution attracted him, and 
he followed the doctrine over a wide range 
of sciences. In co-operation with Haeckel, 
he founded the Eationalist monthly Kosmos, 
and contributed constantly to it. His 
Werden und Vergehen (1876) is a vivid 
application of evolution to the universe, 
which was even more popular than 
Haeckel s Natural History of Creation; 
and his later works (Die Krone der Schop- 
fung, 1884 ; Plaudereien aus dem Paradiese, 
1886, etc.) had great influence. He wrote 
always as " Carus Sterne," and had the 
same Monistic views as Haeckel. D. 
Aug. 24, 1903. 

KRAUSE, Karl Christian Friedrich, 

German philosopher. B. May 6, 1781. 
Ed. Jena University. Under the influence 
of Schelling and Fichte he became a 
Pantheist. Pie was appointed professor at 
Jena in 1802, at the Dresden Academy of 
Engineers in 1805, at Gottingen in 1824, 
and at Munich in 1831. Krause attempted 
to reconcile the Absolutism of Hegel with 
the Subjectivism of Fichte in a system 
which he called Panentheism. He had 
distinguished followers (Ahrens, Leonhardi, 
etc.), but his somewhat mystic system is 
now forgotten. D. Sep. 27, 1832. 

KREJEI, Professor Franz, Bohemian 

psychologist. B. 1858. After teaching 

for some years in a school at Novy 

Bydgov, he was appointed professor of 




philosophy and psychology at the Tsech 
University at Prague. He is a member of 
the Franz Joseph Academy, and a frequent 
contributor to academic periodicals. Krejei 
is, in spite of the bigotry of the Austrian 
authorities, an open and disdainful Eation- 
alist. He was President of the fourteenth 
annual Congress of Freethinkers, which 
was held at Prague in 1907. " Eeaction," 
he says, "is the real subversive element, 
because it shuts down the energy of motive 
forces until they accumulate and explode." 

KREKEL, Arnold, American judge. B. 
(Prussia) Mar. 14, 1815. He was taken to 
America in 1832 and studied law. In 
1842 he became a Justice of the Peace, 
was appointed County Attorney a few 
years later, and in 1852 was elected to the 
State Legislature (Missouri). He served 
as a colonel in the Civil War, and was 
president of the Constitutional Convention 
of 1865. Lincoln made him a Federal 
Judge in 1865, and he had a high reputa 
tion for integrity. Krekel was an out 
spoken Agnostic, and is included in 
Putnam s Four Hundred Years of Free- 
thought (p. 756). D. July 14, 1888. 

KROPOTKIN, Prince Peter Alexeie- 
Yitch, geographer. B. Dec. 9, 1842. Ed. 
Petersburg College of Pages and Univer 
sity. He won the gold medal of the 
Eussian Geographical Society for explora 
tion in Manchuria in 1864, and became, in 
succession, aide-de-camp to the Governor 
of Transbaikalia, attach^ to the Governor 
General of Eastern Siberia, and secretary 
to the Physical Geography section of the 
Geographical Society. In 1872 he joined 
the International. He was arrested, and 
confined in a fortress ; but he escaped, and 
fled to England. Passing to Switzerland, 
he founded the Revolte, and was expelled. 
He was next imprisoned at Lyons 
(1883-86), and has since lived in England 
until 1919, when he went to Eussia. 
His Fields, Factories, and Workshops 
(1899), Memoirs of a Revolutionist (1900), 
and Mutual Aid (1902) have circulated 

very widely. He has written many other 
works, and is as radical in religion as in 

LAAS, Professor Ernst, German philo 
sopher. B. June 16, 1837. Ed. Berlin 
University. Laas was at first devoted to 
theology, but he deserted it for philosophy, 
and in 1872 he was appointed professor 
at Strassburg University. Originally a 
Kantian, he turned rather to Mill and 
Comte, and he became the leading German 
Positivist (in philosophy). He thought 
God or the Absolute " an ideal freely 
imagined according to need " (Idealismus 
und Positivismus, 1879, p. 143), and rejected 
all theology. D. July 25, 1885. 

LABANGA, Professor Baldassare, 

Italian philosopher. B. Aug. 17, 1829. 
Ed. Naples University. He took an active 
part in the 1848 Eovolution, and was 
imprisoned and then expelled. Eeturning 
with the triumph of Italy, he became 
professor of philosophy at Padua Univer 
sity, then professor of the history of 
Christianity at the University of Eome. 
Professor Labanca treats Christianity, and 
religion generally, in an objective Eation- 
alist spirit (see his Study of Religion in the 
Italian Universities, Eng. trans., 1909). 
He wrote many works on philosophy and 
religion (of the latter see especially his 
Gesil Cristo nella letteratura contemporanea, 
1903, and II Papato, 1905), and was a 
Commander of the Order of the Crown of 

LABIGHE, Eugene Marin, French 
dramatist. B. May 5, 1815. Ed. College 
Bourbon and Ecole de Droit. From the 
study of law he turned to journalism, and 
a successful play (La cuvette d eau) which 
he produced in 1837 opened for him a 
prosperous and distinguished career as 
playwright. He wrote more than a hun 
dred comedies, and the collected edition of 
his plays (10 vols., 1879) had an unpre 
cedented sale. Labiche, whom Jules 
Claretie rightly describes as " Voltairean, " 




was a member of the Academy and an 
Officer of the Legion of Honour. D. 
Jan. 13, 1888. 

LABOUCHERE, Henry Du Pr6, journa 
list. B. Nov. 9, 1831. Ed. Eton and 
Cambridge (Trinity College). Labouchere, 
who was of French extraction, entered the 
diplomatic service in 1854, and was, succes 
sively, attacb.6 and secretary at Washing 
ton, Munich, Stockholm, Frankfort, St. 
Petersburg, and Dresden. He retired in 
1864, and entered Parliament in 1865. In 
1868 he took up journalism, and in 1876 
established Truth. He was first elected 
M.P. for Northampton in 1880, and he 
gave loyal and fearless support to Brad- 
laugh. Labouchere was himself " as com 
pletely non-religious as a man could be," 
and, on the principles of Hume and Kant, 
with which he was familiar, " a strict 
Agnostic " (Life of H. Labouchere, by A. L. 
Thorold, 1913, p. ix). His last word was 
characteristic. A spirit lamp was upset 
in his chamber as he lay dying, and 
Labouchere muttered : " Flames ? Not 
yet." D. Jan. 15, 1912. 

LACAITA, Sir James Philip, LL.D., 

K.C.M.G., Anglo-Italian statesman. B. 
Oct. 4, 1813. Ed. Naples University. 
He graduated in law, and was in 1836 
.admitted to the Neapolitan Bar. Adopting 
liberal ideas, he made friends with the 
English and Americans at Naples, and he 
was appointed legal adviser to the British 
Legation. The Kevolutionaries of 1848 
appointed him secretary to the Neapolitan 
Legation at London, but they failed, and 
the reactionaries cancelled the appoint 
ment. It was mainly from Lacaita that 
Gladstone in 1850 got the information 
about the clerical-royalist horrors which 
he afterwards published in a Letter to 
Lord Aberdeen. Lacaita was imprisoned 
for a few days on that account. When 
the Letter was published (1852) he had to 
fly from Naples, and he settled in England, 
where he was naturalized in 1855. From 
1853 to 1856 he was professor of Italian 

at Queen s College, and he wrote most of 
the Italian articles in the eighth edition of 
the Encyclopedia Britannica. In 1856 
he accompanied Lord Minto to Italy, and 
in 1857 he became private secretary to 
Lord Lansdowne. The title was conferred 
on him chiefly for taking part in Mr. 
Gladstone s mission to the Ionian Islands 
in 1858. He returned to Naples after 
the expulsion of the Bourbons and the 
chastening of the clergy, and was elected 
to the Italian Parliament. Lacaita was 
a Knight of the Brazilian order of the 
Eose, and a Knight Commander of the 
orders of SS. Maurice and Lazarus and the 
Corona d Italia. D. Jan. 4, 1895. 

LACEPEDE, Bernard Germain 
Etienne de la Yille, Comte de, French 
naturalist. B. Dec. 26, 1756. Equally 
friendly with Gluck and Buffon, Voltaire 
and D Alembert, Lacepede s attention was 
at first divided between music and science. 
He wrote operas and symphonies, as well 
as scientific works. The latter alone 
succeeded, and Buffon got him a place in 
the King s Cabinet, which enabled him to 
devote himself to natural history. He 
accepted the Eevolution, and represented 
Paris in the Legislative Assembly, though 
he protested against the increasing bru 
talities. Later he was professor of natural 
history at the museum, member of the 
Institut, and President of the Senate 
(1801). Napoleon made him Grand Chan 
cellor of the Legion of Honour (1803) and 
Minister of State (1809). He was stripped 
of his dignities at the Eestoration, and, 
though he was again admitted to the 
House of Peers, he never changed his 
Deistic opinions. D. Oct. 6, 1825. 

LAFAYETTE, Marie Jean Paul Roch 
Yves Gilbert Marie, Marquis de, French 
soldier. B. Sep. 6, 1757. Ed. privately. 
Sharing the widespread enthusiasm for the 
American rebellion, he in 1777 crossed the 
ocean and became a general in the Ameri 
can army. Eeturning to France in 1781, 
he helped the spread of liberal principles, 



and he was in 1789 appointed commander 
of the Paris National Guard. Lafayette 
was for a constitutional kingdom, and was 
compelled to leave France until 1799. He 
was inactive under Napoleon, but under the 
reactionary monarchy he sat on the ex 
treme left in the Chambre of Deputies 
(1818-24), holding his advanced and Deistic 
views to the end. In 1824-25 he visited 
America, and received a remarkable ovation. 
D. May 20, 1834. 

LAFFITTE, Jacques, French states 
man. B. Oct 24, 1767. The son of a 
carpenter, he entered a bank as clerk and 
later was a member of the firm. In 1809 he 
was Eegent of the Bank of France, and in 
1814 he became Governor of the Bank and 
President of the Chamber of Commerce. 
During the Eestoration he was an anti 
clerical member of the Chambre ; and he 
financed the Eevolution of 1830, and was 
appointed Minister of Finance and Premier. 
Laffitte, who in 1842 was President of the 
Chambre, stubbornly resisted reaction all 
his life. D. May 26, 1844. 

LAFFITTE, Professor Pierre, French 
Positivist. B. Feb. 21, 1823. He was a 
teacher of mathematics at Paris who 
zealously supported Comte, and was made 
one of his executors. In the schism which 
followed the death of Comte, when Littre 
formed a Positivist school without ritual, 
Laffitte headed the orthodox Comtists. 
In 1892 he was appointed professor of the 
general history of science at the College de 
France. He wrote Les grands types de 
I humanite (2 vols., 1875) and other works. 
D. Jan. 4, 1903. 

LAGARRIGUE, Jorge, M.D., Chilean 
Positivist. B. 1854. After studying law 
he turned to medicine, and graduated at 
Paris. There he became an ardent apostle 
of Positivism, and in 1883 returned to 
Chile to disseminate it. In 1886, however, 
he settled in Paris, and devoted himself 
to the Positivist cause there. He edited 
Comte s letters to Edger (1889), and wrote 

La role de la France dans I histoire de 
I Tiumanite, Positivisme et Catholicisme, 
etc. D. 1894. 

LAGARRIGUE, Juan Enrique, Chilean 
Positivist, brother of preceding. B. 1852. 
He was trained in law, and, visiting Paris 
in 1880, became a warm adherent of the 
Eeligion of Humanity. He has written 
La religion de la Humanidad (1893) and 
other Positivist works, besides a volume on 
Diderot and several Pacifist pamphlets. 

LAGRANGE, Count Joseph Louis, 

French mathematician. B. Jan. 25, 1736. 
Ed. Turin College. Lagrange made such 
astonishing progress in mathematics that 
at the age of nineteen he submitted to 
Euler the solution of the most difficult 
problems. Eecognized at once as a mathe 
matical genius, he was appointed professor 
of mathematics at Turin Artillery School 
in 1756, won the prize of the Paris 
Academy of Science in 1764 for research on 
the libration of the moon, and in 1766 
succeeded Euler as Director of the Berlin 
Academy. He returned to Paris in 1787, 
and was professor at the Polytechnic 
School during the Eepublic, and head of 
the commission which installed the decimal 
system. Napoleon made him Count and 
Senator ; and even the Eestoration, which 
he detested alike on political and Eation- 
alist grounds, was compelled to respect one 
of the greatest mathematicians of his time. 
Lagrange was what we should now call 
Agnostic. D. Apr. 10, 1813. 

LA GRASSERIE, Raoul de, French 
sociologist. B. June 13, 1839. Ed. Eennes. 
He practised as a barrister at Eennes, and 
was appointed judge at Loudeac, and after 
wards at Eennes. Privately he became a 
high authority on philology, and in later 
years on the sociological aspect of religion 
(Des religions comparers au point de vue 
sociologique, 1899). His Eationalism is 
also expressed in his poems (Homines et 
singes, 1889 ; Les contrastes, 1910, etc.), 
and he wrote on law and other subjects. La 



Grasserie is a very learned, versatile, and 
prolific writer. 

LAING, Samuel, writer and man of 
business. B. Dec. 12, 1812. Ed. private 
tutor and Cambridge (St. John s). In 1834 
he became a fellow of St. John s, and he 
was admitted to the Bar (Lincoln s Inn) in 
1837 ; but he accepted a secretaryship to 
Lord Taunton and entered the business 
world. In 1843 he was appointed secretary 
to the railway department of the Board of 
Trade, and he was chiefly responsible for 
the adoption of a uniform cheap fare. He 
was a member of the Eailway Commission 
in 1845, Chairman and Managing Director 
of the L. B. and S. C. Eailway from 1848 
to 1855, Chairman of the Crystal Palace 
Company from 1852 to 1855, Member of 
Parliament from 1852 to 1885, financial 
secretary to the Treasury in 1859, Finan 
cial Minister in India in 1860, and again 
Chairman of the Brighton Eailway from 
1867 to 1894. Laing wrote his well-known 
Eationalist summaries of science (Modern 
Science and Modern Thought, 1885, etc.) 
in his later years. He was an Agnostic. 
D. Aug. 6, 1897. 

LAISANT, Professor Charles Ange, 

D. es Sc., French mathematician. B. Nov. 1, 
1841. Ed. Ecole Polytechnique. He 
served for some years in the army as an 
engineer, and became a captain. In 1879 
he was appointed editor of the Petit Parisien, 
but he was chiefly devoted to mathematics, 
on which he wrote a number of important 
works. In 1887-88 he was President of 
the Mathematical Society of France, and 
in 1903-1904 President of the French Asso 
ciation for the Advancement of Science. 
He is an Officer of the Legion of Honour, 
and Vice-President of the Astronomical 
Society and the National Society for the 
Promotion of the Education of Youth. 
Professor Laisant is an active Eationalist 
and Agnostic. 

LAKANAL, Joseph, French statesman. 
B. July 14, 1762. He studied for the 

priesthood, and became professor of philo 
sophy in the Church, but he abandoned his 
orders and religion at the Eevolution. As 
a member of the Convention (1792-95) he 
was largely responsible for the great educa 
tional reforms it carried and the founding 
of the Ecole Normale and the Institut. 
Proscribed in 1814, he retired to America, 
where he had a very generous reception, 
Congress voting him 500 acres of land. 
He became President of the University of 
Louisiana, but returned to France in 1830. 
D. Feb. 14, 1845. 

LALANDE, Joseph Jerome le Fran- 
cais de, French astronomer. B. July J 1, 
1732. Ed. Jesuit College, Lyons, and 
Paris. Lalande an adopted name, his 
natal name being Le Fra^ais made such 
progress in astronomy that at the age of 
nineteen he was sent by the Academy of 
Sciences on a mission to Berlin, where he 
met Voltaire and other Eationalists. He 
joined the staff of the Paris Observatory 
in 1752, and was admitted to the Academy 
in 1753. He became professor of astro 
nomy at the College de France in 1761, 
and Director of the Observatory in 1765. 
Although he was an Atheist, he risked his 
life by sheltering priests at the Observatory 
in 1794. The chief of his many important 
works was his Traite d astronomie (2 vols., 
1764), which inspired Dupuis with his 
solar-myth speculations. Lalande also 
inspired Marechal s Dictionnaire des athees 
(1800) and wrote supplements to it. He 
was in the front rank of the brilliant 
French astronomers and mathematicians of 
the time, and a zealous Atheist. D. Apr. 4, 

LAMARCK, Jean Baptiste Pierre 
Antoine de Monet de, French naturalist. 
B. Aug. 1, 1744. Ed. Jesuit College, 
Amiens. Destined for a clerical career, he 
ran away from school and joined the army, 
and, on being disabled, devoted himself to 
botany at Paris. His Flore Franqaise 
(1778) gave him a high reputation, and he 
was admitted to the Academy in 1779. 



He was appointed Eoyal Botanist in 1781, 
and professor of invertebrate zoology at 
the Natural History Museum in 1793. 
His famous Philosophie Zoologique, which 
contains an early theory of evolution that 
is not without distinguished advocates (in 
modified form) to-day, appeared in 1809. 
The Catholic Encyclopedia claims Lamarck 
as orthodox, but he was quite clearly a 
Deist. The Catholic writer ignores entirely 
his mature work (published in 1830), 
Systeme analytique des connaissances posi 
tives de t homme, which (apart from the 
existence of God) is purely Positivist. 
" All knowledge that is not the real 
product of observation, or of consequences 
deduced from observation, is entirely 
groundless and illusory," he says (p. 84) ; 
and he expressly describes spiritual things 
as unknowable. The distinguished anthro 
pologist Quatrefages, in a careful and docu 
mented study of his views, says that he 
was "essentially Deistic " (Emules de 
Darwin, 1894, i, 12). D. Dec. 18, 1829. 

LAMB, Charles, essayist. B. Feb. 10, 
1775. Ed. Christ s Hospital School. An 
impediment in his speech prevented Lamb 
from going to the university, and he 
became a clerk. He was in the accoun 
tant s office at East India House for thirty- 
three years. His poems and other publi 
cations had little success until he and his 
sister wrote, for Mr. Godwin, Tales from 
Shakespeare. The Essays of Elia appeared 
in 1823, and to the 1879 and later editions 
is appended a reply to Southey, in which 
he says : " The last sect with which you 
can remember me to have made common 
profession were the Unitarians " (1879 ed., 
ii, 430). He had therefore abandoned 
Unitarianism, and he was not even a very 
firm Theist. E. V. Lucas quotes two 
letters of the year 1801, in one of which 
Lamb says that he is not an " enemy to all 
religion," while in the other he is com 
pletely Agnostic (Life of C. Lamb, 1905, 
pp. 210-11). D. Dec. 27, 1834. 

LAMB, William, second Viscount Mel- 


bourne, statesman. B. 1779. Ed. Eton, 
Cambridge (Trinity College), and Glasgow. 
He abandoned his early religious beliefs 
while studying law at Glasgow, as he inti 
mates in a letter to his mother (Lord 
Melbourne s Papers, 1889, pp. 28-9). He 
was admitted to the Bar in 1804, and to 
Parliament in 1805. In 1827 he became 
Chief Secretary for Ireland. Passing to 
the House of Lords in 1828, he took 
charge of the Home Office in 1830, and 
was Prime Minister from 1834 to 1841. 
Melbourne directed the early years of 
Queen Victoria with great conscientious 
ness. Greville [SEE] , who knew him 
intimately and often discussed religion 
with him, says, commenting on his death : 
He never succeeded in arriving at any 
fixed belief, or in anchoring himself on any 
system of religious belief " (Memoirs, vi, 
254). W. Allen, another intimate at 
Holland House, said that Melbourne had 
" a perfect conviction of unbelief "(Greville, 
iii, 331). Melbourne s Agnosticism was 
not a matter of indifference, for he was, as 
Greville shows, a keen student of theology 
all his life. D. Nov. 24, 1848. 

LAMENNAIS, Hugues Felicite Robert 

de, French writer. B. June 19, 1782. Ed. 
privately and at Saint Sulpice. A teacher 
of mathematics at Paris, Lamennais was 
very devout in his early years. He wrote 
several religious works, and was ordained 
priest in 1816. Two years later he was 
violently attacked by the orthodox for 
publishing his Essai sur I indifference en 
matiere de religion. In the ensuing contro 
versy he severely criticized the clergy and 
urged the reform of the Church. He was 
twice admonished by Eome, and he twice 
submitted ; but his Paroles d un croyant 
(1834) put him definitely outside the 
Church. He was a democratic Deist. 
The Catholic Encyclopedia says that 
" numerous attempts were made to bring 
him back to religion and repentance, but in 
vain. He died rejecting all religious minis 
tration." His funeral was, by his express 
direction, purely secular. D. Feb. 27, 1854. 
418 o 



LAMETTRIE, Julien Offray de, French 
philosopher. B. Dec. 23, 1709. Ed. Jesuit 
College, Caen, and Leyden University. At 
first a military surgeon, having refused to 
become a priest, he entered upon active 
service, and was severely wounded. Ob 
serving that his "soul" weakened with 
his body, he developed a Materialistic and 
Atheistic philosophy, which he embodied 
in his Histoire naturelle de I dme (1745). 
Ho was expelled from France, and went to 
Holland ; but his L homme-machine (1748) 
caused his expulsion from Holland, and 
he found a congenial home at the court of 
Frederick II. Lamettrie s works are of 
great ability, and the occasional scorn of 
them which one hears comes from people 
who have never seen them. D. Nov. 11, 

LA MOTHE LE YAYER, Francois de, 

French philosopher. B. 1588. He studied 
law, and was appointed Substitute General- 
Procurator to the Parlement. An educa 
tional work which he published recom 
mended him to Richelieu, who made him 
tutor to the royal princes. He was a 
member of the State Council and of the 
Academy. His Cinq dialogues faits a 
limitation des anciens (1671, under the 
pseudonym "Horatius Tubero") is Deistic, 
and some of his other works (collected 
edition, 14 vols., 1756-59) are remarkably 
liberal. D. 1672. 

LANDOR, Walter Savage, writer. B. 
Jan. 30, 1775. Ed. Rugby and Oxford 
(Trinity College). Landor followed no pro 
fession, and devoted himself to letters and 
learning. His early poems were esteemed, 
but had little circulation. In 1808 he 
assisted the Spaniards against the French. 
In 1814 his fortune was lost, and he went 
to live in France and Italy, writing his 
chief work, Imaginary Conversations (2 vols., 
1824), in Florence. A morose and eccentric 
man he is largely the model of " Boy- 
thorne" in Bleak House he held advanced 
ideas from his youth. He was very friendly 
with Holyoake, and very anti-clerical, 

though a Theist. In a letter to Mrs. Lynn 
Linton (Mrs. L. Linton, p. 123) Landor 
rejects the orthodox idea of a future life. 
D. Sep. 17, 1864. 

LANE, Ralph Norman Angell, econo 
mist ("Norman Angell"). B. Dec. 26, 
1874. Ed. St. Omer. His youth was 
spent in ranching, prospecting, and jour 
nalism in the United States. He returned 
to England in 1898, edited Galignani s 
Messenger from 1899 to 1903, and was 
manager of the Paris Daily Mail from 
1905 to 1914. Besides The Great Illusion 
(1910), which was translated into fifteen 
languages, he has written various works 
in the cause of arbitration. In 1913 he 
delivered the Conway Memorial Lecture 
(War and the Essential Realities], in which 
his Rationalism finds expression. He con 
cludes by endorsing Conway s words : 
" Entreat for peace not of deified thunder 
clouds, but of every man, woman, and child 
thou shalt meet." 

LANE, William, journalist. Lane s 
early life is obscure, but we find him a 
compositor, then reporter and journalist, 
in the United States from the age of 
fifteen. He migrated to Queensland, and 
became one of the leaders of the Brisbane 
Socialists, editing the Boomerang and the 
Worker. In 1893 he led a large party of 
Australians to Paraguay to found "New 
Australia," a Socialist colony which failed. 
Stewart Graham shows in his account of 
the adventure (Where Socialism Failed, 
1912, p. 168) that Lane was a Theist or 
Pantheist, and very hostile to Christianity. 

LANESSAN, Jean Marie Antoine de, 

M.D., French writer and statesman. B. 
July 13, 1843. He was a naval surgeon 
from 1863 to 1870, a Municipal Councillor 
at Paris from 1879 to 1881, and a member 
of the Chambro from 1881 to 1891 and 
from 1898 to 1906. In 1891 he was 
appointed Governor-General of Indo-China, 
and he was Minister of Marine from 1899 
to 1902, cordially supporting the chastise- 



ment of the Church. Lanessan is political 
editor of Le Siecle. He has the decora 
tions of the White Eagle, S.S. Maurice and 
Lazarus, the Northern Star, the Kising 
Sun, the Double Dragon, etc. He edited 
the works of Buffon, and has written many 
scientific and philosophical works. His 
Agnostic views may be read in his Morale 
des religions (1905), Morale naturelle (1908), 

LANFREY, Pierre, French historian. 
B. Oct. 26, 1828. Ed. Jesuit College, 
Chambery, College Bourbon, Paris, and 
Grenoble and Turin Universities. He was 
expelled from the Jesuit College for writing 
Voltairean skits on the Jesuits. He then 
.qualified for the law, but abandoned it for 
philosophy and history, publishing L Eglise 
et les philosophies, a vigorous defence of 
Eationalism, in 1855. His Histoire poli- 
.tique des papes (1860) is on the Index, and 
he published other Eationalist works. His 
chief work is his Histoire de Napoleon I 
(4 vols., 1867), a classic authority. In 
1871 he entered the Chambre and became 
Minister to Switzerland. In 1875 he was 
nominated Life Senator. D. Nov. 15, 1877. 

LANG, Andrew, poet and critic. B. 
Mar. 31, 1844. Ed. Edinburgh Academy, 
St. Andrew s, and Oxford (Balliol). He 
became a fellow of Merton, and undertook 
journalistic work on the Daily News and the 
Morning Post. An accomplished classical 
scholar, he translated Theocritus, Bion, 
and (with collaborators) Homer. Lang 
also obtained some distinction with his own 
verse, beginning with Ballads and Lyrics 
of Old France (1872). He was for many 
years literary editor of Longman s Magazine, 
and wrote a number of historical and 
literary works (History of Scotland, 1900, 
etc.). From the Eationalist point of view 
he is best known by his Custom and Myth 
(1884), Myth, Bitual, and Religion (1887), 
and Magic and Religion (1901). D. July 20 

LANG, Professor Arnold, Ph.D., Swiss 


zoologist. B. June 18, 1855. Ed. Geneva 
and Jena Universities. He began to teach 
at Berne University in 1876, and was 
assistant at the Naples Zoological Station 
from 1878 to 1885 and Eitter professor of 
phylogeny at Jena University in 1886. 
He has been professor of zoology and com 
parative anatomy at Zurich University, 
and Director of the Zoological Institute, 
since 1889. In 1898-99 he was Eector of 
the university. His works (chiefly his 
Text-Book of Comparative Anatomy, Eng. 
trans., 1891) are authoritative in his 
science. In a glowing tribute to his 
master, Professor Haeckel, he describes 
himself as " an Agnostic Freethinker " 
(Was Wir Ernst Haeckel Verdanken, 1914, 
ii, 265). 


LANGE, Professor Friedrich Albert, 

Swiss philosopher. B. Sep. 28, 1828. Ed. 
Zurich and Bonn Universities. From 1852 
to 1861 he taught, successively, at Cologne, 
Berne University, and Duisburg. In 1870 
he was appointed professor of inductive 
philosophy at Zurich University, and in 
1873 at Marburg. The most notable of 
his many philosophical and economic works 
is his History of Materialism (Eng. trans., 
3 vols., 1881), which is written from the 
Agnostic point of view (see, especially, the 
last chapter). The 1887 edition of his 
works has a biography by Cohen. D. 
Nov. 23, 1875. 

LANGLEY, Walter, E.I., painter. B. 
1852. Ed. Birmingham National School 
and School of Art. He was apprenticed 
to a lithographer, but he devoted his 
evenings to study, won a scholarship, and 
spent two years at South Kensington. He 
took up painting as his profession, and in 
1882 settled in Cornwall. Langley has 
won gold medals by his pictures at Paris 
and Chicago, and he has had the coveted 
honour of being invited to paint an auto 
graph portrait for the gallery of the Uffizi 



at Florence. He is a thorough Eationalist 
and a warm admirer of Mr. Bradlaugh. 

LANKESTER, Sir Edwin Ray, K.C.B., 
M.D., LL.D., Sc.D., F.E.S., zoologist. B. 
May 15, 1847. Ed. St. Paul s School, 
Cambridge (Downing Coll.), and Oxford 
(Christ s Church Coll.). He became a 
fellow and lecturer of Exeter College in 
1872, and was professor of zoology and 
comparative anatomy at London University 
College from 1874 to 1890, Linacre pro 
fessor of comparative anatomy at Oxford 
from 1891 to 1898, and Director of the 
National History Departments of the 
British Museum from 1898 to 1907. He 
has edited the Quarterly Journal of Micro 
scopic Science since 1869, and he edited 
the Oxford Treatise of Zoology (1900-1909). 
He was also Eegius professor of natural 
history at Edinburgh in 1882, and Fullerian 
professor of physiology and comparative 
anatomy at the Eoyal Institution 1898- 
1900. Sir Bay (knighted in 1907) was 
President of the British Association in 
1906. He holds the Eoyal Medal of the 
Eoyal Society, the Copley Medal, and the 
Darwin- Wallace medal ; and he is a mem 
ber or corresponding member of the Institut 
de France, the Petrograd, Bohemian, New 
York, and Philadelphia Academies of Science, 
the American Philosophical Society, the 
Accademia dei Lincei, etc. He is an 
Honorary Associate of the Eationalist 
Press Association. 

LANSON, Professor Gustave, D. es L., 

French historian. B. Aug. 5, 1857. Ed. 
Lycee d Orleans, Lycee Charlemagne, and 
Ecole Norm ale Superieure. After some 
years of teaching experience, Lanson was 
appointed professor of French literature 
at the University of Paris. His valuable 
Histoire nationale de la litterature Franqaise 
(1896) is useful to Eationalists, and he 
has edited Voltaire s Lettres philosophiqiies 
(1908). He is a Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honour, Vice-President of the Soci6te d His- 
toire Litt6raire de la France, and President 
of the Societedes Textes Frangais Modernes. 


Marie de, member of the French Direc- 
toire. B. Aug. 24, 1753. Ed. (by Ora- 
torian priests) Angers. Graduating in law 
and serving for some time in a procurator s, 
office, he adopted the ideas of Eousseau, 
and cultivated letters and philosophy. He 
accepted the Eevolution, and was in 1792. 
a member of the Convention ; but he 
resigned as a protest against the crimes- 
committed. In 1795 he returned to it, 
and was its last President. He passed to 
the Council of Ancients, and he was after 
wards a member of the Directoire. A 
severe and high-minded administrator, he 
zealously urged the substitution of Theo- 
philanthropy for Christianity. After Napo 
leon s seizure of power he refused office or 
pension. D. Mar. 27, 1824. 

LARKIN, Professor Edgar Lucien, 

American astronomer. B. Apr. 5, 1847. 
Ed. La Salle College (Illinois). He opened 
the New Windsor Observatory in 1880,. 
and directed it until 1888, when he passed 
to the Knox College Observatory. Since 
1900 he has been Director of the Lowe 
Observatory, Echo Mountain, California. 
He is a Fellow of the American Astro 
nomical Society and the Illinois Natural 
History Society, and a member of th& 
Astronomical Society of the Pacific and 
the Astronomical and Astrophysical Society 
of America. In an article in the Truth- 
seeker (reproduced in the Freethinker,. 
Oct. 21, 1906) Professor Larkin says : 
" Eeligion is totally useless in a universe 
based on law, and every creed and belief 
will be swept from the earth when men get- 
out of infantile stages of growth." 

LAROMIGUIERE, Professor Pierre, 

French philosopher. B. Nov. 3, 1756. 
Ed. College de Villefranche. Joining the- 
Congregation of the Christian Brothers, he 
taught philosophy in their schools from the^ 
age of seventeen until the Eevolution, when 
the Congregation was suppressed. He left, 
the Church and wrote a Projet d Elements 
de metaphysique (1793), which got him the. 



position of professor of philosophy at the 
Central School, and later at the Faculty of 
Letters. His chief work is Leqons dephilo- 
sophie sur les principes de V intelligence 
{2 vols., 1815-18), which is Theistic but 
empirical. Laromiguiere was " the father 
of university - philosophy in France " 
(Larousse). D. Aug. 12, 1837. 

LAROUSSE, Pierre Athanase, 

French writer. B. Oct. 23, 1817. Ed. 
"Versailles. After teaching for some years 
in the provinces and at Paris, he became, 
in 1851, a professor at the Institut Jouffret 
and joint-editor of the " Librairie Clas- 
sique," which includes many educational 
works from his pen. His chief work is the 
well-known Grand Dictionnaire Universel 
flu XIX siecle (15 vols., 1864-76), a 
thoroughly Eationalist work, inspired by 
Diderot s Dictionnaire Encyclopedique. 
Larousse edited several other dictionaries 
which are indispensable to the reader of 
French. D. Jan. 3, 1875. 

LARRA, Mariano Jose, Spanish writer. 
B. Mar. 24, 1809. Ed. France. In 1828 
he founded El Duende Satirico, and in 
1831 El Pobrecito Hablador, two satirical 
and anti-clerical periodicals which caused 
much agitation. The latter was suppressed. 
Later he edited La Revista Espanola and 
El Mundo, and wrote a number of plays 
and novels. His works were published in 
four volumes in 1843. Larra, who gener 
ally wrote under the pseudonym of 
" Figaro," used to say that " all the truths 
in the world would go in a cigarette-paper " 
(Larousse). His caustic and brilliant pen 
served liberalism in religion as well as in 
politics. D. Feb. 13, 1837. 

LARROQUE, Patrice, D. esL., French 
philosopher. B. Mar. 27, 1801. He 
taught the Humanities, and later philo 
sophy, at various schools until 1830, when 
he became Inspector at the Toulouse 
Academy. After 1836 he was rector of 
various provincial academies, but he was 
deposed in 1849 on account of his out- 

spoken Deism. Besides several philo 
sophical works he wrote De I esclavage 
chez les nations chretiennes (1857), one of 
the first works to disprove the claims of 
the Church in regard to slavery, and 
Examen critique des doctrines de la religion 
chretienne (2 vols., 1859). D. June 15, 1879 

LASSALLE, Ferdinand Johann Gott 
lieb, German Socialist leader. B. Apr. 11, 
1825. Ed. Leipzig Trade School, and 
Breslau and Berlin Universities. Son of 
a rich Jewish merchant named Lassal 
(which Ferdinand changed to Lassalle), he 
refused to enter business, and devoted 
himself to the study of philosophy and 
social questions. He took part in the 
Eevolution of 1848, and later helped Marx 
to found Social Democracy. He was an 
assiduous student of science and philo 
sophy, as one sees in his Die Philosophic 
Herakleitos (2 vols., 1858) and other 
learned works ; but in the sixties he turned 
entirely to advanced politics, and was 
several times prosecuted. He disdained 
all creeds. E. Bernstein has edited his 
Eeden und Schriften (4 vols., 1891-94). 
D. Aug. 31, 1864. 

LASTARRIA, Professor Jose Yic- 
torino, Chilean jurisconsult. B. 1812. 
His early life was devoted to journalism 
and letters, but in 1838 he was appointed 
professor of public law and letters at the 
Santiago National Institute. For some 
years he was one of the leading orators 
and most ardent reformers in the Chilean 
Parliament, having adopted the Positivist 
philosophy. His works on law and 
literature are important, and he contri 
buted to advanced Eationalist journals 
such as El Progreso. In 1863 he was 
appointed Plenipotentiary Minister to Peru, 
in 1864 to Brazil ; and he was Dean of the 
Faculty of Law and Political Science at 
the University of Chile. 

LATHAM, Robert Gordon, M.D., B.A., 
L.E.C.P., ethnologist and philologist. B. 
Mar. 24, 1812. Ed. Eton and Cambridge 



(King s College). After graduating, he 
went to the continent for a year to con 
tinue the study of philology, and in 1839 
he was appointed professor of the English 
language and literature at University 
College. His early work, The English 
Language (1841), was a great success, but 
he turned to the study of medicine and 
graduated at London University. He was 
appointed lecturer on forensic medicine at 
the Middlesex Hospital, and in 1844 he 
became assistant physician at that institu 
tion. In 1849 he abandoned medicine and 
devoted himself entirely to philology and 
ethnology. In 1852 he was put in charge 
of the ethnological department at the 
Crystal Palace. Latham, who was a 
prodigy of learning he was described as 
" one who for brilliance of intellect and 
range of knowledge had scarcely an equal 
among his contemporaries " (Diet. Nat. 
Biog.) was one of the first to disprove the 
supposed Asiatic origin of an Aryan race. 
Huxley tells us that Latham said that 
" the existence of the Established Church 
was to his mind one of the best evidences 
of the recency of the evolution of the 
human type from the Simian " (Life and 
Letters of T. H. Huxley, by L. Huxley, ii, 
383). D. Mar. 9, 1888. 

LAU, Theodor Ludwig, German writer. 
B. June 15, 1670. Ed. Konigsberg and 
Halle Universities. He became Minister 
of Finance to the Duke of Courland, then 
entered the service of the Elector Palatine. 
Adopting the Pantheistic philosophy of 
Spinoza, he published a small Latin work 
(Meditationes Theologicce-Physictz, 1717), 
for which he lost his position, and was 
charged with Atheism before the Con 
sistory of Konigsberg. D. Feb. 8, 1740. 

LAUBE, Heinrich, German dramatist. 
B. Sep. 18, 1806. Ed. Glogau Gymnasium, 
and Halle and Breslau Universities. He 
was for a time a private tutor, then an 
independent writer. In 1834 he was 
expelled from Saxony for his advanced 
opinions. In 1848 he sat in the National 

Assembly, and in the following year he 
became Art Director of the Vienna Court 
Theatre, which he raised to a high level. 
He passed to the Leipzig Town Theatre in 
1869, and to the Vienna City Theatre in 
1872. His novels, dramas, and literary 
works were published in sixteen volumes- 
(1875-82). D. Aug. 1, 1884. 

LAURENCE, James, writer. B. 1773. 
Ed. Eton and Gottingen. Laurence was 
a clever and versatile writer, acquainted 
with Goethe and Schiller and other dis 
tinguished Eationalists, and wrote a, 
heterodox novel, The Empire of the Nairs 
(1807), in German, French, and English. 
When Robert Owen denounced " all the 
religions of the world " at the London 
Tavern in 1817 Laurence applauded him 
in a poem (in The Etonian Out of Bounds). 
D. Sep. 26, 1841. 

LAURENT, Professor Fran$ois,D.esL. r 

Belgian writer. B. July 8, 1810. Ed. 
Louvain and Liege Universities. After 
serving for some years as a provincial 
solicitor, Laurent in 1834 entered the 
Ministry of Justice at Brussels, and in 
1835 he became professor of Civil Law afc 
the University of Ghent. As he was an 
outspoken Agnostic and a brilliant lecturer, 
the Clericals endeavoured to dislodge him, 
but he kept his chair. His views are ex 
pressed in his Van Espen (3 vols., 1860-63), 
Etudes sur I histoire de I humanite (16 vols., 
1860-70), Lettres sur les Jesuites (1865), 
etc. D. Feb. 11, 1887. 

LAURIE, James Stuart, educationist. 
B. 1832. Ed. Edinburgh, Berlin, and 
Bonn Universities. At first a tutor in 
Lord John Russell s family, he in 1854 
became an Inspector of Schools. He 
resigned in 1863, and discharged various 
educational commissions for the Govern 
ment, being at one time Director of Public 
Instruction in Ceylon. He also studied 
law, and was called to the Bar in 1871 ; 
but he devoted most of his time to literary 
and educational work. His Theistic views 



are given chiefly in Religion and Bigotry 
(1894) and Gospel Christianity versus 
Dogma (1900). D. July 13, 1904. 

LAYELEYE, Professor Emile de, 

Belgian economist. B. Apr. 5, 1822. 
Ed. Ghent University. In 1864 he 
received the chair of national economy at 
Liege University. He was elected member 
of the Institut in 1869, was associate 
editor of the Revue de Belgique, and wrote 
a large number of economic and sociological 
works which gave him a European reputa 
tion. Professor de Laveleye s nationalism 
is warmly expressed in his work, Le parti 
clerical en Belgique (1874). There are bio 
graphical studiesof him by Potvin (1892) and 
Goblet d Alviella (1895). D. Jan. 3, 1892. 

LAYISSE, Professor Ernest, French 
historian. B. Dec. 17, 1842. Ed. Ecole 
Normale Superieure. After spending a 
few years as secretary of the historian 
Duruy, then as teacher in provincial 
schools, Lavisse became in 1875 a professor 
at the Paris Normal School, and in 1888 
professor of modern history at the Univer 
sity. His chief work, written in collabora 
tion with Eambaud, is the standard His- 
toire g&nerale du IV siecle a nos jours 
(12 vols., 1893-1901). His Eationalistic 
agreement with Duruy is seen in his 
biography of that statesman and historian 
(Un ministre : V. Duruy). He is a Grand 
Officer of the Legion of Honour, a member 
of the Academy, and Director of the Ecole 
Normale Superieure. 

LAYROY, Professor Pytr LavroYich, 

Eussian mathematician. B. 1823. Ed. 
private tutors and St. Petersburg Artillery 
School. After two years in the army, he 
was in 1844 appointed professor of mathe 
matics at the Artillery School ; but he 
adopted revolutionary opinions, and was 
banished to the provinces. Escaping to 
Paris in 1870, he edited the revolutionary 
Uperyod in that city and at London. 
Lavrov wrote a number of able works, but 
his chief work (The Evolution and History 

of Human Thought] was left unfinished at 
his death. He was a close student of philo 
sophy, and an Agnostic. D. Feb. 5, 1900. 

LAW, Harriet, lecturer. B. 1832. Mrs. 
Law, a London lady, used to attend the 
Secular Hall for the purpose of refuting 
the speakers. Mr. Law, whom she married, 
shared her work, and both were converted 
to Secularism. For thirty years she was 
the only woman Secularist lecturer in 
England, and she had to endure much 
insult and even assault. In 1878 she edited 
the Secular Chronicle. D. 1897. 

LAWRENCE, Sir William, F.E.S., 
surgeon. B. July 16, 1783. Ed. private 
school and St. Bartholomew s Hospital. 
In 1805 he became a member of the Eoyal 
College of Surgeons, in 1813 assistant 
surgeon at St. Bartholomew s, in 1814 
surgeon to the London Eye Hospital, and 
in 1815 surgeon to the Eoyal Hospitals of 
Bridewell and Bethlehem and professor of 
anatomy at the Eoyal College of Surgeons. 
From 1824 to 1867 he was surgeon at 
St. Bartholomew s. He delivered the 
Hunterian Oration in 1834 and 1846, and 
was surgeon to the Queen, President of the 
Medical and Chirurgical Society (1831), 
and President of the Eoyal College of 
Surgeons (1846 and 1855). The lectures 
he delivered at the College of Surgeons in 
1817-18 (Lectures on Comparative Anatomy, 
Physiology, Zoology, and the Natural His 
tory of Man) were violently criticized by 
theologians, but in the later editions 
(9th edition in 1848) he retains the 
offending passages, plainly denies the 
inspiration of the Bible (pp. 168-69), 
warmly praises Voltaire, and professes 
only a Deistic belief in God and immor 
tality. D. July 5, 1867. 

LAYARD, The Right Honourable Sir 
Austen Henry, G.C.B., D.C.L., P.C., 
Assyriologist. B. Mar. 5, 1817. Ed. 
Eamsgate and Moulins. At the age of 
sixteen he was apprenticed to an uncle 
who was a solicitor, but in 1839 he aban 
doned the law, and went to the East. He 



joined the Turkish Embassy in 1842, and 
three years later the Ambassador employed 
him to explore the ruins of Nineveh (Nineveh 
and its Bemains, 1848). In 1849 he was 
appointed attache, but he continued his 
explorations, which are of prime importance 
in the history of archaeology. He entered 
Parliament in 1852, and was Under 
secretary for Foreign Affairs in 1853 and 
1861- 68. In 1868 he became Chief Com 
missioner of Works, and was called to the 
Privy Council. Later in the same year he 
went as Ambassador to Madrid, passing in 
1877 to Constantinople. In his Auto 
biography (1903) Sir Austen says that the 
discourses of W. J. Fox at South Place 
and the conversation of Crabb Eobinson 
" rapidly undermined the religious opinions 
in which I had been brought up, and I soon 
became as independent in my religious as 
I had already become in my political 
opinions " (i, 56). For this, he says, he 
" ever felt grateful " to Fox and Eobinson. 
In 1853 he wrote : " The best thing the 
Turks could do would be to turn all the 
Christians out of Jerusalem " (ii, 200). 
He scorned the identifications of " Holy 
Places." D. July 5, 1894. 

LAYTON, Henry, writer. B. 1622. 
Ed. Oxford. It is known only that he 
was the son of a Yorkshire gentleman, and 
that he entered Gray s Inn and was called 
to the Bar. Between 1692 and 1704 he 
published, anonymously, a series of quarto 
pamphlets (Search After Souls, etc.) in 
which he denied the immortality of the 
soul, and he brought upon himself a violent 
controversy. It is curious that he believed 
in the divinity and second coming of 
Christ. D. Oct. 18, 1705. 

LAZARUS, Professor Moritz, German 
philosopher. B. Sep. 15, 1824. From 
1860 to 1867 he was professor of philosophy 
at Berne, and in 1873 he became professor 
of philosophy at Berlin University. Pro 
fessor Lazarus presided at the first and 
second Israelitic Synods, but he was quite 
outside Judaism in the dogmatic sense (see 

Professor Lazarus als religioser Beformator, 
1887). He followed Herbart, wrote Das 
Leben der Seele (3 vols., 1883) and many 
other philosophical works, and was one of 
the founders of " Folk- Psychology." D. 
Apr. 13, 1903. 

LE BON, Gustave, M.D., French socio 
logist. B. 1841. Ed. Paris. Although 
he graduated in medicine, he devoted him 
self to writing on medical and anthropo 
logical subjects. One of his early works 
was crowned by the Academy of Sciences 
and the Anthropological Society, and he 
made a research mission to India on behalf 
of the Government. His chief works at 
this stage were L homme et les societes 
(2 vols., 1881), Les lois psychologiques de 
revolution des peuples (1894), and his well- 
known Psychology of the Croivd (Eng. 
trans., 1895). Later he devoted himself to 
physics, and attracted much attention by 
his thoroughly Rationalistic Evolution of 
Matter (Eng. trans., 1907) and Evolution 
of Force (Eng. trans., 1908). Le Bon is an 
Officer of the Legion of Honour, member of 
the Belgian Royal Academy of Sciences, etc. 
See E. Picard, G. Le Bonte son ceuvre (1909). 

LECKY, The Right Honourable 
William Edward Hartpole, O.M., M.A., 
LL.D., D.C.L., Litt.D., historian. B. 
Mar. 26, 1838. Ed. private schools, 
Cheltenham, and Trinity College, Dublin. 
In youth he took a warm interest in 
theology, and proposed to enter the 
ministry ; but his Beligious Tendencies of 
the Age (1860) shows that his views were 
early modified. His Declining Sense of the 
Miraculous (1863), later incorporated in 
his History of nationalism (2 vols., 1865), 
was completely Rationalistic, and its suc 
cess persuaded him to embark on a literary 
career at London. His History of European 
Morals (2 vols.) was published in 1869, 
and was an even greater literary success, 
though its tendency to flatter Christianity, 
in despite of the facts it records, gave 
offence to many Rationalists. The ten 
dency was due merely to policy, or a desire 



to conciliate ; not to any wavering of 
Lecky s Agnosticism. His chief work is 
his History of England in the Eighteenth 
Century (8 vols., 1878-90). Besides other 
slight works, including two volumes of 
poems, he wrote Democracy and Liberty 
(2 vols., 1896) and The Map of Life (1899). 
In 1892 he declined the appointment of 
Eegius professor of modern history at 
Oxford. He became M.P. for Dublin 
University in 1895, and Privy Councillor 
in 1897 ; and he received the Order of 
Merit in 1902. D. Oct. 22, 1903. 

LECONTE, Professor Joseph, M.D., 
American geologist. B. Feb. 26, 1823. 
Ed. Franklin College, New York College 
of Physicians and Surgeons, and Harvard 
University. He had already practised 
medicine for three years when he went to 
Harvard to study medicine under Agassiz. 
In 1851 he became professor of natural 
science at Oglethorpe, and in 1852 at 
Franklin College. He was professor of 
chemistry and geology at South Carolina 
College from 1857 to 1869, then professor 
of geology and natural history at California 
University until his death. His Elements 
of Geology (1878) is still used in America. 
Leconte is much quoted by some Christian 
writers, but he was not even an orthodox 
Theist. In his Evolution and its Relation 
to Religious Thought (1888) he accepts the 
title " Pantheist " (p. 284), discards revela 
tion and miracles, and says that there is 
"no test of truth but reason" (p. 310). 
His Autobiography was published in 1903. 
D. June 6, 1901. 

LECONTE DE LISLE, Charles Marie 
Rene, French poet. B. Oct. 23, 1818. He 
settled in Paris, after travel in the East, 
in 1846, adopted the views of Fourier, and 
took part in the 1848 Revolution. He 
afterwards abandoned Fourierism for a 
Pantheistic philosophy, and became one 
of the first French poets of the period. 
His Poemes antiques (1852), Poesies nou- 
velles (1854), and beautiful translations of 
Theocritus, Anacreon, Hesiod, Homer, and 

-ZEschylus made him famous, and opened 
the doors of the Academy. In his Poemes 
barbares (1862) he repeatedly rejects immor 
tality (" Divine mort, ou tout rentre et 
s efface," etc.) and a personal God. Mr. 
Robertson describes him as " one of the 
most convinced and aggressive freethinkers 
of the century." D. July 17, 1894. 

LE DANTEC, Professor Felix Alex- 
andre, French biologist. B. 1869. Ed. 
Paris (under Pasteur and Metchnikoff). 
After teaching for some years at Lyons, he 
was appointed professor of general biology 
at the Sorbonne. During the War he wore 
himself out in the hospitals and brought 
on a fatal illness. Le Dantec was a brilliant 
and stimulating writer on biology, though 
only one of his works (The Nature and 
Origin of Life, 1907) appeared in English. 
He had " a passion for veracity " and a 
strong repugnance to " superstitious senti- 
mentalism, metaphysical verbiage, and 
intellectual hypocrisy " (Nature, Aug. 16, 
1917). He was an Agnostic, accepting 
only " the mysterious and universal agent 
which we call energy " (Atheisme, 1906). 
D. June 6, 1917. 

LEE, Charles, American commander. 

B. 1731. Ed. Bury St. Edmunds Grammar 
School, and Switzerland. Son of Major- 
General Lee of the British army, he adopted 
his father s profession, served in America 
and Portugal, and reached the rank of 
major. In 1764 he passed to the Polish 
army, and in 1773 settled in America. He 
was a major-general in the American army 
in the War of Independence, and in 1776 
he was second in command to Washington. 
General Lee was a Deist (see Memoir of 

C. Lee, appended to The Correspondence of 
Sir T. Hanmer, 1838, pp. 475-78). D. 
Oct. 2, 1782. 

" LEE, Yernon." See PAGET, VIOLET. 

LEFEYRE, Andre, French poet. B. 
Nov. 9, 1834. Ed. Ecole de Chartres. He 
entered the Imperial Archives, but at an 



early age attracted attention by his poetry. 
In 1857 he became one of the editors of 
the Magasin pittoresque, and he was later 
on the editorial staff of the Revue de 
V instruction publique and the Revue des 
Deux Mondes. He translated Lucretius 
and Vergil s Bucolics, edited Voltaire and 
Diderot, and published several historical 
works and volumes of verse (La flilte de 
Pan, 1861 ; La lyre intime, 1864, etc.). 
Lefevre, a zealous Eationalist, contributed 
to the Eationalist periodicals La libre 
pensde and La pensee nouvelle, and wrote 
La renaissance du materialisme (1881) and 
La religion (1891). 

LE GALLIENNE, Richard, poet. B. 
Jan. 20, 1866. Ed. Liverpool College. 
After seven years in the office of a chartered 
accountant, and a short period as secretary 
to Wilson Barrett, he turned to letters 
and journalism, beginning with My Lady s 
Sbnncts (1887). In 1891 he became literary 
critic of the Star. He has edited Omar 
Khayyam and other works, and written 
many volumes of verse and literary criti 
cism. His views on religion are fully given 
in his Religion of a Literary Man (1893). 

Those who want to believe in a future 
life may do so," he concedes (p. 54). He 
thinks that " organized Christianity has 
probably done more to retard the ideals 
that were its Founder s than any other 
agency in the world " (p. 61), and that 
" soon, maybe, we shall need no Churches." 
See also his If I Were God (1897). 

LEIDY, Professor Joseph, M.D., LL.D., 
American biologist. B. Sep. 9, 1823. Ed. 
Pennsylvania University. In 1844 he was 
appointed assistant in E. Hare s chemical 
laboratory, in 1846 demonstrator of anatomy 
in Franklin College, in 1847 prosector to 
the professor of anatomy at Pennsylvania 
University, in 1852 professor of anatomy 
at the same, in 1871 professor of natural 
history at Swarthmore College, and in 1884 
Director of the Department of Biology at 
Pennsylvania University. Leidy held the 
Lyell Medal of the London Geological 


Society, and was a member of the Ameri 
can Academy of Sciences and many other 
learned bodies. He published more than 
800 papers, and many volumes on biology 
and palaeontology. E. A. Proctor quotes 
him in Knowledge (Oct. 1, 1888, p. 281) as 
declaring that the facts of science make it 
difficult to believe in personal immortality. 
Sir William Osier (who thinks Leidy " one 
of the greatest naturalists of America ") 
describes him as Agnostic. " I have often 
heard him say," he tells us, " that the 
question of a future state had long ceased 
to interest him " (Science and Immortality, 
p. 41). D. Apr. 30, 1891. 

LEIGHTON, Gerald, M.D., F.E.S.E., 
L.E.C.P., pathologist. B. Dec. 12, 1868. 
Ed. Nelson (N.Z.) College, Manchester 
Grammar School, and Edinburgh Univer 
sity. After a few years in medical practice, 
he devoted himself to zoology and com 
parative pathology. In 1902 he was 
appointed professor of pathology at the 
Edinburgh Eoyal Veterinary College, and 
in the same year he founded The Field 
Naturalist s Quarterly. Until 1915, when 
he undertook war work, he was Inspector 
of Abattoirs and Dairies under the Scottish 
Local Government Board. He has written 
a number of works on zoology and patho 
logy. In The Greatest Lie (1908) he 
warmly expresses his dissent from the 
creeds, though he pleads for " a scientific 
Christianity." His system is a blend of a- 
liberal Theism with an admiration of the 
ethic of Christ. He thinks that " the 
modern religious mind, which is at the 
same time scientific, has the opportunity 
of reaching an infinitely grander conception 
of the universe than was ever possible 
before " (p. 92), and he holds that the 
nature of the "soul" is unknowable. 

LELAND, Charles Godfrey ("Hans 
Breitmann "), American humorist. B. 
Aug. 15, 1824. Ed. Princeton, Heidelberg, 
Munich, and Paris Universities. Leland 
was one of the American delegates who 
congratulated Paris on the Eevolution of 



1848, and he joined in the struggle at 
the barricades. He studied law, and was 
admitted to the American Bar in 1851 ; 
but he preferred to devote himself to letters 
and journalism. His Hans Breitmann s 
Barty (1856) made him known throughout 
America as one of the leading humorists. 
The Hans Breitmann Ballads were ulti 
mately published in five volumes (1867-70). 
He translated Heine, wrote a life of Lincoln 
(1879), published several volumes of serious 
verse, and was a remarkably good linguist 
and man of wide culture. In his Memoirs 
(2 vols., 1893) he frequently expends his 
wit on Christianity. He pokes fun at " the 
grandeur of monotheistic trinitarianism " 
(ii, 189), and is occasionally very disdainful 
(ii, 272-73). His own frame of mind he 
describes as " a warring of superstitious 
feelings and scientific convictions " (ii, 200). 
D. Mar. 20, 1903. 

LENBACH, Franz von, German painter. 
B. Dec. 13, 1836. Ed. Augsburg, and 
Munich Academy. In 1857 he went as a 
pupil with Piloty to Rome, and from 1860 
he taught in the Weimar Art School for a 
few years. Lenbach was especially devoted 
to portrait painting, under the inspiration 
of the models of Rembrandt and Velasquez; 
and the fineness of his colouring and his 
power of portraying character put him at 
the head of his branch of art in Germany. 
He was ennobled by the Prince Regent of 
Bavaria, and had many gold medals and 
orders. One of the best of his portraits is 
that of Professor Haeckel, with whom he 
agreed. D. May 5, 1904. 

LEON, Sir Herbert Samuel, first 
Baronet, third Chairman of the Rationalist 
Press Association. B. Feb. 11, 1850. Ed. 
privately. Sir Herbert has been occupied 
throughout life with financial business, and 
occupies a high position in the financial 
world. He was M.P. for the Northern 
Division of Buckinghamshire from 1891 to 
1895, and is an Alderman of the Bucks 
County Council and Chairman of the 
Finance Committee. He was created 

Baronet in 1911. He has retired from 
business, and is a zealous and generous 
supporter of the cause of enlightenment. 

LEON, Professor Nicola, Ph.D., 

Rumanian parasitologist. B. 1864. Ed. 
Jassy and Jena Universities. Leon is pro 
fessor of parasitology at Jassy University, 
and one of the most distinguished Ration 
alists of Rumania. He is a member of 
the English Zoological Society, the Paris 
Entomological Society, and other learned 
bodies, and is a high authority on insects 
and parasites. In Was Wir Ernst Haeckel 
Verdanken (1914, ii, 73) he pays one of the 
highest tributes to his old master, and 
rejoices that he has " freed millions of men 
from the chains of philosophic and theo 
logical mysticism." Professor Leon was 
a member of the Commission for the 
Reform of Rumanian Schools in 1899, and 
he boasts that he " introduced the study 
of Darwinism and Haeckelism " into the 
schools of his country. 

LEOPARDI, Count Giacomo, Italian 
poet. B. June 29, 1798. Leopardi was so 
fascinated in boyhood by classical litera 
ture that he had read nearly the whole 
of the Latin and Greek writers before he 
was seventeen. Overwork and the painful 
spectacle of Papal Italy in comparison with 
the splendour of pagan Rome brought on a 
mood of melancholy which appears in his 
earliest poetry (Ode to Italy, 1818). In 
1822 Niebuhr tried to attract him to the 
new Berlin University, but he declined. 
His orthodox father was very hostile to 
his studies and sentiments, which increased 
his pessimism, and in 1825 he left home 
and devoted himself to letters. He colla 
borated on the Florence Antologia, and 
edited the works of Petrarch. Although 
he published only about forty poems, he is 
counted one of Italy s great poets. There 
have been innumerable studies of Leopardi 
and many editions of his works. In the last 
year of his life he denied, in a letter, that his 
pessimistic philosophy was due to suffering. 
He refused to seek consolation " in frivolous 



hopes of a pretended future felicity " (quoted 
in Sainte Beuve s Portraits Intimes, vol. iii). 
D. June 14, 1837. 

LEPINE, Louis Jean Baptiste, French 
statesman. B. Aug. 6, 1846. Ed. Lycee 
de Lyon and Faculte de Droit, Paris. He 
served in the war of 1870-1 and won the 
Military Medal. At the close of the war 
he completed his legal studies and practised 
for four years at the Lyons bar. From 
1877 onward he was Sub-Prefect or Prefect 
of various departments until 1893, when 
he became Prefect of Police. In 1897 he 
was Governor-General of Algeria, and in 
the following year he was admitted to the 
State Council. He returned to the Pre 
fecture of Police in 1899. M. Lepine, who 
wears the Grand Cross of the Legion of 
Honour, loyally supported the measures 
against the French Church. 

LERDO DE TEJADA, Sebastian, Pre 
sident of the Eepublic of Mexico. B. 
Apr. 25, 1827. Ed. Puebla Eoman Catholic 
Seminary and Mexico City. He joined the 
Liberals at an early date, while practising 
his profession of lawyer. In 1855 he was 
admitted to the Supreme Court, in 1857 
he was Minister for Foreign Affairs, in 
1858 President of Congress, and in 1863 
again Minister for Foreign Affairs. Lerdo 
was a staunch supporter of the anti-clerical 
Juarez, and shared his fortunes when he 
was driven from power. He afterwards 
became President of the Supreme Court of 
Mexico, and from 1872 to 1876 he was 
President of the Eepublic, to the great 
chagrin of the clergy. D. Apr., 1889. 

LERMINA, Jules, French writer. B. 
Mar. 27, 1839. Ed. Lycee Saint Louis, 
Paris. He entered a bank, and the banker- 
owner of the Petit Journal found him a 
place on that paper. Later he became 
editor of the Soleil. Lermina was so 
fierce a critic of the Second Empire that 
he was imprisoned. The Eevolution of 
1870 released him, and he afterwards 
devoted himself to letters. Among his 

works is a useful and spiritedly anti 
clerical Dictionnaire Universel (1884). He 
helped to found, and was perpetual secre 
tary of, the International Literary and 
Artistic Association. 




LERMONTOY, Mikhail Jurgevich, 

Eussian poet. B. Oct. 15, 1814. Ed. 
private tutors, University College for 
Nobles, Moscow, and Military Academy, 
Petrograd. He held a commission in the 
army, and in 1837 he was sent to the 
Caucasus for writing a rebellious poem on 
the death of Pushkin. He was pardoned 
in the following year, but exiled again until 
1840 ; and he wrote some of his finest work 
in exile. He has been called " the Eussian 
Byron," and was not less advanced in 
religion than in politics (see the English 
translation of his poem The Demon). 
D. July 27, 1841. 

LEROUX, Pierre, French philosophical 
writer. B. Apr. 6, 1797. He was put to 
printing as a boy, and worked his way 
into journalism. Joining the Saint-Simo- 
nians, he founded the Globe, which became 
their organ. Leroux quitted the sect and 
founded a distinct Socialist school. He 
was associate editor of the Encyclopedic 
Nouvelle (8 vols., 1841), and wrote a 
number of social works. In his chief 
exposition of his system (De I hiimanite, 
2 vols., 1840) he contends that all religion 
is summed up in the word " humanity," 
but he introduces a good deal of mysticism. 
In 1841 he co-operated with George Sand 
in founding the Revue Independante, and 
after the Eevolution of 1848 he was one of 
the chief orators of the Eadicals in the 
Legislative Assembly. He was proscribed 
in 1852, and lived in exile until 1870. His 
mysticism was generally abandoned in his 
later years. D. Apr. 12, 1871. 


Spanish politician. B. 1864. For nearly 




a quarter of a century Lerroux has con 
ducted a spirited fight for Eepublicanism, 
Socialism, and Eationalism in Spain. He 
has edited nearly every advanced organ in 
Spain, and is now editor and owner of 
El Progreso. He has thrice represented 
Barcelona in the Cortes, and has been con 
demned no less than three hundred times 
for his press utterances. Thirty years in 
prison and several years of exile represent 
the sentences passed on this irrepressible 
warrior against reaction. 

LESSING, Gotthold Ephraim, German 
dramatist and critic. B. Jan. 22, 1729. 
Ed. Leipzig University. Lessing was 
destined for the Church, but he deserted 
theology for the study of medicine and 
philosophy. In 1750 he again, under 
pressure from his father, a pastor, took up 
theology, but he was now far advanced in 
Eationalism, and he turned to journalism 
and letters. He opened his dramatic 
career with Miss Sara Sampson in 1755 ; 
and his Minna von Barnhelm (1767) is still 
regarded by many as the greatest of 
German comedies. In 1760 he was 
admitted to the Berlin Academy. His 
Laokoon (1766) is a magnificent study in 
sesthetics ; and his best-known work, 
Nathan der Weise (1779), embodies his 
ripe Eationalism. From 1769 to 1775 he 
was in charge of the Wolfenbiittel Library, 
and he there edited the Wolfenbiittel Frag 
ments, which opened the era of Biblical 
criticism. His timid and wavering utter 
ances often suit the orthodox, but (as 
Eobertson shows in a lengthy analysis in 
his Short History of Freethought, ii, 323-26) 
he took a purely naturalist view of Chris 
tianity, and was " from first to last a free 
thinker in the sense that he never admitted 
any principle of authority." D. Feb. 15, 

LETOURNEAU, Professor Charles 
Jean Marie, anthropologist. B. 1831. 
Letourneau, who was professor of the 
history of civilizations at the Parisian 
School of Anthropology and was in 1886 

President of the Anthropological Society, 
followed the principle of evolution with 
great learning and thoroughness through 
biology and sociology. Each of his works 
(L evohition de la morale, 1886; L Evolution 
dumariage, 1888; L evolution de I esclavage, 
1895, etc.) is valuable, and together they 
form a library of modern culture (La 
Bibliotheque Anthropologique). His works 
are very numerous and varied. He was a 
Materialist. " We know that there is 
nothing in the whole universe except active 
matter," he held. He translated Haeckel 
and Biichner into French. D. 1902. 

LEUBA, Professor James Henry, 

Ph.D., American psychologist. B. Apr. 9, 
1868. Ed. Neuchatel (Switz.), Clark 
University (U.S.), and Leipzig, Halle, 
Heidelberg, and Paris Universities. He 
settled in America in 1887, and in 1889 he 
was appointed professor of psychology at 
Bryn Mawr College, where he still is. 
He belongs to the American Psychological 
Association, the College of Teachers of 
Education, and other societies. His chief 
interest is the psychology of religion, on 
which he is a high authority (The Psycho 
logical Origin and the Nature of Religion, 
1909 ; A Psychological Study of Religion, 
1912 ; The Beliefs in God and Immortality, 
1916). In the preface to his Psychological 
Study of Religion he defines himself as an 
"empirical idealist." He thinks that 
belief in a personal God seems no longer 
possible" (p. 125), he finds "little that is 
acceptable in the Eoman Catholic and the 
Protestant dogmas " (p. 275), and he believes 
that it is no longer the consciousness of 
God, but the consciousness of Man, that 
is the power making for righteousness " 
(p. 311). He pleads for religion rather on 
the lines of a new Positivism. 

LEYALLOIS, Jules, French writer. 
B, May 18, 1829. He undertook journa 
listic work (on L Opinion, etc.) in Paris in 
1850, and five years later he became secre 
tary to Sainte Beuve. He completed 
Michelet s History, and wrote a number of 



works, of which the Corneille inconnu 
(1876) was crowned by the Academy. 
Levallois was himself a Theist, but he 
gives frank testimony to the Agnosticism 
of Sainte Beuve .whose life he wrote (1872). 
D. Sep., 1903. 

LEYY-BRUHL, Professor Lucien, 

French writer. B. Apr. 10, 1857. Ed. 
Lycee Charlemagne and Ecole Normale 
Superieure, Paris. After teaching for some 
years in various colleges, he was in 1895 
appointed lecturer at the Ecole Normale 
Superieure, and in 1899 professor of litera 
ture at the Sorbonne and lecturer at the 
Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques. He 
edited the letters of J. S. Mill to Comte 
(1899), and there are English translations 
of his valuable History of Modern Philo 
sophy in France (1899) and Philosophy of 
Auguste Comte (1903). Professor Levy- 
Bruhl is not a Positivist, but Mr. F. 
Harrison says that " no one abroad or at 
home has so truly grasped and assimilated 
Comte s ideas " as he has done. 

LEWES, George Henry, philosophical 
writer. B. 1817. Ed. private schools. 
Lewes was a grandson of the actor, C. L. 
Lewes. He wrote a play at the age of 
sixteen, and in later years appeared several 
times on the stage. He was, however, 
fascinated by philosophy in his youth. He 
was a clerk in London, and he belonged to 
a small club which often discussed philo 
sophy. Before he was twenty years old 
he projected a work on philosophy physio 
logically interpreted. From 1840 onward 
he supported himself by his pen, and had 
considerable repute as a literary critic. 
His Biographical History of Philosophy 
(2 vols., 1845-46) is Comtist to the extent 
of slighting metaphysics and theology, but 
he was never a thorough Positivist. He 
was literary editor of the Leader in 1850, 
and a familiar figure in the brilliant 
Eationalist group of the time. In 1854 
he sacrificed his position by leaving an 
uncongenial wife and going with Miss 
Evans (" George Eliot ") to Germany. He 

continued to work hard for the support 
and proper education of his children. In 
Germany he wrote his Life of Goethe (1855). 
On his return to England he made a 
severe study of physiology and zoology, 
and he was first editor of the Fortnightly 
Revietv (1865). His mingled interest in 
philosophy and physiology led at last to 
the production of his chief work, Problems 
of Life and Mind (4 vols., 1873-79), in which 
he may be described as Agnostic with a 
leaning to Materialism. Lewes was a 
brilliant scholar, a generous and fine- 
minded man, and a chivalrous controver 
sialist. D. Nov. 28, 1878. 

LEYDS, Willem Johannes, LL.D., 

South African statesman. B. (Java) 1857. 
Ed. Amsterdam University. He went to 
South Africa and entered the service of 
the Eepublic. In 1880 he became Secre 
tary of State, in 1884 Attorney General, 
in 1889 Justice of Peace for the whole 
Eepublic, and again Secretary of State in 
1893. In 1897 he came to Europe as 
representative of the Transvaal. Dr. Loyds 
has written a number of works on law and 
on South African history. 

LICHTENBERGER, Professor Henri, 

French writer. B. (in Alsace) Mar. 12, 
1864. Ed. Strassburg Gymnasium, Lycees 
Condorcet and Louis le Grand, and 
Paris and Strassburg Universities. He 
has been professor of the German language 
and literature at Paris University since 
1887, and he follows the Eationalism of 
Nietzsche (La philosophic de Nietzsche, 
1898). He has written also on Heine and 
on Wagner, as well as on German ques 

LICK, James, American philanthropist. 
B. Aug. 22, 1796. Lick had a poor educa 
tion, but he came to possess a prosperous 
piano-manufacturing business in New 
York, France, and South America. In 
1847 he settled in San Francisco and 
invested all his money in real estate, 
which made him in the course of time one 



of the richest men in the west. He gave 
away very large sums to charity (including 
a generous donation to the Paine Memorial 
Hall), and two years before he died he 
drew up a will in which he left three 
million dollars (more than 600,000) for 
charitable purposes. Out of a bequest to 
the California University of 125,000 was 
built the great Lick Observatory, with the 
largest telescope in the world. He left 
110,000 to found and endow the California 
School of Mechanical Arts, 30,000 for free 
baths, 20,000 for a home for aged ladies, 
and so on. Few Christians of like fortune 
have equalled the generosity of this Mate 
rialist, as Lick was. Putnam includes him 
in his history of American Eationalism 
(Four Hundred Years of Freethought, pp. 
762-64). D. Oct. I, 1876. 

LIEBKNECHT, Wilhelm, German 
Socialist. B. Mar. 29, 1826. Ed. Giessen, 
Berlin, and Marburg Universities. Like 
so many of the continental Socialist leaders, 
Liebknecht was the reverse of the uncul 
tured worker that superficial people imagine. 
He was a keen and informed student of 
philosophy and philology, but he was won 
by the advanced ideas of his time, and took 
part in the Eevolution of 1848. He was 
imprisoned, and then fled to England, 
where he remained until 1862. In 1865 
he was forced to leave Prussia, and at 
Leipzig he founded and conducted the 
DemoJcratische Wochenblatt. He was again 
imprisoned for two years (1872). From 
1874 until he died he was a Socialist 
leader in the Eeichstag, and shared with 
Bebel the editing of Vorwarts. Like Bebel, 
he rejected all religion. D. Aug. 6, 1900. 

LILIENFELD, Paul von, Eussian 
sociologist. B. Jan. 29, 1829. Ed. Petro- 
grad University. He entered the service 
of the Ministry of Justice, and was for 
many years a Justice of the Peace. In 
1867 he was appointed Vice-Governor of 
Petrograd. In 1885 he became Governor 
of Courland and Senator. Lilienfeld had 
much cultural distinction as well as high 

political honours. He was one of the 
leaders of " organistic " sociology and a 
powerful writer. O. Henne am Ehyn 
shows in his biography (Paul von Lilienfeld, 
1892) that he was a Theist, with an ethical 
regard for Christianity ; but he rejected its 
supernatural claims, and did not admit 
personal immortality. D. 1903. 

LIMA, Sebastiao de Magalhaes, 

Portuguese reformer. B. (Eio de Janeiro) 
May 30, 1850. Ed. Coimbra University. 
While he was still at the University 
Magalhaes Lima published two Eationalist 
books (Priests and Kings and The Pope 
Before the World) which gave great offence, 
and he has remained to this day the out 
standing figure in Portuguese Eationalism. 
He is an enthusiastic Pacifist (0 livro da 
Paz, 1896) as well as a Eepublican and 
Eationalist leader ; and his journal, Van- 
guarda, a Lisbon daily, was often suspended 
before the Eevolution. The ripeness of the 
country for disestablishment at the time of 
the Eevolution was mainly due to his 
splendid efforts during long years of 

LINCOLN, Abraham, sixteenth Presi 
dent of the United States. B. Feb. 12, 
1809. Lincoln had very little schooling, 
and was all his youth engaged in manual 
labour, but he read much. His reading 
included Volney and Paine, and he became 
an advanced Eationalist and wrote a strong 
essay against religion, which is said to have 
been burned. In 1833 he became post 
master at New Salem, where he entered 
politics, and was returned to Congress. He 
studied law, was licensed as attorney in 
1837, and practised at Springfield. He 
retired from Congress in 1848, and sot up a 
law business with W. H. Herndon ; but he 
was again elected to Congress in 1854. He 
was elected President of the Eepublic in 
1860, and his strong and sagacious lead 
saved the Union. The veneration for the 
memory of Lincoln in America is so great 
that repeated attempts have been made to 
represent him as a Christian ; but there is 



overwhelming evidence that he was never 
more than a Theist. His life-long friend 
and partner, Herndon, is emphatic in this 
sense, and quotes the explicit confirmation 
of Mrs. Lincoln and others (Abraham 
Lincoln, 1892 edition, ii, 145-56). Colonel 
Ward Hill Lamon, another intimate friend, 
whose testimony was challenged by H. W. 
Beecher, strongly repeated in the next 
edition of his book : " He was not a 
Christian " (Eecollections of Abraham 
Lincoln, Appendix to 1911 edition, p. 335). 
The supposed witnesses to the contrary 
are neither so authoritative nor so clear. 
General C. H. T. Collis, who tried to 
defend Lincoln s orthodoxy against Inger- 
soll, could only say that Lincoln in later 
years attended a Presbyterian church in 
Philadelphia and used Theistic language 
(The Religion of A. Lincoln, 1900). He 
could not meet Ingersoll s challenge to 
prove that Lincoln believed in the divinity 
of Christ or in revelation ; and no one has 
ever claimed that Lincoln was baptized or 
a regular member of any Church. H. B. 
Eankin, another orthodox claimant, relies 
mainly on his (Rankin s) mother s verbal 
report of a conversation with Lincoln ; yet 
even as it stands it is only an appreciation 
of the ethical side of Christianity (Personal 
Recollections of A. Lincoln). All the evi 
dence is collected, and Lincoln s Ration 
alism proved, in J. E. Remsburg s A. Lin 
coln : Was He a Christian ? (1893) and 
Six Historic Americans. The truth seems 
to be well expressed in C. G. Leland s 
A. Lincoln (1879), that "as he grew older 
his intensely melancholy and emotional 
temperament inclined him towards reliance 
on an unseen Power and belief in a future 
state " (p. 56), and that prudent regard for 
his position induced him to use rather 
exaggerated expressions of his Theism in 
his speeches. He was shot by an assassin 
and died on the following day, Apr. 15, 

LINDH, Anders Theodor, Finnish 
poet. B. Jan. 13, 1833. Ed. Helsingfors 
University. He won attention by a volume 


of admirable lyrics (Dikter) in 1862, and 
two years later he opened a successful 
dramatic career with Konung Birger och 
hans broder. He lives in Sweden, and 
writes in Swedish, into which he has 
translated many German, Danish, English, 
French, and Italian works. He is a 
member of the Town Council of Borga, 
and an outspoken Rationalist. 



See LUND- 

LINDNER, Ernst Otto Timotheus, 

German writer. B. Nov. 28, 1820. Ed. 
Leipzig University. After graduating, he 
tried to secure an academic career, but 
" his open unbelief in religious matters 
caused so much annoyance in high 
quarters " (Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie) 
that he had to be content with private 
tutorship. He turned eventually to 
journalism, and became editor of the 
Vossische Zeitung. A man of wide accom 
plishments, both in art and philosophy, he 
wrote a number of works on music and on 
Schopenhauer, of whom he was a great 
friend. D. Aug. 7, 1867. 

LINTON, Eliza Lynn, novelist. B. 
Feb. 10, 1822. In 1845 she left her home 
in Keswick for London, and opened a 
literary career. Her early historical novels 
were not very successful, and she acted as 
Paris correspondent of London newspapers 
(1851-54). In 1858 Miss Lynn married 
W. J. Linton, but their characters were 
so ill assorted that they soon separated, 
retaining a marked affection for each other 
throughout life. The differences are indi 
cated in her Autobiography of Christopher 
KirUand (1885). Mrs. Linton s high repu 
tation as a novelist began in 1872 with her 
True History of Joshua Davidson, a Ration 
alist novel ; as is also her Under Which 
Lord ? (1879). G. S. Layard, her bio 
grapher, amply tells of her Agnosticism 
(Mrs. Lynn Linton : Her Life, Letters, and 
Opinions, 1901, pp. 66, 155-56, etc.). He 
includes a statement by Mr. Benn, who 



knew her well, that she " professed Agnos 
ticism with complete sincerity " (p. 202). 
In her earlier years she had helieved in a 
Providence, but this she entirely aban 
doned, and she was severe against Chris 
tianity. In the year before her death she 
wrote a fine Agnostic letter to a clergyman : 
" I see no light behind that terrible curtain. 
I do not think one religion better than 
another, and I think the Christian [reli 
gion] has brought far more misery, crime, 
and suffering, far more tyranny and evil, 
than any other " (p. 367). She was a 
frequent contributor to the Agnostic 
Annual. D. July 14, 1898. 

LINTON, William James, engraver. 
B. Dec. 7, 1812. Ed. private school. At 
the age of sixteen he was apprenticed to 
wood-engraving, and he won the repute of 
being one of the most skilful engravers in 
London. In 1845 he edited The Illumin 
ated Magazine. Linton was, however, 
early kindled with an enthusiasm for 
advanced causes, and he worked with 
Hetberington and Watson and other 
Rationalists and humanitarians. For 
some years he printed and published The 
English Republic. In 1855 he lost his first 
wife, and in 1858 he married Eliza Lynn. 
[See preceding paragraph.] He migrated 
to the United States in 1866. He wrote 
many political articles, some fine poems, 
a Life of J. Watson (1879), and Memories 
(1895). Mrs. Lynn Linton tells us that 
" his theological creed was a large loose 
jumble of Christianity and Pantheism " (in 
Layard s Mrs. Lynn Linton, p. 95). He 
was, in fact, a Pantheist with an ethical 
esteem of Christianity. He was a stern 
seeker of justice, a passionate friend of every 
oppressed class or nation. D. Dec. 30, 1897. 

LIPPERT, Julius, Austrian ethnologist. 
B. Apr. 12, 1839. Ed. Prague University. 
He entered the monastic order of the Bene 
dictines at Prague, but abandoned it and 
studied history. In 1868 he was appointed 
Director of the Budweis Communal School, 
and he founded a League for the Dissemina- 

tion of Useful Knowledge in Bohemia. In 
1874 he was elected to the Bohemian 
Parliament. The Catholics unseated him, 
but he returned later, and eventually sat in 
the Reichsrath. Lippert, whose many 
works on ethnology are important, has 
done much for the Rationalist enlighten 
ment of Bohemia. His Christenthiim, 
Volksglaube, und Volksbrauch (1882) and 
Allgemeine Geschichte des Priesterthums 
(2 vols., 1883-84) embody his Rationalism. 
His chief work is Kulturgeschichte der 
Menschheit (2 vols., 1886-87). 

LIPPS, Professor Theodor, Ph.D., 

ffisthetist. B. July 27, 1851. Ed. Erlan- 
gen, Tubingen, Utrecht, and Bonn Uni 
versities. He became professor at Bonn in 
1884, at Breslau in 1890, at Munich in 
1894 ; and he is now at the Royal 
Bavarian Academy. Professor Lipps, who 
shows the influence of Hume (whose 
Treatise on Human Nature he edited in the 
German in 1895) and Kant, is a Pantheist, 
and believes in " a divine world-I " or 
world-spirit. He has written important 
works on aesthetics and psychology (Grund- 
tatsachen des Seelenlebens, 1883 ; Psycho- 
logische Studien, 1905, etc.). 

LISCOW, Christian Ludwig, German 
satirist. B. Apr. 29, 1701. Ed. Rostock, 
Jena, and Halle Universities. He adopted 
Rationalist views at the university, and 
wrote a Rationalist pamphlet (published in 
1755). He was private tutor for two years 
(1728-29), then secretary to the Duke of 
Mecklenburg (1735-40) and Count Briihl 
(1740-45). From 1745 to 1750 he was on 
the Polish Council of War. During all 
these years, and later, he published satires 
which have moved many to call him the 
German Swift. The essay Uber die Unno- 
thigkeit der guten Werke zur Seligkeit 
(quoted by Wheeler) is spurious, but he 
often satirized religion. There are bio 
graphies by Helbig, Lisch, Classen, and 
Litzmann. D. Oct. 30, 1760. 

LITTRE, Maximilien Paul Emile, 

450 B 



French philologist. B. Feb. 1, 1801. Ed. 
Lycee Louis le Grand. He was at first 
secretary to Count Daru. He then took 
up the study of medicine, but the death of 
his father compelled him to abandon it, 
and he became a teacher of mathematics. 
In 1839 he was admitted to the Academy 
of Inscriptions, and in 1871 to the French 
Academy. He was elected to the National 
Assembly in 1871, and was in 1875 made 
a life member of the Senate. The literary 
work by which Littr6 won these distinctions 
had put him in the first rank of French 
writers. He translated Hippocrates from 
the Greek, Pliny from the Latin, and 
Miiller and Strauss (Leben Jesu) from the 
German. His chief work, the Dictionnaire 
de la langue franqaise (o vols., 1866-77), is 
monumental. Littre was a Positivist, 
though he was less mystical than Comte. 
He was for years kept out of the Academy 
by Bishop Dupanloup, who resigned when 
he was admitted ; and he wrote a number 
of Positivist works. With consummate 
insolence the Catholic Encyclopedia claims 
him as a Catholic, and says : " Towards 
the end of his life, yielding to the entreaties 
of his wife and daughter, he had long 
interviews with Fr. Milleriot, S.J., and 
finally asked to be baptized ; and he died in 
the Catholic Church." The truth about 
Littr6 s end, which even Professor Caro 
leaves obscure in his M._ Littre et le Posi- 
tivisme (1883), is told by a Catholic writer, 
J. d Arsac, in his Emile Littre (1893). He 
shows that the Jesuit baptized Littr6 when 
he was dying and speechless (" ne parlait 
plus"). D. June 2, 1881. 

LLORENTE, Juan Antonio, Spanish 
historian. B. Mar. 30, 1756. He was 
ordained priest in 1779, and rose to high 
office in the Church. In 1781 he became 
Advocate of the Council of Castile, in 1782 
Vicar-General of Calahorra, in 1789 General 
Secretary of the Spanish Inquisition, in 
1806 Canon of the chief church of Toledo, 
and in 1807 Knight of the Caroline Order. 
But the Voltairean infiltration into Spain 
enlightened him, and he joined the French 


and was banished in 1813. In France he 
wrote an outspoken history of the Inqui 
sition (Historia critica de la Inquisition de 
Espaiia, 10 vols., 1822), for which he was 
suspended and forbidden to teach Spanish. 
He replied with an anti-Papal work, Por 
traits politiques des Papes, for which he 
was expelled from France. He went to 
Madrid, but died a few days after his 
arrival, Feb. 5, 1823. 

LLOYD, John T., lecturer. B. Aug. 15, 
1850. Mr. Lloyd went to the United 
States in his youth, and, after education in 
Lafayette College (Pa.) and the Union 
Theological Seminary (New York), he 
entered the Presbyterian ministry. He 
was appointed to the Noble St. Presby 
terian Church in Brooklyn in 1876, and 
later he served in the Presbyterian Church 
at Johannesburg. In 1903 a long mental 
struggle ended in his emancipation, and 
he returned to England and joined the 
National Secular Society, of which he is 
one of the leading lecturers. 

LOCKE, John, philosopher. B. Aug. 29, 
1632. Ed. Westminster School and Oxford 
(Christ s Church). He took pupils after 
graduating, and from 1661 to 1664 lectured 
at Oxford. In 1666, having taken up the 
study of medicine, he went to live as 
medical attendant in Lord Shaftesbury s 
house. Under his influence he was in 
1672 appointed Secretary of Presentations, 
then Secretary to the Council of Trade. 
In 1675 he went to live in Montpellier for 
four years, and there he wrote the greater 
part of his famous Essay Concerning 
Human Understanding (published in 1690, 
after seventeen years labour on it), which 
has had an incalculable share in the 
rationalization of modern philosophy. It 
rejects all innate ideas, and makes expe 
rience the base of all real knowledge. 
Locke returned to England in 1688, and 
was appointed Commissioner of Appeals. 
! He wrote also on toleration and education, 
and, to promote the royal scheme of uniting 
the Churches, he published a work which 



he calls The Eeasonableness of Christianity 
(1695). In this, however, he regards the 
ethical and humanitarian essence, not the 
doctrines, of Christianity. He was a 
Theist, and sanctioned the suppression of 
Atheists ; and his language must be read in 
relation to the persecuting age in which he 
lived ; but his philosophy of the mind 
raises a question whether he can have 
believed in personal immortality. D. 
Oct. 28, 1704. 

LOCKROY, Etienne Auguste Edouard, 
French statesman. B. 1838. In 1860 
Lockroy fought in Garibaldi s army, and 
from 1860 to 1864 he was Kenan s secre 
tary. He then adopted journalism and 
politics. He was elected to the National 
Assembly in 1871. In 1886-87 he was 
Minister of Commerce and Industry, in 
1888 Minister of Public Instruction, in 
1889, 1893, and 1902-1905 Vice-President 
of the Chambre, and in 1895-96 and 
1898-99 Minister of Marine. Lockroy 
wrote a number of political and naval 
works. There is much incidental Eation- 
.alism in his Au hazard de la vie (1903). 
D. Nov. 22, 1913. 

LOEB, Professor Jacques, American 
physiologist. B. Apr. 7, 1859. Ed. Berlin 
Gymnasium, and Berlin, Munich, and 
Strassburg Universities. Loeb was assis 
tant in physiology at Wiirzburg University 
1886-88, and at Strassburg University 
1888-89. The next two years he spent at 
the Naples Biological Station, and in 1891 
he settled in America. He was associate 
professor of biology at Bryn Mawr 1891-92, 
assistant professor of physiology and 
experimental biology at Chicago University 
1892-95, associate professor 1895-1900, 
professor 1900-1902, and professor at 
California University 1902-1910. Since 
1910 he has been head of the Department 
of Experimental Biology at the Eockefeller 
Institute for Medical Research, New York. 
His chief works are The Comparative 
Physiology of the Brain and Comparative 
Psychology (1902), The Dynamics of Living 

Matter (1906), The Mechanistic Conception 
of Life (1912), The Organism as a Whole 
(1916), and Forced Movements, Tropisms, 
and Animal Conduct (1918). An exact 
and brilliant investigator, and one of the 
leading masters of experimental biology, 
he detests all mysticism. His Organism 
as a Whole is " dedicated to the group 
of Freethinkers, including D Alembert, 
Diderot, Holbach, and Voltaire, who first 
dared to follow the consequences of a 
mechanistic science to the rules of human 
conduct." He is a strong humanitarian 
and advocate of peace, an Honorary Asso 
ciate of the Eationalist Press Association, 
and a member of the American National 
Academy of Sciences, the American Philo 
sophical Society, the Linnaean Society, 
the Cambridge Philosophical Society, the 
French Institut, the Brussels and Cracow 
Academies of Science, and other learned 

LOISY, Alfred Firmin, French orien 
talist. B. Feb. 28, 1857. Ed. Chalons 
Seminary. He was ordained priest, and 
discharged the customary duties for two 
years (1879-81). Appointed professor of 
Hebrew and of Biblical literature at the 
Catholic Institute of Paris in 1881, he 
became one of the most distinguished 
scholars of the Eoman Church, but his 
Histoire du canon de I ancien Testament 
(1890) drew upon him the attention of the 
authorities. Three years later he was 
removed on account of his liberalism, and 
for five years he served as chaplain to the 
Dominicans at Neuilly, repeatedly troubling 
the Eoman authorities with his publications. 
His brilliant Eeligion d Israel (1901) was 
put on the Index, as have been all his 
later works. From 1900 to 1904 he was 
lecturer at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes 
(Paris University). In 1915 he signalized 
his complete abandonment of theology by 
publishing Guerre et Eeligion, in which he 
pleads for a purely humanitarian faith. 
He no longer finds " any precise meaning " 
in the words " Glory to God in the highest," 
but stresses more than ever the " Peace on 



earth to men of goodwill " (p. 89). In 
La religion (1917) he develops the same 
Agnostic religion of humanity and inspiring 
human idealism. 

LOMBROSO, Professor Cesare, M.D., 

Italian criminologist. B. Nov. 18,1836. Ed. 
Turin and Pavia Universities. Lombroso, 
who came of Jewish parents, composed 
poetry and tragedy at the age of eleven, 
and before he was twenty he knew Chinese, 
Chaldaic, and Hebrew, and had a remark 
able command of philology and archaeology. 
In 1862 he was appointed professor of 
mental diseases at Pavia University, and 
he was afterwards professor of legal 
medicine and the clinic of nervous and 
mental diseases at Turin University until 
he died. He was an Officer of the Order 
of the Crown of Italy, and a member of 
many learned societies. From 1863 on 
ward he wrote voluminously on mental 
disease, and in the seventies he took up 
the study of crime as a form of disease. 
For many years he edited the Archivio di 
psychiatria. His chief work, L Uomo 
Delinquente (1875), did much to hasten 
prison reform. He was an Agnostic, and 
an Honorary Associate of the E. P. A. In 
his last five years he was seduced by 
Spiritualist frauds, and worked out a 
curious theory that the mind was a material 
fluid, but immortal. His daughter explains 
in her biography that in those years her 
father was a physical wreck, and could 
neither eat nor sleep (C. Lombroso, 1915, 
p. 416). D. Oct. 19, 1909. 

LONDON, Jack, American novelist. 
B. Jan. 12, 1876. He went to sea at the 
age of seventeen, and then tramped over 
the United States and Canada. For a 
time, in 1894, he studied at California 
University, but he abandoned his studies 
to join the rush to Klondike. He next 
devoted himself to journalism, especially 
in Socialist periodicals, and discovered 
attractive literary qualities. His novels 
(Son of the Wolf, 1900 ; Call of the Wild, 
1903, etc.) were powerful and popular, and 

his premature death was greatly deplored. 
His drastic Eationalism finds some expres 
sion in his Before Adam (1907). D. Nov. 22, 

LONG, George, classical writer. B. 
Nov. 4, 1800. Ed. Macclesfield Grammar 
School and Cambridge (Trinity College). 
After a distinguished scholastic course,. 
Long went as professor of ancient lan 
guages to the University of Virginia, where 
he became very friendly with Jefferson. 
He returned to England, and was professor 
of Greek at London University College 
from 1828 to 1831. In 1831 he began to 
edit the Quarterly Journal of Education, 
and he was for years the most active spirit 
in the Society for the Diffusion of Useful 
Knowledge. He worked also in geology, 
and was one of the founders of the Geo 
logical Society. He edited The Penny 
Cyclopedia 1833-46, was professor of 
Latin at London University College 
1842-46, and was classical lecturer at 
Brighton College 1849-71. His able trans 
lations of the classics (chiefly Marcus 
Aurelius and Epictetus) belong to the last 
phase. In his chief work, The Decline of 
the Roman Republic (5 vols., 1864-74),. 
he shows his dissent from Christianity, 
though he was a Theist ; and his Eation 
alism is more plainly expressed in his An 
Old Man s Thoughts About Many Things 
(1862, pp. 24, 46, 213, etc.). There is 
a biographical sketch by H. J. Matthews. 
(1879). D. Aug. 10, 1879. 

LONG, Professor John Harper, Sc.D.,. 
American chemist. B. Dec., 1856. Ed* 
Tubingen, Wurzburg, and Breslau Univer 
sities. In 1881 he was appointed professor 
of chemistry at the North Western Univer 
sity Medical School, and from 1913 to 1917 
he was Dean of the School of Pharmacy 
at that institution. He is a member of 
the Eeferee Board of consulting scientific 
experts of the U.S. Department of Agri 
culture, the Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry of the A.M. A., and the Washing 
ton Academy of Sciences. In 1903-1904 



he was President of the American Chemical 
Society, and he has written a number of 
valuable chemical works. In an article on 
<f Evil Spirits " in the Popular Science 
Monthly (July, 1893) Prof. Long severely 
criticizes all the Churches and warmly 
applauds the work of the early Eationalists. 

LONGFELLOW, Henry Wadsworth, 

American poet. B. Feb. 27, 1807. Ed. 
Bowdoin College. In 1823 he was appointed 
professor of modern languages at Bowdoin, 
but he was sent to Europe for three years 
(1826-29) to complete his studies. He had 
begun to write verse at the age of thirteen, 
but a volume of these poems (published in 
1826) and a book of travel (Outre-Mer, 
1834) had little success. In 1836 he 
became Smith professor of modern lan 
guages at Harvard University, and in the 
same year his Psalm of Life gave proof of 
his poetic power. Evangeline (1847) and 
The Song of Hiawatha (1855) placed him 
permanently in the front rank of American 
poets. He resigned his chair at Harvard 
in 1854. W. D. Howells, who was intimate 
with Longfellow in his later years, says : 
" I think that as he grew older his hold 
upon anything like a creed weakened, 
though he remained of the Unitarian 
philosophy concerning Christ [sic /] . He 
did not latterly go to church" (Literary 
Friends and Acquaintance, 1901, p. 202). 
It is hardly necessary to add that the 
" Unitarian philosophy concerning Christ " 
is the one Eationalist element of that body. 
D. Mar. 24, 1882. 

LORAND, Louis Georges Auguste, 

Belgian lawyer and journalist. B. 1860. 
Ed. Bologna University. Lorand was 
trained in law, but he quickly adopted 
advanced Eationalist ideas, and entered 
with great spirit into the enlightenment of 
Belgium. He edited La Reforme, a strongly 
anti-clerical Brussels daily, and wrote many 
pamphlets. He worked also in the Pacifist 
movement. D. 1918. 

LOR I A, Professor Achille, Italian 


economist. B. Mar. 2, 1857. He was a 
professor at, in succession, Siena (1881-91) 
and Padua (1891-1902). Since 1902 he 
has been professor of political economy at 
Turin University, and he is a distinguished 
member of the Accademia dei Lincei, the 
Eoyal Economic Society, the Sociological 
Society, and the International Institute of 
Sociology. His Analisi della proprietd 
capitalistica (1889) won the Eoyal Prize 
of the Accademia dei Lincei (10,000 lire). 
Loria is a Positivist of the Ardigo school, 
and has no place for religion. 

LOT I, Pierre, French novelist. B. 
Jan. 14, 1850. " Pierre Loti " is the 
adopted name of Louis Marie Julien Viaud. 
He entered the French navy in 1867, and 
attained the rank of lieutenant before he 
resigned in 1898. His voyages over the 
world with the fleet gave him material 
for his brilliant novels, the first of which, 
Aziyade, appeared in 1879. Earahu fol 
lowed in the next year, and established 
his reputation. He was admitted to the 
Academy in 1891. Loti is an artist in 
sentiment, not a scholar ; but his Eation- 
alism appears in all his work, and 
especially in his Livre de la pitie et de la 
mort (1891) and Figures et choses qui 
passent (1897). 

LOTZE, Professor Rudolf Hermann, 

German philosopher. B. May 21, 1817. 
Ed. Leipzig University. In 1842 he was 
appointed extraordinary professor of philo 
sophy at Leipzig, and in 1844 ordinary 
professor at Gottingen. In 1881 he passed 
to Berlin University. Lotze, who had been 
educated in medicine and wrote on that 
science as well as on philosophy, had an 
extraordinary influence in Europe, as he 
tried to reconcile the mechanism of science 
with a liberal natural religion. In his 
works (chiefly Mikrocosmos, 3 vols., 1856- 
64, and System der Philosophic, 2 vols., 
1874-79) he is anti-Vitalist yet anti- 
Materialist, metaphysical yet emotional 
and ethical. He admits God as the Abso 
lute, but declares it an insoluble mystery 



how the world proceeded from him. D. 
July 1, 1881. 

LOUBET, Emile, D. en D., seventh 
President of the French Eepublic. B. 
Dec. 31, 1838. Ed. Paris. Loubet was 
in his early years a barrister at Monte- 
limar, where he took an active part in 
Liberal politics. He was Mayor from 1870 
to 1899. In 1876 he entered the Chambre, 
and sat with the Gambettist anti-clericals. 
He passed to the Senate in 1885, and was 
Minister of Public Works 1887-88, Premier 
in 1892, President of the Senate in 1896 
and 1898, and President of the Eepublic 
from 1899 to 1906. It was under his 
Presidency and sympathetic guidance that 
the struggle with the Church was brought 
to its triumphant conclusion. 

LOUYS, Pierre, French poet and 
novelist. B. Dec. 1, 1870. Ed. Lycee 
Janson - de - Sailly and Sorbonne, Paris. 
Louys has won a high position in France 
by his beautiful translations of the Greek 
poets (especially Poesies de Meleagre, 1893) 
and a series of finely-written and thoroughly 
pagan novels of ancient Greek life (Astarte, 
1892 ; Aphrodite, 1896, etc.). Aphrodite 
has been presented on the stage. He is a 
member of the Societe des Anciens Textes 
and the Societ6 d Anthropologie, and a 
brilliant classical scholar. 

LOYEJOY, Professor Arthur Oncken, 

A.M., American philosopher. B. Oct. 10, 
1873. Ed. California, Harvard, and Paris 
Universities. He was assistant professor 
of philosophy at Leland Stanford Univer 
sity 1899-1901, professor of philosophy at 
Washington University (St. Louis) 1901- 
1908, at the University of Missouri 1908- 
1910, and at John Hopkins University 
1910-19. He has translated Bergson for 
the American public, and is a member of 
the American Philosophical Association. 
His dissent from the creeds may be read 
in an article in the Hibbert Journal 
(January, 1907). He thinks that Chris 
tianity would be " invaluable " if it were 


stripped of its " historical elements " (its 
characteristic doctrines). 

LOWELL, James Russell, American 
poet and essayist. B. Feb. 22, 1819. Ed. 
Harvard University. Lowell was educated 
in law, but it was uncongenial, and he never 
seriously practised. In 1841 he published 
his first volume of poems, but it was in 
1846, when he began to publish in serial 
form The Biglow Papers, that he won the 
attention of the American public. In 1854 
he succeeded Longfellow as Smith professor 
at Harvard, and he taught there until 1877. 
From 1857 to 1862 he edited the Atlantic 
Monthly, and he was then for eight years 
associate editor of the North American 
Revieiv. Most of his lucid and genial 
essays were written in these magazines 
and collected later (Among My Books, 1870 ; 
My Study Windows, 1871, etc.). His poetry 
ranks very high in American literature, 
and he edited Keats, Shelley, Donne, and 
Wordsworth. From 1877 to 1880 he was 
American Minister at Madrid, and from 
1880 to 1885 at London. His letters to 
Sir Leslie Stephen and many of his poems 
(which are sung as hymns in the Ethical 
Societies) show his Rationalist sentiments, 
but his position is most clearly stated by 
his friend and fellow Eationalist, W. D. 
Howells (Literary Friends and Acquain 
tance, 1901, p. 228). His father was a 
Unitarian minister, but Lowell " more and 
more liberated himself from all creeds, " 
and in his later years was sceptical about 
a future life. When Howells asked him if 
he believed in " a moral government of the 
universe," he answered evasively that "the 
scale was so vast, and we saw such a little 
of it." It is plain that, while his poems 
contain Theistic expressions, he ended in 
Agnosticism. D. Aug. 12, 1891. 

LOWELL, Percival, American astro 
nomer, cousin of J. E. Lowell. B. Mar. 13, 
1855. Ed. Boston Latin School and Har 
vard University. He lived in Japan from 
1883 to 1893, and his Soul of the Far East 
(1886) shows him in close agreement with 




the cultivated Japanese. It is Agnostic, 
and not very respectful to religion. He 
regards religions as man s " self-constructed 
idols " (p. 162), and thinks that the future 
is " deeply shrouded in mystery " (p. 163). 
On his return to America he devoted him 
self entirely to astronomy. He established 
the Lowell Observatory at Flagstaff, in 
connection with the Harvard Observatory, 
in 1894. In 1902 he was appointed non 
resident professor of astronomy to the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. For 
his protracted and splendid work in con 
nection with Mars he got the Janssen 
medal of the French Astronomical Society 
and the gold medal of the Sociedad Astro- 
nomica of Mexico. See his Mars (1895) 
and Mars and its Canals (1906). His 
Evolution of Worlds (1909) is the finest 
work of its kind. D. Nov. 13, 1916. 

LOZANO, Fernando, Spanish writer. 
Lozano is one of the bravest and most 
fiery of popular Spanish Eationalists. He 
has been prosecuted more than a hundred 
times, and ho boasts that nearly every 
bishop in Spain has excommunicated him. 
He has ever been a prominent figure at 
the annual Congresses. He edits Las 
Dominicales del Libre Pensamicnto, and 
has written a number of Eationalist works. 


LUC I AN I, Professor Luigi, Italian 
physiologist. B. Nov. 23, 1842. Ed, 
Bologna and Leipzig Universities. Luciani 
was in early years professor at Parma, then 
at Siena. In 1881 he was appointed pro 
fessor of physiology at the Institute of 
Higher Studies, Florence, and he succeeded 
Moleschott as professor of physiology at 
Eome University and Director of the 
Physiological Institute. His Localizationi 
funzionali del cervello (1885) was crowned 
by the Lombard Institute. He is a 
Senator, a Commander of the Orders of 
S. S. Lazarus and Maurice and the Crown 
of Italy, member of the Accademia dei 
Lincei, and foreign member of the Imperial 


German Academy and the Brussels Academy 
of Medicine. His views resemble those of 
Moleschott, and are of a Materialist ten 

LUDOYICI, Anthony, writer. B. 1882. 
Ed. privately and abroad. Ludovici began 
his career as an artist and illustrator, but 
he turned to literature, and became 
especially an advocate of Nietzscheanism. 
He has translated six of Nietzsche s works, 
and written Nietzsche (1910) and Nietzsche 
and Art (1911). He served in the War 
(1914-19) as captain, and has since been 
attached to the Intelligence Staff of the 
War Office. He shares Nietzsche s view 
of religion, and is an able lecturer as well 
as writer. 

LUGONES, Professor Leopoldo, South 
American poet. B. 1869. Lugones is the 
leading poet of Argentina. He is professor 
of literature at the National College at 
Buenos Aires, and editor of the Revue Sud- 
Americaine. South Americans compare 
him to Gabriele d Annunzio, and there is 
fine poetry in his Montanas de Oro. He 
has also written novels and literary works, 
and a Eationalistic account of the famous 
Jesuit missions in Paraguay (El Imperio 

LUNDQYIST, Alfred, Swedish writer. 
B. Oct. 21, 1860. Ed. Upsala University. 
At the university he absorbed the works of 
Mill, Darwin, and Spencer, and became an 
enthusiast for Eationalism. He lost a 
scholarship at the university by ti anslating 
from the Danish a Eationalistic life of 
Christ, and took to journalism. In 1888 
he joined the active Eationalist movement, 
and became one of its most influential 
writers. In the same year he suffered a 
month in prison for translating a pamphlet 
by Joseph Symes. 

LUTTRELL, Henry, writer. B. about 

1765. He entered the Irish Parliament in 

1798, but in 1802 went out to the West 

Indies to manage his father s estates (being 




a natural son of Earl Carhampton). When 
he returned he was conspicuous in the 
most brilliant London circles, and a 
frequent guest at Holland House. Luttrell 
wrote little a few small volumes of verse 
and prose but was one of the wittiest 
conversationalists of the day. He was, 
says Greville, " one of the most accom 
plished men of his time," an " honourable 
and high-minded gentleman," and " a 
sceptic in religion " (Memoirs, i, 9). D, 
Dec. 19, 1851. 

LUTTRELL, Hugh Courtney Courte- 
nay Fownes, politician. B. Feb. 10, 1857. 
Ed. Cheltenham College. After a few 
years as Captain of the Eifle Brigade, he 
became A.D.C. to Lord Cowper, and later 
to Lord Spencer, Viceroys of Ireland. 
Afterwards he was secretary to General 
Sir John Adye, Governor of Gibraltar. 
He represented Tavistock in Parliament 
1892-1900 and 1906-1910, and took a 
generous part in promoting the Spurious 
Sports Bill. An obituary notice in the 
Bere Ferrers Parish Magazine candidly 
admitted that he " was a professed Free 
thinker " and a man of very high character. 
D. 1918. 

LYALL, The Right Honourable Sir 
Alfred Comyn, K.C.B., G.C.I.E., D.C.L., 
LL.D., P.C., statesman. B. Jan.4,1835. Ed. 
Eton and Haileybury College. He entered 
the Indian Civil Service in 1856 and fought 
during the Mutiny. In 1865 he was 
appointed Commissioner of Nagpur, and in 
1867 of West Berar. Six years later 
Lyall was promoted to the post of Home 
Secretary to the Government of India, and 
from 1881 to 1887 he was Governor of the 
North West Provinces. He retired in 
1887 from an administration which had 
won high praise, and he entered the India 
Council. In 1902 he was admitted to the 
Privy Council. Sir Alfred was not without 
distinction as a writer. The first series of 
his Asiatic Studies appeared in 1882, and 
in 1889 he issued a volume of poems 
(Verses Written in India], including one 


boldly entitled " Theology in Extremis," 
which expresses his Eationalism. He 
wrote also lives of Warren Hastings and 
the Marquis of Dufferin. In 1891 he gave 
the Eede Lecture at Cambridge, in 1908 
the Ford Lecture at Oxford, and in 1902 
he became a Fellow of the British Academy. 
Mr. Clodd (Memories, pp. 101-104) shows 
that he was consistently Agnostic. " I 
don t know," he used to say, when religion 
was discussed, " but then who does ? " 
D. Apr. 10, 1911. 

LYELL, Sir Charles, M.A., F.E.S., 
LL.D., geologist. B. Nov. 14, 1797. Ed. 
private schools and Oxford (Exeter College). 
Lyell entered at once upon the study of 
geology, and in 1819 joined the Geological 
and the Linnaean Societies. In 1823 he 
was appointed secretary of the Geological 
Society. His Principles of Geology (3 vols., 
1830-33) swept the old catastrophic theory 
(which had been used in defence of Genesis] 
out of geology and prepared the way for 
evolution in biology. In 1831 he was 
appointed professor of geology at King s 
College, but he gave few lectures there. 
His Elements of Geology appeared in 1838. 
He was knighted in 1848, and created a 
baronet in 1864. Lyell strongly supported 
Darwin when the Origin of Species 
appeared, and in 1863 he again prepared 
the way for advance by proving the great 
antiquity of man on earth (The Antiquity 
of Man). He received the Wollaston 
Medal of the Geological Society in 1867, 
and was corresponding member of the 
Institute of France. In the earlier part of 
his life Lyell was a Theist, but by 1873 
he had, apparently, discarded the idea of 
immortality and all Christian doctrines. 
Writing to Miss F. P. Cobbe (who else 
where makes the strange statement that 
he believed firmly in immortality) in that 
year, he said that the supposed proofs of a 
future life were interesting, " but they 
confirm my opinion that we are so much 
out of our depth when we attempt to treat 
of this subject that we gain little but doubt 
in such speculations " (Life, Letters, and 




Journals of Sir C. Lyell, 1881, ii, 452). 
This Agnosticism seems to have spread to 
his belief in God. In a letter to Darwin 
in 1869 he thinks that " probably " there 
is a "Supreme Intelligence" (ii, 442). It 
is notable that the letters of the last twenty 
years of his life have only faint allusions 
to even natural religion. The Church he 
castigated severely as early as 1843 (ii, 82). 
D. Feb. 22, 1875. 

LYNCH, Arthur, M.A., L.RC.P., 

M.K.C.S., writer. Mr. Lynch was born in 
Australia and educated at Ballarat, Mel 
bourne University, a Paris hospital, and 
St. Mary s Hospital Medical School, 
London. He qualified in electrical engineer 
ing as well as medicine. During the South 
African War he held a commission in the 
Boer forces, and was prosecuted. Since 
1909 he has been M.P. for West Clare. 
In his Beligio Athletes (1895) he disdains 
all religion but the cult of the beautiful. 
He has written also in French, but his 
chief work is Psychology : A New System 
(2 vols., 1912). 

MACARTNEY, Professor James, M.D., 
F.K.S., F.R.C.S., Irish anatomist. B. 
Mar. 8, 1770. Ed. College of Surgeons 
School, Dublin, and Hunterian School, 
London. In 1800 he was admitted to the 
Eoyal College of Surgeons, and practised in 
London. He was lecturer on comparative 
anatomy and physiology at St. Bartho 
lomew s Hospital from 1800 to 1811, and 
professor of anatomy and surgery at 
Dublin University from 1813 to 1837. Dr. 
Macartney was much persecuted by the 
clergy of Dublin on account of his Ration 
alist views. In a biography of him (James 
Macartney, 1900) Professor Macalister 
admits that he " did not formally commit 
himself to any creed " (p. 279), which is 
the Christian way of saying that he was an 
outspoken Deist. He said that "every 
revelation, no matter whether it be real or 
supposed, must produce hatred and perse 
cution among mankind" (p. 281). D. 
Mar. 6, 1843. 


McCABE, Joseph Martin, writer. B. 
Nov. 11, 1867. Ed. Catholic School, Man 
chester ; Forest Gate Seminary, London ; 
and Louvain University. He entered the 
Franciscan Order in 1883, was ordained 
priest with the name " Father Antony," 
and appointed professor of philosophy 
in 1890. The rules of his order for 
bade him to take a University degree. 
Appointed head of a College at Bucking 
ham in 1895, he left the Church six 
months later (February, 1896). After two 
years as private secretary and literary 
struggler, he spent a year as secretary of 
the Leicester Secular Society (1898-99). 
Since that time he has devoted himself to 
writing and lecturing, largely for the 
Ethical and Rationalist movements. He 
has written about sixty works (see Who s 
Who ?}, besides a score of translations. 
Mr. McCabe is an Agnostic, but he has no 
doubt that, when man s knowledge is 
complete, Materialism will prove to be the 
correct theory of reality. 

MACCALL, William, M.A., writer. B. 
Feb. 25, 1812. Ed. Glasgow University 
and a Protestant Seminary, Geneva. 
Maccall was being trained for the Presby 
terian Church, but he abandoned this for 
the Unitarian body, and he was Unitarian 
minister at Bolton and Crediton from 1837 
to 1846. He then came to London, where, 
after preaching for a time, he abandoned 
Unitarianism and became a Pantheist. He 
translated Letourneau s Biology (1877) and 
wrote several books. His views are best 
seen in his posthumous Christian Legends 
(1884) and Moods and Memories (1885). 
In an article in the Secular Chronicle a 
month before he died (Mar. 31, 1878) 
Maccall describes himself as an Agnostic. 
D. Apr. 17, 1878. 

MACCHI, Mauro, Italian writer. B. 
July 1, 1815. He was professor of 
rhetoric at Milan, but the Austrian authori 
ties deposed him in 1839. He took to 
journalism, and founded the Italia and the 
Industrial Spectator ; but he was expelled, 




and continued his work in Turin. Macchi 
was a strong Rationalist, and a contributor to 
the Libero Pensiero. He was expelled from 
Turin, and later from Genoa ; and he joined 
the revolutionaries in 1848. In 1861 he 
was elected, as republican and anti-clerical, 
to the Italian Parliament, and in 1879 he 
passed to the Senate. He wrote a number 
of economic and political works, and con 
tributed constantly to Rationalist perio 
dicals. D. Dec. 24, 1880. 

MACDONALD, Eugene Montague, 

American journalist. B. Feb. 4, 1855. 
Ed. private school. He worked on a farm 
in Maine from his thirteenth to his fifteenth 
year, and he was then put in a printing- 
house in New York. D. M. Bennett [SEE] , 
founder of the TruthseeJcer, took him as 
foreman, and when Bennett died in 1883 
Macdonald and two others bought the 
paper and established the Truthseeker 
Company. He edited the American organ 
of Rationalism for twenty-six years, relin 
quishing it to his brother when his health 
failed, a year or two before his death. 
D. Feb. 26, 1909. 

MACDONALD, George Everett, editor 
of the Truthseeker, brother of the preceding. 
B. Apr. 11, 1857. As a boy he worked on 
his uncle s farm and got a little schooling. 
At the age of seventeen he went to New 
York, and joined his brother in printing. 
He contributed to the Truthseeker, and 
educated himself while learning printing. 
In 1877 he went to California and founded 
the San Francisco Rationalist paper, Free- 
thought. It failed in 1881, and after twelve 
years as a provincial journalist he returned 
to New York. In 1907 he took over the 
New York Truthseeker from his brother, 
and still edits it. 

MACH, Professor Ernst von, Austrian 
physicist. B. Feb. 18, 1838. Ed. Vienna 
University. In 1864 he became professor 
of mathematics at Gratz University, and 
in 1867 professor of physics at Prague 
University. He was Rector of Prague 


University 1879-80, and professor at 
Vienna University from 1895 to 1901. He 
was ennobled and admitted to the Austrian 
House of Peers on his retirement in the 
latter year. Mach s works are of great 
importance in his science. He was 
especially occupied with the relation of 
physics to psychology, and the develop 
ment of his views brought him to an 
advanced Rationalist position. He main 
tained that there was no essential difference 
between the physical and the psychic 
that both consisted of elements thus 
cutting the root of the Christian doctrine. 
Several of his works were translated into- 
English (The Analysis of Sensations, 1886 ; 
The Science of Mechanics, 1893, etc.). D. 
Feb. 19, 1916. 

MACHADO, Bernardino, third President 
of the Republic of Portugal. B. 1851. 
For many years before the Revolution 
Machado was a professor at Coimbra Uni 
versity. He was an outspoken Republican 
and Rationalist, and has taken part in 
the annual Freethought Congresses. He 
joined the Revolutionaries in 1910, and 
became Minister for Foreign Affairs in the 
Provisional Government. In 1915 he was 
elected President by 134 votes against 45, 
but the Revolution of 1917 unseated him. 

MACKAY, Charles, L.L.D., poet and 
journalist. B. Mar. 27, 1814. Ed. private 
schools London and Brussels. In 1830 he 
became a private secretary in Belgium. 
Two years later he returned to London 
and engaged in journalism. He was sub 
editor of the Morning Chronicle from 1835 
to 1844, editor of the Glasgow Argus from 
1844 to 1847, and editor of the Illustrated- 
London News from 1852 to 1858. Mackay 
was best known to his generation as a, 
song writer. In 1834 he issued Songs and 
Poems, and from 1846 onward he regularly 
wrote songs which were set to music, and 
were in some cases (" There s a Good Time 
Coming, Boys, "etc.) extraordinarily popular. 
He was a more serious artist than was 
generally imagined, and was very sym- 



pathetic to advanced movements (McCabe s 
George Jacob Holyoake, i, 157). D. 
Dec. 24, 1889. 

MACKAY, Robert William, M.A., 
philosophical writer. B. May 27, 1803. 
Ed. Oxford (Brasenose College). In 1828 
he was admitted to Lincoln s Inn, but he 
turned from the law to the study of 
theology and philosophy. Hamerton 
speaks of him in his Autobiography (p. 146) 
as much absorbed in theology ; and he was, 
like Hamerton, a Theist. His chief work, 
The Progress of the Intellect (2 vols.), was 
published in 1850. His Eationalism is 
more clearly expressed in his Sketch of the 
Eise and Progress of Christianity (1854). 
He translated two of Plato s Dialogues, 
and was a fine literary scholar as well as a 
reputable thinker. D. Feb. 23, 1882. 

MACKENZIE, Professor John Stuart, 

M.A., LL.D., Litt.D., philosopher. B. 
Feb. 29, 1860. Ed. Glasgow, Cambridge, 
and Berlin Universities. He was G. A. 
Clark Fellow of Glasgow University 1882- 
84, Shaw Philosophical Fellowof Edinburgh 
University 1884-89, Fellow of Trinity Col 
lege, Cambridge, 1890-96, assistant lecturer 
on philosophy and Cobden lecturer on poli 
tical economy at Owen s College 1890-93, 
and professor of logic and philosophy at 
the University College of South Wales 
1895-1915. Professor Mackenzie has for 
twenty years taken an active interest in 
the Ethical Movement. He is a member 
of the editorial board of the International 
Journal of Ethics, and he was for eight 
years (1908-16) President of the Moral 
Education League. In his Manual of 
Ethics (1893) he observes that it is time 
to discard the doctrines of Christianity, 
and " what remains essential in religion is 
the reality of the moral life " (p. 450). In 
A Generation of Religious Progress (1916, 
p. 93) he writes : " Most religious creeds 
are really as difficult to understand as 
philosophical theories, and have the addi 
tional disadvantage of having to be ac 
cepted without definite proof." His chief 

work is Elements of Constructive Philoso 
phy (1917). 

MACKEY, Sampson Arnold, astro 
nomical writer. Mackey was a shoemaker 
of Norwich who became an amateur astro 
nomer, and followed the theory of astro 
nomical mythology. He wrote The Mytho 
logical Astronomy of the Ancients (2 parts, 
1822 and 1823), A Companion to the Mytho 
logical Astronomy (1824-25), Pious Frauds 
(1826), and The Age of Mental Emancipa 
tion (3 parts, 1836-39). D. 1846. 

MACKINTOSH, Sir James, philosopher. 
B. Oct. 24, 1765. Ed. King s College, 
Aberdeen, and Edinburgh University. In 
1788 he settled in London, and he gave 
cordial support to Home Tooke and the 
humanitarians. Against Burke he wrote 
a famous defence of the early French Revo 
lution (VindicicB Gallicce, 1791) ; though in 
later years he abandoned the advanced 
political opinions of his youth. He was 
called to the Bar (Lincoln s Inn) in 1795, 
and prospered in the legal profession. 
In 1803 he was knighted and appointed 
Eecorder of Bombay. He returned to 
England in 1811, and two years later he 
entered Parliament, where he conspicuously 
supported liberal reforms, especially in 
criminal law. From 1818 to 1824 Sir 
James was professor of law at Haileybury 
College, and in 1830 he was appointed 
Commissioner to the Board of Control. 
His chief work is his Dissertation on the 
Progress of Ethical Philosophy (1830), a 
moderate Utilitarian treatise. Sir James 
was one of the brilliant group of Ration 
alists who foregathered at Holland House. 
Allen, who often met him there, says that 
he made a declaration of religion on his 
death-bed, though he " had never believed 
at all during life " (Greville s Memoirs, iii, 
331). This is inaccurately expressed, as 
Mackintosh had always been a liberal 
Theist, and the attempt of his pious son 
to wring from him a profession of Chris 
tianity when he was dying was a failure 
(Memoirs of the Life of Sir J. Mackintosh, 




1836, iv, 485-90). Lord Coleridge, in a 
letter to Baron Bramwell of October 18, 
1877, speaks of " men so very unclerical as 
Sir J. Mackintosh, the Mills, Tyndall, and 
Huxley " (quoted in A Memoir of Baron 
Bramwell). D. May 30, 1832. 

M TAGGART, John MTaggart Ellis, 

LL.D., Litt.D., philosopher. B. 1866. Ed. 
Clifton College and Cambridge (Trinity 
College). Mr. M Taggart has been a Fellow 
since 1891, and a lecturer since 1897, at 
Trinity College. He is one of the most 
eminent English Hegelians (see his Studies 
in the Hegelian Dialectic, 1896, and Studies 
in Hegelian Cosmology, 1901). In the latter 
work he observes (p. 94) that " the Absolute 
is not God, and, in consequence, there is 
no God." In Some Dogmas of Religion 
(1906) he sees no reason to think that 
" positive belief in immortality is true," 
and " no reason to suppose that God 
exists " (p. 291). He is a Fellow of the 
British Academy. 

MADACH, Imre, Hungarian poet. B. 
Jan. 21, 1823. Ed. Buda Pesth University. 
He was trained in law, and became Vice- 
Notary, then Over-Commissary, of his 
district. In 1852 he was imprisoned for 
a year for his share in the revolutionary 
movement, though illness had prevented 
him from fighting. In 1861 he wrote a 
long, somewhat Schopenhauerian, poetical 
chronicle of human history (The Human 
Tragedy), of a pronounced Eationalist 
character. His poetic and dramatic works 
(3 vols., 1880) were extremely popular in 
Hungary. Madach was a brilliant writer 
and scholar, a member of the Hungarian 
Academy. D. Oct. 5, 1864. 

MADISON, James, fourth President of 
the United States. B. Mar. 16, 1751. Ed. 
private schools and Princeton University. 
After graduating at Princeton, he remained 
for a year to study Hebrew ; and he con 
tinued for some time to make a serious 
study of theology, as well as of law and 
history. He had no rival at the time in 


America in knowledge of history and 
constitutional law, and his learning and 
integrity soon won him public recognition. 
In 1776 he was sent as delegate to the 
State Convention. Being appointed to a 
committee for drafting a constitution for 
the State of Virginia, he protested vehe 
mently against the religious clause, and got 
it altered, thus securing complete freedom 
of conscience. He was elected to the first 
Virginia legislature, and when, in 1784, 
a proposal to make contributions to the 
Churches compulsory was laid before it, 
Madison again strongly opposed though 
he was at first almost alone and won the 
complete separation of Church and State. 
His political services in other matters were 
equally important. He became Secretary 
of State (to Jefferson) in 1801, and he was 
President of the Eepublic from 1809 to 
1817 (two terms). One might infer from 
his public action that he was, like Adams, 
Franklin, Washington, and so many of the 
great early Americans, not more than a 
Deist, and his letters (published in The 
Writings of James Madison, 9 vols., 1910) 
make this quite clear. On Mar. 19, 1823, 
he protests disdainfully that he will not 
have the American university turned into 
" an Arena of Theological Gladiators " (ix, 
126). To the end of his days he resisted 
any concession to the Churches. In 1832 
(near the end of his life) he gave, in the 
course of a letter to a clergyman, w 7 hat 
seems to have been the extent of his own 
creed : " There appears to be in the nature 
of man what ensures his belief in an 
invisible cause of his present existence, 
and an anticipation of his future existence " 
(ix, 485). Theistic expressions never occur 
in his letters. He seems to have been on 
the Agnostic side of Deism. D. June 28, 

MAETERLINCK, Maurice, Belgian 
writer. B. Aug. 29, 1862. Ed. Jesuit 
College and Ghent University. He studied 
philosophy and law, and practised as an 
advocate at Ghent from 1887 to 1896. 
Since the latter date he has lived at Paris, 



issuing the series of works which, by their 
beauty of style no less than their elevation 
of moral sentiment, have earned for him a 
high place in the world s literature. His 
views are, perhaps, best seen in Le tresor 
des humbles (1896), La saqesse et la destinee 
(1898), and Le temple enseveli (1902). He 
is mystical in his conception of ethics, but 
not a Theist, and certainly not a Christian. 
In his work on Spiritualism (La mort, 1913) 
he leaves the question of survival open. 
Maeterlinck was awarded the Nobel prize 
for literature in 1911. 

MAGELLAN, Jean Hyacinthe de, 

F.R.S., writer. B. 1723. Joao Jacinte de 
Magalhaes, as he was originally named, 
was a Portuguese, a descendant of the 
famous explorer, w y ho entered the monastic 
order of St. Augustine. He devoted him 
self, however, to the study of science, and 
in 1763 he left the Order and the Church 
of Eome, without entering any other branch 
of Christianity. In the following year he 
found refuge in England, and he was highly 
esteemed by contemporary scholars. He 
had a special distinction in the making of 
astronomical and other scientific instru 
ments, and wrote on them. He was 
admitted to the Eoyal Society (1774), and 
was a corresponding member of the Aca 
demies of Science of Paris and Madrid. 
D. Feb. 7, 1790. 

MAITLAND, Professor Frederick 
William, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L., jurist. B. 
May 28, 1850. Ed. Eton and Cambridge 
(Trinity College). In 1873 he was Whewell 
International Law Scholar. He entered 
Lincoln s Inn in 1872, and was called to 
the Bar in 1876. In 1884 he was appointed 
reader in English law at Cambridge, and 
in 1888 he became Downing Professor 
of English law. He founded the Selden 
Society (1887), and initiated a very impor 
tant investigation of the law of England. 
The chief of his many works is his History 
of English Law before the Time of Edward I 
(2 vols., 1895). He was Ford Lecturer at 
Oxford in 1897 and Rede Lecturer at Cam- 

bridge in 1901 ; and he was a Fellow of 
the British Academy (1902) and corre 
sponding member of the Royal Prussian 
Academy and the Royal Bavarian Academy. 
Maitland was the secretary of the " Sunday 
Tramps," a distinguished group of Ration 
alists who gathered about Sir L. Stephen, 
and he wrote a very sympathetic life of 
Stephen (Life and Letters of Leslie Stephen, 
1906). " Then, as always, he was a dis 
senter from all the Churches," says Mr. 
H. A. L. Fisher in his biography (F. W. 
Maitland, 1910, p. 100). He was an 
Agnostic. D. Dec. 19, 1906. 

MAILLOT, Arthur Frangois Eve, 

French dramatist. B. May 21, 1747. He 
served in the army in his early years, and 
then became an actor. Embracing the 
Revolution with enthusiasm, he was nomi 
nated a Commissary of the Convention. 
In 1797 he brought out a very successful 
comedy, and continued in that branch of 
art. Maillot clung firmly to the advanced 
ideas of the Revolutionists, and he was 
several times imprisoned under Napoleon I. 
D. July 18, 1814. 

MALHERBE, Franc, ois de, French 
poet. B. 1555. Ed. Caen, and Heidelberg 
and Basle Universities. He was trained 
in law and lived at Aix as secretary of the 
Grand Prior of France ; but his poetry 
won the favour of Henri IV, and he was 
installed at the Court. His fine lyrics 
greatly helped the advancement of French 
poetry. The best edition of his works is 
that of 1862-69 (5 vols.). Malherbe was 
so outspoken a sceptic that contemporary 
literature ascribes many pungent sayings 
to him. D. Oct. 6, 1628. 

MALLET, David, M.A., poet and drama 
tist. B. 1705. Ed. Crieff parish school 
and Edinburgh University. He began to 
publish poetry in 1720, and in the course 
of the next ten years he attained a high 
position in literary and dramatic circles at 
London. In 1742 he was appointed under 
secretary to the Prince of Wales. He 



edited Bolingbroke s works (5 vols., 1754), 
and was a great friend of Hume and Gibbon. 
Mallet was " a great declaimer in all the 
London coffee-houses against Christianity" 
(Diet. Nat. Biog.). D. Apr. 21, 1765. 

MALON, Benoit, French politician. 
B. 1841. Son of a peasant, and at first 
himself a Parisian worker, Malon won 
a prominent position, and was one of the 
founders of the International. In 1869 he 
joined the staff of the Marseillais, and he 
was a Moderate member of the Commune 
of 1871 and of the first National Assembly. 
He fled to Switzerland, and continued his 
work there. He wrote a novel (Spartacus, 
1877) and several economic works, and 
translated Lassalle s Capital and Labour. 
In religion he was not less advanced than 
in politics. 

MALOT, Hector Henri, French novelist. 
B. May 20, 1830. Ed. Eouen and Paris. 
Malot was trained in law, but he quitted 
it for journalism, and became London 
correspondent of L Opinion Nationale. In 
1859 he published the first novel of a 
trilogy (Les amants, 1859 ; Les epoux, 1865 ; 
Les enfants, 1866) which won considerable 
attention by their fineness of art and 
sentiment ; and his numerous later stories 
gave him a high position in French letters. 
His works are distinguished by their 
delicate moral tone, of a purely humani 
tarian character. The French Academy 
crowned his Sans Famille (1878). D. 1907. 

MALTE-BRUUN, Konrad, Danish geo 
grapher. B. Aug. 12, 1775. Ed. Copen 
hagen. In 1800 he was banished from 
Denmark on account of his advanced 
opinions, and he settled at Paris. Malte- 
Bruun was one of the first geographers of 
bis time. In collaboration with Mentelle 
he published a large geographical work in 
sixteen volumes (1804-1807), and in 1808 
he founded the Annales des Voyages. His 
chief work is his Precis de geographic et de 
I histoire (8 vols., 1810-29). D. Dec. 14, 


Terenzio, Italian statesman. B. Sep. 19, 
1799. In 1831 Mamiani was a member of 
the Provisional Government which was set 
up at Bologna in rebellion against the 
Papacy. When it failed, he fled to Paris, 
where he devoted himself to letters and 
philosophy. He returned to Italy in 1848, 
and, being one of the moderate Liberals, 
he was Pius IX s Minister of the Interior 
during his brief spell of Liberalism, pleasing 
neither party. In 1857, after the checking 
of the Papacy, he was appointed professor 
of the philosophy of history at Turin 
University, and he entered the Italian 
Camera. He was Minister of Education 
in 1861, Italian representative at Athens 
1861-65, ambassador at Berne 1865-67, 
and Vice-President of the Senate in 1867. 
Mamiani, who is greatly disliked by most 
of the Italian nationalists, was a Theist. 
His philosophy is largely built upon the 
ideas of Hegel, and he talked of a recon 
ciliation of the Catholic Church with 
modern culture. In his La Religions dell 
Avvenire (1880), however, he shows that 
he means a religion without revelation or 
miracles or dogmas. He was a non- 
Christian Theist. D. May 21, 1885. 

MANDEYILLE, Bernard, M.D., writer. 
B. (in Holland) 1670. Ed. Rotterdam and 
Leyden Universities. The date at which 
he came to England is unknown, but seems 
to have been soon after 1690. In 1705 he 
published at London a satirical poem, The 
Grumbling Hive. In 1714 he published 
his well-known study of the origin and 
nature of morals, The Fable of the Bees, 
which was furiously attacked and had 
a good circulation. In 1723 he issued an 
enlarged edition of it, and this was men 
tioned for prosecution by the Grand Jury 
of Middlesex. Mandeville had meanwhile 
published his Free Thoughts on Religion, 
the Church, and National Happiness (1720), 
which is one of his best works. Though 
he affected to support Christianity, Chris 
tian writers have very readily rejected his 
profession, and acknowledged his Deism, 


because of the supposed viciousness of his 
ethical doctrine. Mr. J. M. Eobertson 
(Pioneer Humanists, 1907, pp. 230-70) 
shows that there is a great deal of prejudice 
and inaccuracy in this familiar charge. 
His thesis, that " private vices are public 
benefits," is largely a paradoxical hit at 
moral conventionalism, and largely a glori 
fication of private enterprise (or private 
appetite, avarice, etc.). D. Jan. 21, 1733. 

MANEN, Professor Willem Christian 
van, D.D., Dutch theological writer. B. 
Aug. 8, 1842. Ed. Utrecht University. 
After graduating, Dr. Van Manen served at 
various places as a pastor of the Dutch 
Reformed Church from 1865 to 1884. In 
the latter year he was appointed professor 
of theology at Groningen University, and 
in 1885 professor of Ancient Christian 
Literature and New Testament Exegesis at 
Leyden University. He edited the Theo- 
logische Tijdscript (1890-1905), and wrote 
a large number of theological works (chiefly 
Paulus, 3 vols., 1890-96) and papers. 
He remained a Theist to the end, but in 
1904 he became an Honorary Associate of 
the E. P. A. D. July 12, 1905. 

MANGASARIAN, Mangasar Mugur- 
ditch, American lecturer. B. (in Turkey, 
of Armenian parents) Dec. 29, 1859. 
Ed. Eobert College, Constantinople, and 
Princeton Theological Seminary. He was 
ordained a minister of the Congregational 
Church in 1878, and accepted a pastorate 
at Marsovan (Turkey). After two years 
in Turkey he spent three further years 
(1882-85) as pastor of Spring Gardens 
Church, Philadelphia. He severed his 
connection in 1885, and was for four years 
an independent preacher at Philadelphia. 
From 1892 to 1897 he was lecturer to the 
Chicago Society of Ethical Culture, and in 
1900 he established the Chicago Indepen 
dent Eeligious Society, a purely Ration 
alistic body. Mr. Mangasarian is an elo 
quent Agnostic lecturer, with much influence 
in Chicago, and has written A New Catechism 
(1902) and other Eationalist works. 

MANTEGAZZA, Professor Paolo, 

Italian anthropologist. B. Oct. 31, 1831. 
Ed. Pisa, Milan, and Pavia Universities. He 
practised medicine for some years in the 
Argentine, and returned to Italy in 1858. 
Two years later he was appointed professor 
of pathology at Pisa University, and in 
1870 he became professor of anthropology 
at the Florentine Istituto di Studii Supe- 
riori. He founded an anthropological 
museum and journal at Florence, and 
showed great zeal for popular education. 
Professor Mantegazza wrote some distin- 
tinguished medical and anthropological 
works, but his Agnostic views are chiefly 
expressed in a novel, II Dio Ignoto (1876). 
He also actively supported the Anti-Papal 
party in politics, entering the Camera in 
1865 and the Senate in 1876. 

MARAT, Jean Paul, French Eevolu- 
tionist. B. May 24, 1744. Marat was a 
student of medicine who deserted his 
science for teaching and writing. In 1774 
he taught French in Edinburgh, and in 
the same year he embodied his advanced 
ideas in his Chains of Slavery. In the 
following year he published De I homme 
(3 vols.. 1775), a thoroughly Materialist 
work, and he wrote various other scientific 
works. At the outbreak of the Eevolution 
he, though a cultivated man, became a 
leader of the extremists. He edited the 
Ami du Peuple, and later the Journal de 
la Bepublique. He was assassinated by 
Charlotte Corday July 13, 1793. 

MARCHENA, Jose, Spanish writer. 
B. 1768. Marchena was educated for the 
Catholic priesthood, and made brilliant 
studies, but he adopted and freely expressed 
the ideas of the French Eationalists. In 
order to escape the Inquisition he fled to 
France, where he wrote an Essai de theo- 
logie (1797), and translated into Spanish 
Moliere s anti-clerical Tartufe, Dupuis s 
Origine de tous les cultes, and some of 
Voltaire s works. The cruelties of his 
revolutionary friends (Marat, etc.) shocked 
him, and he was expelled for criticizing. 



He returned later, and was secretary of 
General Moreau, and afterwards of Murat. 
He went to Spain with Murat, and was 
arrested by the Inquisition, but released 
by the French. D. Jan. 10, 1821. 

MARCHESINI, Professor Giovanni, 

Italian philosopher. B. Sep. 18, 1868. 
Marchesini is an enthusiastic Positivist of 
the school of Ardig6 [SEE] . He is pro 
fessor of philosophy and pedagogy at the 
University of Padua. His works on philo 
sophy and ethics are numerous, and are 
as rigorously opposed to theology or theism 
as those of Ardigo. See especially his 
Morale Positiva (1892), Probkma Monistico 
della Filosofia (1892), Crisi del Positivismo 
(1898), and Simbolismo nella Conoscenza e 
nella Morale (1901). 

MARECHAL, Pierre Sylvain, French 
writer. B. Aug. 15, 1750. He was trained 
in the law, and was admitted to the Paris 
Parlement ; but a defect in his speech 
caused him to turn to letters. For some 
time he was sub-librarian at the College 
Mazarin, but in 1784 he lost his position 
by publishing his caustic Livre echappd au 
deluge, a brilliant satire in the ancient 
Hebrew style on the Old Testament. It 
is signed " S. Ar. Lamech " (an anagram 
of his name). His Almanack des honnetes 
gens (1788) was burned by order of the 
Parlement, and Marechal was imprisoned 
for four months. The Eevolutionists 
liberated him and restored his position at 
the Mazarin Library. He accepted the 
Revolution, and was one of the most 
zealous in urging the cult of reason ; but 
he was equally zealous against the cruelties 
and atrocities of some of the Revolution 
aries. His chief work is nominally on the 
travels of Pythagoras (6 vols., 1799), and 
he composed also a (rather exaggerated) 
Dictionnaire des athees (1798). He was 
an emphatic Atheist. D. Jan. 18, 1803. 

MARETT, Robert Ranulph, M.A.,D.Sc., 
anthropologist. B. June 13, 1866. Ed. 
Victoria College, Jersey, and Oxford 

(Balliol). After a brilliant academic career 
he took up the study of law and was called 
to the Jersey bar. In 1891 he became a 
Fellow and lecturer in philosophy of 
Exeter College, Oxford, and he was sub- 
rector from 1893 to 1898. He is now 
university reader in Social Anthropology 
and Dean of Exeter College. From 1913 to 
1918 he was President of the Folklore 
Society. Mr. Marett accepts an impersonal 
Theism, but rejects all supernatural reli 
gion. See his essay, " The Origin and 
Validity of Ethics," in Personal Idealism 
(1902), and his Threshold of Eelig ion (1909). 

MARGUERITE, Victor, French novelist. 
B. Dec. 1, 1866. Ed. Lycee Henri IV. 
He was for a time an officer in the French 
cavalry, and he passed from the army to 
the Ministry of War. He soon discovered 
a high capacity for fiction, and has pub 
lished a long series of distinguished novels. 
There are English translations of his 
Disaster (1898), The Commune (1904), 
Vanity (1907), and Frontiers of the Heart 
(1913). Marguerite is a member of the 
Academy, Officer of the Legion of Honour, 
President of the Societe des Gens de 
Lettres and of the Ligue R6publicaine 
d Action Nationale, and Vice-President of 
the Commission of the National Fund for 
Literary Travel. 

MARIETTE, Francois Auguste Ferdi 
nand, French Egyptologist. B. Feb. 11, 
1821. Ed. Boulogne Municipal College 
and Douai. He was appointed professor 
at Boulogne College, but he turned to the 
study of Egyptology, and was put on the 
staff at the Louvre in 1849. In the follow 
ing year he went on a Government mission 
to Egypt, and he remained there until the 
end of his life. Mariette was one of the 
greatest of Egyptian explorers. He received 
the rank of "pasha," was admitted to the 
Legion of Honour, and had the decorations 
of the Medjidieh, the Red Eagle of Prussia, 
SS. Maurice and Lazarus, Francis Joseph 
of Austria, etc. From 1858 onward he 
was Conservator of Egyptian Monuments. 



He belonged to most of the learned societies 
of Europe. In his Mariette Pacha (1904) 
his brother, E. Mariette, explains that he 
had no religious beliefs. He never entered 
a church, and he "found no charm in the 
pastorals and fictions of which we have 
a prodigious heap in Christianity " (p. 226). 
D. Jan. 19, 1881. 

MARILLIER, Professor Leon, French 
writer. B. 1842. Marillier lectured on 
the religions of non-civilized peoples at the 
Ecole des Hautes Etudes, and was pro 
fessor of psychology and ethics at the 
Sevres Ecole Normale Superieure des 
Jeunes Filles. He was a high authority 
on the psychology of religion, and he trans 
lated into French Andrew Lang s Myths, 
Cults, and Religions (1896). He was also 
joint editor of the Revue de I histoire des 
religions. A zealous and grave idealist, 
he lectured frequently for the Anti-Alcoholic 
League, the Peace League, and the Moral 
Improvement League. D. 1901. 

MARIO, Alberto, Italian statesman. 
B. June 3, 1825. Mario took a very 
prominent part in the emancipation of 
Italy. He edited the Tribuno and Italia 
Libre, and was closely associated with 
Garibaldi in his campaigns. In 1857 he 
married Miss Jessie White, an English 
lady, who joined devotedly in the work. 
Mario was no more religious than Gari 
baldi, as he shows in his Slavery and 
Thought (1860). He was several times 
imprisoned in the course of the struggle. 
D. June 2, 1883. 

MARIO, Jessie White, writer. B. May 9, 
1832. Ed. private schools. Miss White 
was a daughter of the ship-builder Thomas 
White, and she developed advanced views 
on religion while at school. She took to 
writing and teaching, her first novel, Alice 
Lane, appearing in 1853. At Paris she 
adopted the views of Lamennais [SEE] , 
but she went on to Italy and became an 
enthusiastic follower of Mazzini and Gari- 
Jbaldi. She translated Garibaldi s Memoirs, 

and rendered immense service to the 
Italian cause in England, America, and 
Italy. In 1857 she married Alberto Mario, 
and she shared the fortunes of the insur 
gents until they triumphed. Her Birth of 
Modern Italy (1909) is one of the best 
accounts of the great struggle. The intro 
duction is a sketch of her life by the Duke 
Litta Visconti Arese. She wrote also lives 
of Garibaldi and Mazzini and other works. 
Her funeral was, by her command, purely 
secular, and was greatly honoured by the 
Italians. D. Mar. 5, 1906. 

MARK, Professor Edward Laurens, 

Ph.D., LL.D., American anatomist. B. 
May 30, 1847. Ed. Michigan and Leipzig 
Universities. He was instructor in mathe 
matics at Michigan University 1871-72, 
astronomer of the U.S. North-West Boun 
dary Survey 1872-73, instructor in zoology 
at Harvard 1877-83, assistant-professor 
1883-85, and has been Hersey professor of 
anatomy at Harvard and Director of the 
Bermuda Biological Staff of Research since 
1885. Professor Mark is a member of the 
National Academy of Sciences, the Ameri 
can Academy of Arts and Sciences, the 
Anatomische Gesellschaft, and other learned 
bodies. In Was Wir Ernst Haeckel Ver- 
danken (ii, 305) he has a high appreciation 
of Professor Haeckel, and believes that his 
Monistic philosophy " will in time deeply 
influence all thoughtful and impartial 

MARKS, Professor Erich, German his 
torian. JB. Nov. 17,1861. Ed. Strassburg, 
Bonn, and Berlin Universities. In 1887 
he was appointed teacher of history at 
Berlin University, and in 1893 ordinary 
professor at Freiburg. Since 1894 he has 
been professor of history at Leipzig Univer 
sity. Professor Marks has written a study 
of Queen Elizabeth and other historical 
works. He occasionally lectures for the 
German Ethical Societies. 

MARKS, Murray, merchant. B. 1840. 
Mr. Marks was one of the most expert and 
482 s 



reliable dealers in art treasures. He was 
intimate with Eossetti and Whistler, who 
purchased through him, and was advisor to 
most of the great collectors. The obituary 
notice in the Times (May 8, 1918) stresses 
his "probity" as well as his high artistic 
skill. He gave very generously to the 
museums and public collections, and was 
greatly esteemed. He followed the creed 
of Spinoza, of whom he was a close 
student. D. May 6, 1918. 

MARLOWE, Christopher, poet and 
dramatist. B. Feb. 8, 1564. Ed. King s 
School, Canterbury, and Cambridge (Corpus 
Christi College). He settled in London and 
began to write for the stage. In 1590 he 
produced his Tamburlane, which was far in 
advance of all the dramatic literature of the 
age ; and it was worthily seconded by his 
Tragedy of Dr. Faustus (1594). Marlowe 
is admittedly the greatest of English 
dramatists before Shakespeare, and he 
published also verse and translations. 
Writers of the time spe